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brass, and copper, or of any other materials manufactured, prepared, and formed expressly to make war by sea or land.


All other merchandise and things not comprehended in the articles of contraband, expressly enumerated and classified as above, All other mershall be held and considered as free, and subjects of free chase. and lawful commerce, so that they may be carried and transported in the freest manner by both the contracting parties, even to places belonging to an enemy, excepting only those places which are at that time besieged or blockaded; and, to avoid all doubt in this particular, it is declared that those places only are besieged or blockaded which are actually attacked by a force capable of preventing the entry of the neutral.



Contraband goods.

The articles of contraband, before enumerated and classified, which may be found in a vessel bound for an enemy's port, shall be subject to detention and confiscation, leaving free the rest of the cargo and the ship, that the owners may dispose of them as they see proper. No vessel of either of the two nations shall be de. tained on the high seas on account of having on board articles of contraband, whenever the master, captain, or supercargo of said vessels will deliver up the articles of contraband to the captor, unless the quantity of such articles be so great and of so large a bulk that they cannot be received on board the capturing ship without great inconvenience; but in this and all the other cases of just detention the vessel detained shall be sent to the nearest convenient and safe port for trial and judgment, according to law.


Notice of block

Free egress.

And whereas it frequently happens that vessels sail for a port or a place belonging to an enemy, without knowing that the same is besieged, blockaded, or invested, it is agreed that ade. every vessel so circumstanced may be turned away from such port or place, but shall not be detained, nor shall any part of her cargo, if not contraband, be confiscated, unless, after warning of such blockade or investment from any officer commanding a vessel of the blockading forces, she shall again attempt to enter; but she shall be permitted to go to any other port or place she shall think proper. Nor shall any vessel of either that may have entered into such port before the same was actually besieged, blockaded, or invested by the other, be restrained from quitting such place with her cargo, nor if found therein after the reduction and surrender shall such vessel or her cargo be liable to confiscation, but they shall be restored to the owners thereof. And if any vessel having thus entered the port before the blockade took place, shall take on board a cargo after the blockade be established, she shall be subject to being warned by the blockading forces to return to the port blockaded, and discharge the said cargo, and if after receiving the said warning the vessel shall persist in going out with the cargo, she shall be liable to the same consequences as a vessel attempting to enter a blockaded port after being warned off by the blockading forces.


Examination of


In order to prevent all kinds of disorder in the visiting and examiration of the ships and cargoes of both the contracting parties on the high seas, they have agreed mutually, that whenever a vessel of war, public or private, shall meet with a neutral of the other contracting party, the first shall remain at the greatest distance compatible with making the visit under the circumstances of the sea and wind and the degree of suspicion attending the vessel to be visited. and shall send its smallest boat, in order to execute the said examination of the papers concerning the ownership and cargo of the vessel, without causing the least extortion, violence, or ill treatment, for which the commanders of the said armed ships shall be responsible with their persons and property; for which purpose the commanders of the said private armed vessels shall, before receiving their commissions, give sufficient security to answer for all the damages they may commit; and it is expressly agreed that the neutral party shall in no case be required to go on board the examining vessel, for the purpose of exhibiting her papers, or for any other purpose whatever.

Vessels to be pro



To avoid all kind of vexation and abuse in the examination of the papers relating to the ownership of the vessels belonging vided with certain to the citizens and subjects of the two contracting parties, they have agreed, and do agree, that in case one of them shall be engaged in war, the ships and vessels belonging to the citizens or subjects of the other must be furnished with sea-letters or passports, expressing the name, property, and bulk of the ship, as also the name and place of habitation of the master or commander of said vessel, in order that it may thereby appear that the ship really and truly belongs to the citizens or subjects of one of the parties; they have likewise agreed, that such ships being laden, besides the said sea-letters or passports, shall also be provided with certificates, containing the several particulars of the cargo, and the place whence the ship sailed, so that it may be known whether any forbidden or contraband goods be on board the same; which certificates shall be made out by the officers of the place whence the ship sailed, in the accustomed form; without such requi sites said vessel may be detained, to be adjudged by the competent tribunal, and may be declared legal prize, unless the said defect shall be proved to be owing to accident, and be satisfied or supplied by testimony entirely equivalent.

Vessels under con



It is further agreed that the stipulations above expressed, relative to the visiting and examining of vessels, shall apply only to those which sail without convoy; and when said vessel shall be under convoy, the verbal declaration of the commander of the convoy, on his word of honor, that the vessels under his protection belong to the nation whose flag he carries; and when they are bound to an enemy's port, that they have no contraband goods on board, shall be sufficient.


It is further agreed that in all cases the established courts for prize causes, in the countries to which the prizes may be conducted, shall alone take cognizance of them. And when

Prize courts only.


ever such tribunal, of either party, shall pronounce judgment against any vessel, or goods, or property claimed by the citizens or subjects of the other party, the sentence or decree shall mention the reasons or motives on which the same shall have been founded, and an authenticated copy of the sentence or decree, and of all the proceedings in the case, shall, if demanded, be delivered to the commander or agent of said vessel, without any delay, he paying the legal fees for the same.


Whenever one of the contracting parties shall be engaged in war with another State, no citizen or subject of the other contracting

Letters of marque,

party shall accept a commission or letter of marque for the &c. purpose of assisting or coöperating hostilely with the said enemy, against the said party so at war, under the pain of being treated as a pirate.


Case of war.

If, by any fatality, which cannot be expected, and which God forbid, the two contracting parties should be engaged in a war with each other, they have agreed, and do agree, now for then, that there shall be allowed the term of six months to the merchants residing on the coasts and in the ports of each other, and the term of one year to those who dwell in the interior, to arrange their business, and transport their effects wherever they please, giving to them the safe conduct necessary for it, which may serve as a sufficient protection until they arrive at the designated port. The citizens and subjects of all other occupations, who may be established in the territories or dominions of the United States, and of the Empire of Brazil, shall be respected and maintained in the full enjoyment of their personal liberty and property, unless their particular conduct shall cause them to forfeit this protection, which, in consideration of humanity, the contracting parties engage to give them.


No property to be confiscated.

Neither the debts due from the individuals of the one nation to the individuals of the other, nor shares nor money which they may have in public funds, nor in public or private banks, shall ever in any event of war or national difference be sequestrated or confiscated.


Both the contracting parties being desirous of avoiding all inequality in relation to their public communications and official inter- Immunities of pubcourse, have agreed, and do agree, to grant to their Envoys, c agents, Ministers, and other public Agents, the same favors, immunities, and exemptions which those of the most favored nation do or shall enjoy; it being understood that whatever favors, immunities, or privileges the United States of America or the Empire of Brazil may find it proper to give the Ministers and public Agents of any other power, shall, by the same act, be extended to those of each of the contracting parties.


To make more effectual the protection which the United States and the Empire of Brazil shall afford in future to the navigation and commerce of the citizens and subjects of each other,

Of Consuls, &c.

they agree to receive and admit Consuls and Vice-Consuls in all the ports open to foreign commerce, who shall enjoy in them all the rights, prerogatives, and immunities of the Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the most favored nation; each contracting party, however, remaining at liberty to except those ports and places in which the admission and resi dence of such Consuls may not seem convenient.


In order that the Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the two contracting parties may enjoy the rights, prerogatives, and immunities Exequaturs. which belong to them by their public character, they shall, before entering on the exercise of their functions, exhibit their commis sions or patent, in due form, to the Government to which they are accredited; and having obtained their exequatur, they shall be held aud considered as such by all the authorities, magistrates, and inhabitants in the consular district in which they reside.

suls, &c.


It is likewise agreed that the Consuls, their secretaries, officers, and Privileges of Con- persons attached to the service of Consuls, they not being citizens or subjects of the country in which the Consul resides, shall be exempt from all public service, and also from all kinds of taxes, imposts, and contributions, except those which they shall be obliged to pay on account of commerce or their property, to which the citizens or subjects and inhabitants, native and foreign, of the country in which they reside are subject; being in everything besides subject to the laws of their respective States. The archives and papers of the consulate shall be respected inviolably, and under no pretext whatever shall any magistrate seize or in any way interfere with them.



The said Consuls shall have power to require the assistance of the authorities of the country for the arrest, detention, and custody of deserters from public and private vessels of their country, and for that purpose they shall address themselves to the courts, judges, and officers competent, and shall demand the said deserters in writing, proving by an exhibition of the registers of the vessel or ship's roll, or other public documents, that those men were part of said crews; and on this demand so proved, (saving, however, where the contrary is proved,) the delivery shall not be refused. Such deserters, when arrested, shall be put at the disposal of said Consuls, and may be put in the public prison, at the request and expense of those who reclaim them, to be sent to the ships to which they belonged or to others of the same nation. But if they be not sent back within two months, to be counted from the day of their arrest, they shall be set at liberty, and shall

no more be arrested for the same cause.

Consular conven



For the purpose of more effectually protecting their commerce and navigation, the two contracting parties do hereby agree, as soon hereafter as circumstances will permit them, to form a consular convention, which shall declare specially the powers and immu nities of the Consuls and Vice-Consuls of the respective parties.


The United States of America and the Emperor of Brazil, desiring to make as durable as circumstances will permit the relations which are to be established between the two parties by virtue of this treaty, or general convention of peace, amity, commerce, and navigation, have declared solemnly and do agree to the following points:

Duration of treaty.

1st. The present treaty shall be in force for twelve years from the date hereof, and further until the end of one year after either of the contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of its intention to terminate the same; each of the contracting parties reserving to itself the right of giving such notice to the other at the end of said term of twelve years; and it is hereby agreed between them, that on the expiration of one year after such notice shall have been received by either from the other party, this treaty, in all the parts relating to commerce and navigation, shall altogether cease and determine, and in all those parts which relate to peace and friendship it shall be permanently and perpetually binding on both powers.

2dly. If any one or more of the citizens or subjects of either party shall infringe any of the articles of this treaty, such citizen or sub

Offences of citi

ject shall be held personally responsible for the same, and zens. the harmony and good correspondence between the nations shall not be interrupted thereby; each party engaging in no way to protect the offender or sanction such violation.

3dly. If, (which, indeed, cannot be expected,) unfortunately, any of the articles contained in the present treaty shall be violated or infringed in any way whatever, it is expressly stipulated, that neither of the contracting parties will order or authorize any acts of reprisal, nor declare war against the other, on complaints of injuries or damages, until the said party considering itself offended shall first have presented to the other a statement of such injuries or damages, verified by competent proof, and demanded justice and satisfaction, and the same shall have been either refused or unreasonably delayed.

4thly. Nothing in this treaty contained shall, however, be construed to operate contrary to former and existing public treaties with other Sovereigns or States.

The present treaty of peace, amity, commerce, and navigation shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by the Emperor of Brazil, and the ratifications shall be exchanged within eight months from the date of the signature hereof, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof we, the Plenipotentiaries of the United States of America and of His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, have signed and sealed these presents.

Done in the City of Rio de Janeiro, this twelfth day of the month of December, in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight.

L. S.]

L. S.

L. S.




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