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and a wide familiarity with the mystic specially ordered from Japan, was a fête poetry and literature of their own past, not unworthy of Versailles. With that constitute a distinctive charm of Persian same Sadr Azam I dined six years later society. It is as if every Persian heard in a European capital, it having been the words of Hafiz:

intimated to him that a pilgrimage to They are calling to thee from the pinnacles of

Mecca would be conducive to his health. the throne of God

To his energy of character the late Shah I know not what hath befallen thee in this probably owed his throne. Fearing that dust-heap."

the Shah's eldest son, the Amin-i-Sultan When dining once with an English

- a strong personality who held the govprofessor of Oriental literature, the lat- ernorship of several provinces, and had a ter quoted a line from Saadi. The quo- large following well armed, with artillery tation was immediately taken up by the - might claim the succession, he conhost and then in turn by each of his

cealed the mortal character of his masPersian guests, till, when the circle of the ter's wound, supporting the dead body table had been made, the entire poem

in a sitting posture during the ten-mile had been recited.

drive from Shah-Abdul-Azim, where the Professor Browne has pointed out that

assassination took place, to the palace in this characteristic is not one that would Teheran, secured a loan for the payment be looked for in the most bigoted sect of the troops, issued ammunition and of a religion preëminent for intolerance, posted regiments in the bazaar and pubsince “a dogmatic theology is notoriously lic squares, telegraphed for the heir apunfavorable to speculation." Whether parent at Tabriz, and announced the as he suggests,' the Arabian invader, vic- Shah's death only after the situation was torious over the ancient political and re

well under control. Exile and sudden ligious systems of Persia, was powerless death walk hand in hand with greatness to extinguish the Aryan passion for spec

in Persia, and the cruel mutilations which ulation, or whether Islam itself contains Darius inflicted upon the Median chiefthe germs

of Pantheism, the fact re- tain, recorded in the king's own words mains that since Hafiz first sung of “the in the rock inscription of Behistan, are ten and seventy jangling creeds," free- not uncommon to-day. Hands are still dom of thought has been a marked char- cut off for trivial offenses. All the butchacteristic of the Persian.

ers of Teheran, one day during my resiThe Persian of the lower orders, es- dence, were suspended by their heels pecially in the north, is not a lovable before their shops for overcharging in person, has no reputation for honesty, their wares; faring, however, better than and is far less manly and faithful than

their confrères of Shiraz, whose tongues the Kurd or Turk. But those of the were cut out for a like indulgence in high higher classes are delightful companions, prices. Confronted with the rottenness punctilious in all matters of etiquette,

of officialdom, the suffering and open and generally well informed. Many have discontent of the lower classes, and the been educated abroad, or by foreign pressure from without of rivals for the tutors, are most hospitable, and entertain succession, my first impressions of Perlavishly in Teheran in European style. sia were that the end was at hand. “So I The dinner given by the Sadr Azam to

thought,” said a resident of twenty years' the diplomatic corps on the Shah's birth- standing to whom I imparted my opinion, day, followed by a display of fireworks “when I first arrived." And then, reading

the narratives of travelers, I found they 1 A Year among the Persians, chap vi: "Mysticism, Metaphysics, and Magic.”

were of the same mind a century ago. 2 Gobineau. Religions and Philosophies of

Fortunes are paid for the provincial govCentral Asia.

ernorships, and the governors in their





turn dispose of lesser positions of author- boxes or cloth bundles corpses on their ity. The Embassy at Constantinople way to burial near the sacred shrine. commands a high price, owing to the op- Some twenty-five years ago a straight portunities for exactions from the resi- caravan road traversed the salt plain dent Persian community. The Ministry between Teheran and Kum. The Sadr of Posts and Telegraphs was bought sev- Azam, foiled in an effort to purchase the eral times during my residence, and at caravanserais on this road from their one time it seemed almost impossible to obstinate owners, constructed at his get an unregistered letter in or out of

own expense a new one, which, being the country. A western thief steals regis- some dozen miles longer, the traveling tered mail, - a petty method. Under public persistently refused to patronize. the Persian system of farming out the He therefore removed the dikes of the postal service, it was clearly more advan- neighboring river, flooding the coveted tageous to suppress all ordinary mail caravanserais and completely obliteratmatter, for thus registration became im- ing the old road by a sheet of salt water perative, and registration enormously many miles in extent. Thereupon the increased the postal revenues.

Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, deemA small indemnity of a few hundred ing it more to his advantage to construct tomans, secured for a naturalized Ameri- a third road than to pay the tolls over can illegally arrested, was paid in the that of his rival, built the present post form of an order on the governor of the road, which is longer still. The only conprovince where the arrest was made. solation of the muleteer who plods over This order became a sub-order on an of- those added miles is that the creation of ficial of lower grade, and finally a third the great salt lake of Kum has possibly order upon still another official who, hav- increased the rainfall in the vicinity. ing apparently no one under him upon The following story, told to me by a whom he could shift the burden, after brother of the late Shah, carries its own vainly endeavoring to compromise for moral. This prince was formerly an half the amount, wrung the entire sum important personage, being general-infrom an innocent village utterly foreign chief of the army and head of the Teto the whole transaction. Ultimately, heran police. He fell from favor at the of course, the burden always falls upon time of his father's assassination when, the peasant, from whom is taken “even suspected of ambitious designs, he shut that which he hath.” The soldier in the himself up in his Teheran house, where ranks buys his furlough and pays for the he has since remained neglected. During right to eke out his meagre wage by work- a call upon him I noticed two superb ing in the bazaar. Every traveler on the diamonds on the clasps of his coat, and Kum road learns the story of its con- as I expressed my admiration he asked struction, cited by Curzon as a typical if I would like to hear their history. example of administrative methods. This Between sips of tea and puffs on the road, which with that to Resht shares kalian, this in substance was his story:the honor of being one of the two car- "On going one morning as usual to riage roads of Persia, is an important the palace I found my father in a rage. one, for Kum, like Kerbela and Meshed, A large sum in gold and jewels had been is a holy city, all devout Persians who stolen in the night from the peacock can do so taking their dead thither for throne." (This is the throne, incrusted interment. It is also a place of sanctuary, with precious stones and gold, said to where criminals, however great, are safe have been brought by Nadir Shah in from apprehension. The road is there- the eighteenth century from the sack of fore thronged with pilgrims and refugees, Delhi.) “My father, walking to and fro and with animals bearing in long narrow in great excitement, stopped as I entered.


You are the commander of my for the stranger, and as for dress Persia armies and the head of my police,” he furnishes none of those brilliant effects said.

which dazzle the eye in India. Rich and Yes, Sire.'

poor wear the plaited frock coat of som“Find me then this culprit who has bre hues, the absence of a collar

prostolen my throne from under my eyes.' ducing a slovenly appearance, while the “I will try, Sire.'

snowy turban of the Arab and the red fez “Try!' he exclaimed, shaking his of the Turk are replaced by the black longest finger significantly; 'find me some lambskin kolah and the brown felt skull one.'

cap of the peasant. Temporary interest, “For two days I searched in vain, indeed, is aroused by certain curious inwhen I thought of the baker who brought versions of procedure. You are amused the bread for the palace guard, — the by the bare-legged, scantily dressed woonly man about the palace who had not man who, surprised at the fountain as been examined. He was summoned, but you ride by, hastens to cover her face denied everything. Luckily I observed and leaves her person exposed. You ask scratches on his hand. He explained that why the carpenter should draw his plane they were caused by a struggle with a towards him, why the horse is backed neighbor over the possession of a stick. into his stall, or the boat dragged stern

“Liar!' I cried, 'thou art the man' foremost on the beach. You notice the

“He threw himself at my feet and con- footnote at the top of the page, and that fessed. Under the earth floor of his house your morning egg is invariably served I found everything, — not a stone miss- with its small end uppermost. But not, ing. Overjoyed, Lhastened to the palace. certainly, in such trivial matters does the In the garden I met the prime minister charm of the East reside. We are nearer returning from an audience. He took me an explanation when we acknowledge the aside and said,

release from care and artificial conven“What are you doing?'

tions which accompanies a relapse to the “I am bringing my father his throne. conditions of a freer and more primitive Everything is here in these bags.' life. To enjoy an ease, even luxury, of

“Why do you do this ?' he said. life we could not afford at home, to have 'Your father did not ask for the gold, he a servant for every task, to ride in Bomasked for some one.'

bay or Teheran when we would walk if “No,' I replied, 'I will go to my fa- in Piccadilly, to be free from the burther;' for I was proud of my success. dens of a civilization which has created

“'Your Majesty,' I said, 'the thief is civic responsibilities and duties to one's taken.'

fellow men, to have no Young Men's “He siniled, approvingly.

Christian Association to support or fire“No, no,' I exclaimed, knowing what man's ball to patronize, to be able to was passing in his mind, 'I have the play the rôle of self-indulgence to one's gold, every jewel, — they are here,' and heart's content, and be, in truth, a little I bade the bearers enter. Whereupon my king, — in these things, alas,


many father, astonished, took his coat from lies the secret of this charm. But there is his shoulders and threw it about me. On another and more potent spell, the inexits clasp were these two diamonds." plicable workings of the Oriental mind.

You engage animals for your journey. What, it may be asked, constitutes the You are to start at noon. Solemn profundamental charm of the East? Not, mises of punctuality are made. These certainly, mere local color, strange muleteers are dependent upon your pay. costumes and unfamiliar scenery. Every One, two, three o'clock arrives, country possesses something of the latter animals. You mount, impatient, and go



and apes,

to the bazaar. Your muleteers are asleep of eastern origin, the present doctrinal in the sun. You wake them and angrily forms of Christianity are so characterisexclaim, “Did you not promise to come tically western that it has failed to take at noon?” How explain this sphinx face root in its primitive home. Christian which looks into yours and calmly re- proselytism, says a recent writer in the plies at half-past three, “Is it noon ? ' Contemporary Review, fails in India be* We mistrust and say. But time escapes,

cause it attempts to make the convert an Live now or never.'

Occidental, while Mohammedan proseHe says 'What's time! Leave now for dogs lytism succeeds because it leaves the con

vert an Asiatic. The American missionMan has forever.'

aries in Persia make

no effort among

the You are hurrying over the Kazan Moslems. Their purely religious work is pass to catch the Russian boat at Enzeli. confined to the Armenians, who, as beLost in the snow-bound plain, you seek longing to the old Nestorian church, are shelter in a poor village. While waiting already nominally Christians. They are for the exhausted horses to eat the food an exceptionally fine body of men and absolutely necessary to further progress, women, having I think usually more tact you pace up and down the narrow room than their English brethren, content to at two in the morning, anxiously think- earn by their conduct of life the Mosing of the steamer you may miss. All the lem tribute, “Your religion is black, but village is gathered in that room, knowing your justice is white;” and to accomplish your anxiety and watching your every through the instrumentalities of school movement. At last an old man speaks. and hospital incalculable good. “Wh does he say?

Are the horses The political movement now in proready ? " you ask your servant. "He says, ”

, gress in Persia is not of modern origin. "Why does your Excellency walk, when To Professor Browne we owe a better he can sit down?'”

understanding of the intellectual ferYou go to the bazaar to buy. In Cairo mentation initiated by the Bab, whose or Constantinople, tainted by contact mystic prophecies his followers have with the West, the shopkeeper, especially made the pretext for practical reform in the Armenian, will entice you into his net the existing political and social order. with coffee and soft words. But this Per- Against this movement the nominal govsian merchant, who sits calmly silent on ernment, that is the Kajar dynasty, can his mat while you examine his wares,

offer no serious resistance. It has done who is surely there to sell, and has what nothing for the development of the counyou are there to buy, yet makes no effort try's resources or for the betterment of to tempt you, and even allows you to go the masses. Its entire record is one of your way without showing you the real extortion and oppression, and its reward treasures concealed in the dark recesses is the hearty execration of its subjects. of his little shop, which you have vainly The real opponent of reform is the priestsought to discover, - how explain him? hood, which has lost none of its author

The immense advantages secured by ity or prestige with the people, and bethe West from the conquests of science fore whose power the government has in and their material results would make every conflict gone down in defeat. All it appear impossible that the civilization questions of interior policy are, however, of the future, even though the seat of overshadowed by the larger question of empire drift eastward again, should be foreign control; for whether England and Oriental in character. Yet the tides of Russia come to blows or mutual agreeChristian civilization have beaten now for ment over their respective spheres of incenturies on the shores of the East with fluence, the ultimate future of Persia is in a hardly perceptible result. Although their hands.

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YOUNG Arnold Jacoby stood at the eyes were eager, it was the eagerness of window of his father's study, idly watch- youth and not that of fanatic faith in ing the steady stream of delegates to ideas which would some day play him the national convention, of which Bishop false. Jacoby was president, as they entered the “Are you really going to give up church next door. The bishop, who was Africa ?" Arnold asked. “Doctor Meyalso President of the Board of Foreign nell told me that Bastian landed in New Missions, leaned back in his chair, his York last night." arms folded, his eyes on a telegram on His father held out to him the telegram the table before him. He looked more at which he had been staring. It read: like a successful business man than a clergyman, in spite of his high-cut vest Roberts cables girls school disbanded and white tie, which emphasized the mission set on fire is sailing. shrewd, practical lines in his handsome

J. FORSTER. face, and he conducted the business of the church with judgment which would “Roberts was sent out to hold the fort have done credit to a captain of industry. while Bastian had a furlough, was n't He often congratulated himself that he he?” had learned early in life to distrust im- The bishop nodded. pulse as a principle of action. Because Looks rather cowardly, does n't it?” of it he was now bishop instead of home "No." The bishop answered with demissionary in Montana. He was a good cision. “Bastian has sent only the most man, but he allowed no illusions to blind meagre reports. This sort of thing may him to actualities. He believed in the have happened before. It's only since Christian religion as the fine flower of all Roberts went out that we've learned any religions, which was likely, however, in real facts about the mission." its turn to be supplanted by something “Rather game, was n't it, of old Basbetter. Nature was substituting altru- tian to hold his tongue about it? How ism now for the survival of the fittest as did he stick it out?" a means for the continuance of the race. “He has some theories like Roe had What her final purpose was he did not about native remedies for fever, and he's know, no one could. It was his business lived though Roe died. But it was n't to manage successfully the affairs of the fair to the church. We've been pouring church, using the enthusiasm and devo- lives and money into Africa for years, tion of other men as much as possible, supposing we had a prosperous mission, but with thankfulness that to him had and it was disturbing to find that it conbeen vouchsafed a broader outlook upon sisted of one ramshackle building and that life.

the devoted converts were likely at any He looked up pleasantly now as Arnold time to burn that and revert to the bush." turned and faced him. He regarded Did they ever revert while Bastian Arnold, cultivated, already learned, and was there? always charming, as one of the great “Oh, I guess so." achievements of his life. Arnold, too, “But he seems to have got them back.” looked things straight in the face. If his Yes.” The bishop rose and gathered

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