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administrative affairs appointed army assistant authority banner Bureau called candidates censors central government ceremonies Chang Cheng Chien Chihli China Chinese civil service command commissioner corruption Council Court Department dismissed district divided duties dynasty edict emperor essays examination executive fact favor finance five forces foreign four gave give given governor graduates Grand Secretaries hand Hui Tien imperial important influence institution issued kinds land laws magistrate Manchus means memorials ment Metropolitan military ministers nature officials organization Peking period pointed political position practice Prince privilege provinces punishment rank rebellion received records regular regulations reign responsible result says sent Shih successful supervising taels term territories third throne tion took Tsing Tung usually viceroy whole
Page 328 - Tartar-general, though nominally independent of all other military and civil officials, exercised only co-jurisdiction over civil and administrative affairs within his district with the Viceroy of Chihli. In memorials to the emperor, both signed. 2. The Tartar-general of Chihar (Cha Ha Erh Tu Tung) who resided in Kalgan. His jurisdiction extended from the Great Wall to the Gobi Desert, to Khalkha Region in the North and to all the nomadic tribes. But all this meant only nominal jurisdiction, as Kalgan,...
Page 46 - Clansmen," a manuscript of four volumes giving data of every one of these fortunate few from the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 19th, records about seven hundred men of the clan with titles and position with all the titleless and positionless though pensioned excluded. It revised the complete record once every ten years. A bureaucratic schedule of titles for the imperial clansmen shows twelve ranks with eight shades of difference dis4 Practically every dynasty provided an office to...
Page 209 - The lack of separation of the finances of the different grades of government or "communism of revenues" encouraged the deficient provincial governments eagerly to request the support of the Board of Revenues which, in turn, was compelled to depend entirely upon the aid furnished by the richer provinces. Secondly, it encouraged the concealment of revenues by the richer provinces, owing to the reluctance of these provinces to share their revenues with the poorer ones.21 Not only were the governors...
Page 84 - Lang. power in proportion to their position that a special law was enacted to forbid the brother or son of a Metropolitan or provincial official of third rank or above to be appointed as secretary of the Council for fear of putting the official in a specially advantageous position. If appointment of the secretary took place before the appointment of the official, this rule did not apply. While there was no under-clerk in the Grand Secretariat for the sake of maintaining its dignity, there was no...
Page 33 - Having been on the throne for more than fifty years and almost at the age of eighty, I find that my country is peaceful and my people contented, though not exactly in an ideal condition of economic sufficiency and political satisfaction. I have worked all these long years carefully, patiently, and faithfully, as if for a day. The word "hard" is not enough to describe the nature of my work. Some emperors of the past died young: historical critics usually attribute their early death to luxuries and...
Page 372 - Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief. ARTICLE XXIX. Japanese subjects shall, within the limits of law, enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, publication, public meetings, and associations.
Page 87 - The purpose of this recording was to give data to the Censors as to the! correctness of the speeches and acts of the emperor : the ' principal duty of the Censors was originally to supervise and correct the words and actions of the sovereign so that he could live up to the high moral standard required of him as a model of the people. Hence they were given the right of freedom of speech in their criticism of the august ruler. In the Chou Dynasty,81 the duty of the Censor was gradually WN shifted from...
Page 242 - An Imperial Edict of the 24th of July, 1901 (annex No. 18), reformed the Office of foreign affairs, (Tsungli Yamen), on the lines indicated by the Powers, that is to say, transformed it into a Ministry of foreign affairs (Wai-wu Pu), which takes precedence over the six other Ministries of State. The same edict appointed the principal members of this Ministry.
Page 11 - That the services of the wisest and ablest men in the nation are indispensable to its good government. III. That the people have the right to depose a sovereign DD who, either from active wickedness or vicious indolence, gives cause to oppressive and tyrannical rule.