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AND DEBATE

BY

CRAVEN LAYCOCK

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ORATORY IN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE

AND

ROBERT LEIGHTON SCALES

INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH IN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE

New York
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.

1905

All rights reserved

PE1431

HARVARD UNIVERSITY
MADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

OVO S GUTMAN LIBRARY

L35

COPYRIGHT, 1904,
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

Set up and electrotyped. Published September, 1904;
May, 1905.

Norwood Press
J. S. Cushing & Co. - Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

TO

CHARLES FRANCIS RICHARDSON

TEACHER, COLLEAGUE

AND

FRIEND

PREFACE

THE growing recognition of the importance of Argumentation as a separate subject of study in

a American colleges, and the increasing emphasis which is 'put upon the necessity for a proper method of presenting it, are probably due to the appreciation of two facts. In the first place, it is coming to be acknowledged that Argumentation is a peculiar art, distinct from all others. Many of its principles are derived from the fundamental elements of other arts and sciences. Formal logic, rhetoric, oratory, and the rules of court procedure all contribute to it of their precepts; but though it is thus composite in nature, it is essentially a unified art, demanding investigation for its own sake. Furthermore, it is realized that argumentative skill does not belong exclusively to any one profession or class of men. To know how to argue is necessary not alone for the lawyer or the publicist, but equally for the preacher, the scientist, the business man, or, indeed, for any one who may wish to influence the opinions or actions of his fellows; it is a power which every educated man should have an opportunity to acquire. With these requisites in mind, the authors have made it their purpose, taking these component elements from their various sources, to develop from them a

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