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army of the Republic. Money and men many acts of personal devotion, which, were everywhere forthcoming. The sub- from the beginning of the war, were so scriptions of individuals, corporations, abundantly, methodically, and so quietly banking institutions, towns, cities, and the and unostentatiously offered for the publegislatures of the Northern and Western lic service by the ladies of the country. States, freely offered for the purchase of The Secretary of War, Mr. Cameron, in arms, the raising and equipment of troops his first report to Congress gratefully and the support of the Government, in acknowledged the aid to the department a fortnight after the day of the attack rendered in the military hospitals by upon Sumter, reached a sum estimated patriotic women, under the guidance and at over thirty millions of dollars. The direction of Miss D. L. Dix, a philanappropriations of the States of Penn- thropic lady, who, without fee or reward, sylvania, New York and Ohio reached beyond that arising from the exercise of the sum of three millions each, and others benevolence," devoted her whole time were quite as liberal in proportion to to this important subject."** their wealth, if they did not in some in- The pulpit also, no doubt, at this time stances exceed them. The thrifty State exercised an important influence in the of Connecticut contributed two millions, formation of opinions, and strengthening and Illinois the same; Indiana, Maine, the sense of duty by the sanctions of New Jersey, Vermont, a million each, religion. Except on particular occasions, and the Corporation of the City of New such as a day of thanksgiving, or the naYork an equal sum, which was speedily tional anniversary of independence, it more than doubled by the subscriptions had not been the habit of the preachers of the citizens. Cincinnati kept pace with of the larger and more influential denomNew York, and the great West generally inations to allude to the state of public throughout its borders was as prodigal of affairs. Now, however, the pressing inits resources as the wealthy East.** terests of the times seemed to demand

The ladies also bore a prominent part the aid of all intelligent thinkers; and in this patriotic work. Female societies political matters, as before in periods of were formed everywhere for providing great anxiety in the country, began to be for the wants of the soldiers, in the man- seriously discussed, with an earnestness ufacture of articles of clothing, military proportioned to the importance of the equipments, and the collection and pre- occasion. In the war of the Revolution paration of hospital stores, havelocks for patriots had been taught their duty in protection from the sun in the summer the church, and the clergy stood not far heats, haversacks for the march, and behind the statesmen of those days in vast supplies of lint for the wounded and moulding the opinions of the people. The delicacies for the sick ; while many ladies published sermons of Davis, Stiles, and of education and refnement offered their others, are among the most valuable and services and were accepted as nurses. interesting memorials of that age. Ata It would be difficult to estimate the con- later day also, in the time of the French tributions of money, labor, skill, and the Revolution, when questions of party war

fare were thought to involve the interests

* Table of Northern Contributions for the War. Leslie's Pictorial History, p. 24.

* Report of the Secretary of War. July 1, 1861.


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of religion and morality, the pulpit was ally felt that a vigorous proclamation, loud in its denunciations of the threatened such as General Jackson might have sent evil. In the more quiet state of public forth, calling the secessionists of the South affairs which succeeded, the eloquence to return to their allegiance, would have which had overrun the secular topics of been quite as much in place at the crisis the hour again returned to its accustomed as the appointment of a national fast day channel of religious instruction, to the in the midst of the festivities of the New too great neglect, perhaps, of those in- Year. culcations of duty to the State, on the The ground being thus fairly broken part both of office-holders and the people, the attack upon Sumter brought with it, without the right understanding and per- as a matter of course, a free and open formance of which neither government expression of opinion in the churches nor religion can exist in safety.

generally. The 21st of April, the first The first prominent occasion for the Sunday after that event, will long be revoice of the pulpit to be heard in the pre- membered as a day of extraordinary sent agitation arose with the recommenda- earnestness and anxiety. The President's tion of President Buchanan, in view of the call upon the militia of the several States distracted and dangerous condition of the probably reached every congregation, country, that the people should assemble and parents and children, as they gatheron the 4th of January and observe the ed for worship that Lord's day, felt their day as one of humiliation, fasting and full responsibility in the novel and perilprayer throughout the Union. The day ous situation of affairs. It was noticea was generally kept in the Northern as a striking coincidence that the preStates with the solemạity befitting the scribed lesson for the day from the Old injunction, though the opportunity in Testament in the service of the Episcopal many instances was turned in rather a Church embraced the memorable prodifferent direction, from that apparently clamation in the book of the Prophet intended by the author of the proclama- Joel :-“Prepare war, wake up the tion. He had advised a supplication to mighty men, let all the men of war draw Heaven "to remove from our hearts that near ; let them come up. Beat your false pride of opinion which would impel plough-shares into swords and your prunus to persevere in wrong for the sake of ing hooks into spears ; let the weak say consistency, rather than yield a just sub- I am strong. Multitudes, multimission to the unforeseen exigencies by tudes in the valley of decision : for the which we are now surrounded,” a sug- day of the Lord is near in the valley of gestion of concession and compromise, decision.” Few of the many thousands which might have been available, if both in whose hearing these words were that sides had been disposed to listen to it. day read could have listened to them The Northern divines, in reply, expressed without emotion. Of the occasion genthe kindliest feelings of cordiality and erally it is but little to say that the brotherhood, but urged in the most de- ministers of religion, conscious of the cided manner the paramount importance prospect before them, were true to the of the maintenance and preservation of great purposes of their vocation in inthe Government. Indeed it was gener-spiring the hearts of the people with that

mingled humility and courage which go Republicans fighting the battles of the hand in hand in the Christian life.

Union. In the middle ground there These were times that tried the tem- was something of a struggle and some per and disposition of men ; but gener- notable defections occurred, among which ally there being little choice of action, were those of two of the late candidates any differences of judgment were lost for the Presidency, John C. Breckenridge in the preponderating local sentiment. of Kentucky, and John Bell of TennesMuch had been expected on both sides see. The former, though he continued to from divisions of opinion. The South maintain a responsible relation with the looked for aid, or at least acquiescence, Government for some time, taking his in its schemes of revolt, from the divided seat as a member of the Senate in the political councils of the North, and the New Congress, early opposed the policy active sympathy of those hitherto pledg- of the Administration. On the 20th of ed to its interests ; and the North, on April, in a speech at Louisville, he dethe other hand, for a long time relied on nounced President Lincoln's Proclamathe coöperation of what was called "a tion as illegal, proposed that Kentucky large Union element” at the South, should protest against the settlement of whicli at the first opportunity would the present difficulties of the country by throw off the authority of the rebel the sword, and, that influence failing, asleaders and rise in support of the old serted that it was the duty and interest nationality. Neither expectation proved of Kentucky to unite her fortunes with well founded. The contest became at the South. Mr. Bell in a speech at a once too serious to permit indifference, public meeting at Nashville, Tennessee, and whether from interest or sympathy unequivocally gave his adherence to the with the prevalent feeling around them, South. Casting aside the efforts he had the expected friends of the rebellion and recently made and the hopes he had the expected supporters of the flag were cherished for the preservation of peace, silent or drawn into the popular current. he urged upon all the slaveholding States In the Border States, however, there the policy of uniting together to make was more room for the display of indi- common cause against what he called a vidual preferences, and there for a time common foe. Pronouncing his own State an active rivalry was maintained which of Tennessee already out of the Union, realized some of the worst features of he counselled the most effective and encivil warfare. The public men of the ergetic measures for her military organSouth thus occasionally, in spite of their ization.* cherished convictions, as in the case of The doubtful adherence and final open Stephens and Johnson of Georgia, who revolt of Breckenridge were more than both, at the outset, voted against the compensated by the loyalty of the venordinance of secession, yielding to the erable Crittenden. There was, likewise, necessities of their unhappy position be- no one in Tennessee whose loss could came a united body of rebels ; while the offset the unhesitating allegiance to the old race of Northern politicians with Union of the energetic Andrew Johnson. Southern opinions speedily found them

* Speech of John Bell at Nashville, Tenn., April 23 selves in the ranks side by side with the | 1861.



'The remaining unsuccessful candidate for dicate the claim of the national Governthe Presidency, Senator Douglas, was not ment to the obedience of all its citizens."* the man to be silent or indifferent at The army and navy presented a debatsuch a period. Wisely appreciating his able ground where the sectional fine was own position and the demands of the less defined. Numbers, misled by the untimes, “the patriot achieved a great but happy doctrine of State allegiance abaneasy conquest over the partisan as he doned their commissions in the national heartily, warmly, and with a zeal befit- service, but there were many, especially ting the momentous cause in which he in the navy, whom no local jealousies or was engaged, united with those who had delusions could alienate from their loy. heretofore not only opposed but de- alty to the old flag. nounced him, in a struggle to uphold the

* Address of Mr. Browning of Illinois, in the Senate, Union, sustain the Constitution and vin- ) July 9, 1861.



The first duty of the Government was ready paved the way for by intrigue. to protect Washington. The capture of There could be no doubt then of the the Capital was evidently the object of danger when troops were set in motion the insurgents. Lying between two slave northward, and the seizure of the CapiStates and largely occupied by sympa- tal was everywhere talked of through thizers with the rebellion, it was doubt- the Confederacy without disguise as its less expected to fall an easy prey to the inevitable policy. Southern leaders. Indeed, so important There was some disposition shown afwas its possession to the rebel Govern- terwards to throw off the responsibility of ment that it is difficult to suppose, in so an intention to attack Washington at the comprehensive a scheme of revolt, put time of which we speak, but there would in operation by such masters of strata- appear to be quite evidence enough to gem, that its capture was not contem-establish the fact. A collection of explated from the very outset. After the pressions on the subject by the Southern attack upon Sumter, which was immedi- press, exhibits a variety of declarations ately followed by the secession of Vir- arising in different quarters, and all tendginia, that State having the honor of be- ing to the same result. We have aling the first, outside of the original sev- ready noted the threat of the Confederen, to gain admission to the Montgomery ate Secretary of War at Montgomery, to Confederacy, and when North Carolina, supplant the stars and stripes on the nathe intervening barrier, was waiting only tional Capital by the new flag of the the formal act of withdrawal, the path rebellion before the 1st of May.* The lay open to the Southern armies to ac- day after that avowal, on the 13th of complish by force what they had al

* Ante p. 118.

As we

April, the Richmond Enquirer summon- minious expulsion of Lincoln and his ed to arms the citizens disposed to join body-guard of Kansas cut-throats from " the Southern army as it shall pass the White House. It makes good the through our borders,” with the signifi- words of Secretary Walker at Montgomcant intimation that'" nothing was more ery in regard to the Federal metropolis. probable than that President Davis will It transfers the lines of battle from the soon march an army through North Car- Potomac to the Pennsylvania border." olina and Virginia to Washington.” The Washington City," said the Raleigh New Orleans Picayune of the 18th de- Standard of the same date," will soon clared that "the first fruits of a Virginia be too hot to hold Abraham Lincoln and secession will be the removal of Lin- his Government. North Carolina has coln and his Cabinet and whatever he said it, and she will do all she can to can carry away to the safer neighbor- make good her declaration." hood of Harrisburg or Cincinnati-per- approach the scene of the contemplated haps to Buffalo or Cleveland.” In Ala- robbery the anxiety for the perpetrabama and Mississippi the report was cur- tion of the deed is apparently intensified. rent that Ben. McCullough, the noted “The capture of Washington City," says Texas chieftain, destined to a conspicu- the Richmond Examiner of April 23, ous career in the conduct of the war, had" is perfectly within the power of Virthus early organized a force of five thou- ginia and Maryland, if Virginia will only sand men for the seizure of the Capital. make the effort by her constituted auThe Hon. Roger A. Pryor on his arrival thority, nor is there a single moment to at Montgomery, after his escape from the lose. The entire population pant for the perils of Sumter, publicly announced his onset. There never was half the unadesire to march immediately upon Wash- nimity among the people before, nor a ington. The Eufaula, Alabama, Express, tithe of the zeal upon any subject that is in a few words, described the situation as now manifested to take Washington and it presented itself to the minds of thou- drive from it every Black Republican sands : “With independent Virginia on who is a dweller there. From the mounone side and the secessionists of Mary- tain tops and valleys to the shores of the land, who are doubtless in the majority, sea there is one wild shout of fierce reon the other, our policy at this time solve to capture Washington city at all should be to seize the old Federal Capi- and every human hazard. The filthy tal and take old Lincoln and his Cabinet cage of unclean birds must and will asprisoners of war. Once get the Head suredly be purified by fire. The people of the Government in our power and we are determined upon it, and are clamorcan demand any terms we see fit, and ous for a leader to conduct them to the thus, perhaps, avoid a long and bloody onslaught. That leader will assuredly contest.” North Carolina journals were rise, aye, and that right speedily. "* equally impressed with the value of the Whatever, however, may have been

“To have gained Mary- the intentions of the leaders, or the wishes land,” said the Goldsboro' Tribune of of the people, in this matter, the course

It of events in Virginia was well calculated ensures Washington City and the igno

* National Intelligencer, May 9, 1861.



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