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bater did not resort to the shallow artifices of
the pedantic quibbler described by Hudribas:
Who could "on either side dispute,
Refute, change sides, and still refute-"
but his resources were those of a mind that
could perceive most clearly-a heart that
could feel most keenly-and a tongue that
could speak most seductively all that he saw,
and thought, and felt. Common sense was
his magic wand. It was also Patrick Henry's
great lever. This-the soul and end of all
knowledge cannot be acquired in the closet,
nor found in books. It is instinctive and prac-
tical--the offspring of native sagacity, and of
an intelligent observation of things as they
actually exist. Without it, all other knowledge
will be comparatively useless, and may be easi-
ly misapplied and perverted. It is the visual
organ of the body of human knowledge, with-
out which, the mind is a labrynth without a
clue, or, when fullest of speculative wisdom, is
like the blind giant striking in the dark.

Be careful, therefore, gentlemen, to learn all that can be gleaned by rational induction from all things that come within the range of a reasoning and discriminating observation. The rare knowledge that can be only thus acquired, will be necessary to enable you to apply all that you have and know, most honorably to yourselves and usefully to mankind.

growth, and many of the greatest lawyers who ever adorned the profession, have encountered and finally overcome years of obscurity, poverty and discouragement. But mark! Their season of trial was improved by unremitted study and observation. And here allow us to admonish you never to ask for employment, or hunt for clients, or underbid your competitors. No practice is more humiliating, or can be a more certain index of a destitution of merit; and, in the end, if not at the beginning, it must operate injuriously. "The cheap lawyer," like "the cheap merchant" and "the cheap doctor," is generally, when the whole truth is known, the least useful and the most costly. Instead of obtruding yourselves into business, or degrading yourselves by becoming the lowest bidders, prove yourselves worthy of public patronage, and clients will hunt you, and honorable and just employment will be certain.

11th. Beware of the seductions of political life. Whenever the tumult of the comitia becomes music to your ears, the grove of Egeria will be deserted or too much neglected. It is difficult for practical law and politics-though twin-sisters-to live and labor together prosperously in one household, and under the same guardianship. A young lawyer, attending properly to his profession, cannot be a very 9th. A nuzzling pettifogger-SUTOR NE ULTRA useful or distinguished statesman; nor can CREPIDAM-is one of the most contemptible and such a statesman easily or conveniently be a pestilent of human beings. A dishonest law-first rate practising lawyer. To become either yer, of ingenious talents, is one of the most useful or eminent as politicians, your time and dangerous and terrible of the whole animal talents should be chiefly dedicated to politikingdom; but an enlightened and virtuous cal study and duty-so as to render a proper jurist is a sentinel of liberty, a minister of jus- devotion to the law impossible-for to be qualtice, a guardian of peace, on a lofty eminence, ified to earn political renown or do much pubwaving over the admiring multitude below and lic good, implies an extent of statistical, politiaround him a pure white flag, bearing as its on-cal and practical knowledge, which are the ly motto, Law and Light, Protection and Right. Such a lawyer is the friend of the honest poor -the counsellor of the ignorant-the champion of the weak--the avenger of the wrong, and the advocate of right, public and private.

10th. But, gentlemen, to become eminent and useful lawyers, you must resolutely guard yourselves against two of the besetting sins of your profession-premature distinction, and political ambition.

You must be patient, constant and persevering. Professional ability and fame are ripe fruits of toil and of time-the lucubrationes biginiti annorum are not more than sufficient for their full maturity and grateful flavor.

rare fruits of intense study, great talents, long service and matured experience. How insignificant is the upstart and shallow quid nunc who knows nothing of politics but what he reads in partizan newspapers, or hears in the street, on the stump or in the legislative hall. And how ineffably contemptible is the vulgar miscreant who, not desiring to know anything higher than party discipline, nor to feel any thing better than party devotion, stifles conscience, prostitutes reason, and degrades his own nature to an approximation to that of the tiger or the wolf, sacrificing, with a blind servility and fanatical alacrity, justice, principle, judgment, patriotism, and himself, as a mercenary offering to the rapacity of a political Juggernaut?

It is neither prudent nor just to solicit more business than you can manage well; and a junior apprentice cannot well manage much. To render valuable service or acquire honToo much will occasion abortions which may orable fame as statesmen, you must think for fix upon you a character which it will be dif- yourselves, and act as you think, and all ficult to change. It will be much more pro- alone for the true welfare and glory of your pitious to your future fortune and fame, that, common country. And all this will require in your initiative practice, you attend satis- probity, firmness, and intelligence of no comfactorily to a few cases, than negligently or mon cast. The subterranean path of the selfish unskillfully to many. You must not yield to politician is dark and devious, and full of perdespondency-whatever may be your difficul-il-the sword of Damocles hanging over every ties or prospects, industry, perseverance and turn of its meandering course. And the more fidelity will ensure ultimate success. The open and elevated way of the honest statesbest and most enduring products are of slow [inan, though radiant and straight, is beset

with corroding anxiety, envious obloquy and servility and vice. Truth and probity, and mortifying disappointments. But few, very talents rightfully employed, must finally trifew political men have enjoyed the triumph of umph over every combination of hypocrisy, unvaried success, or have acquired honorable meanness and ignorance. The straight path and enduring fame-fewer ever reached the of light, and that alone, leads to true honor goal of their hightest hopes--and fewer still and renown. Never sacrifice judgment to pashave been satisfied or content. Neither office sion, light to darkness, principle to interest, nor civic honors can confer solid happiness or your own dignity or conscience to the blind and lasting renown; and therefore, neither and ferocious idol of partisan faith and allepossesses anything for which, in itself or on giance. The soul of most organized political its own account, it will ever be sought or de- parties is selfishness-the end, power and sired by a wise and honorable man. When emolument in the hands of a few--the means, not bestowed as the just reward of merit, but mock purity, counterfeit principles, popular obtained by stealth or solicitation as the price excitability, passion and ignorance. of prostitution, they are but gilded ornaments Look at democratic Greece, mobocratic Rome, which will glitter but for a short time in the or republican Florence, or France, or Eng even of the ignorant or unprincipled, America--consider ancient times and and can never serve as passports among hon: modern times examine political parties of all est and enlightened men. No active politi-times--and the truth just uttered will not be cian was ever a man of tranquil mind-no denied or doubted. The history of party unseeker of office was ever long contented-no der the Brunswick Dynasty in England is but lover of office, who delighted in reflected hon- an epitome of faction or selfish party every or, was ever both wise and virtuous. Besides, where. You recollect that after Pultney, political aggrandizement is so fascinating, and Wyndham and Shippen, leaders of the malpolitical ambition so all-absorbing as general- content whigs, the tories and the Jacobites, ly to produce tastes and habits unsuitable to crushed the Walpoleon party, they quarreled professional employments, and, but too often, for the spoils, and Pultney himself, the popuuncongenial with the pure feelings of disin- lar oracle, like all selfish men in power, aposterested friendship, and the still holier sympa- tatised and out-Walpoled Walpole himself, as thies and lovelier charities of private and do- soon as he reached the premiership-the ultimestic life. And like him "whose Empire has mate prize of his long crusade against debeen lost in the ambition of universal con- nounced aristocracy and corruption. Such is quest," the man who attempts to become, at noisy vaunting patriotism-such is poor mortalthe same time, a great lawyer and statesman, ity when puffed with vanity, pampered with is almost sure to lose both objects of his enter- flattery, or stultified by premature or unrightprise. It is as unreasonable as unjust to seek eous ambition. We are even indebted for political or official preferment until we are Paradise Lost to Milton's blindness, occasionqualified to be useful, and to earn honorable ed by the prostitution of his great mind to the distinction. Do not then, young friends, enter partizan drudgery of scribbling with intense the political arena, if ever, until you are prop- devotion in favor of the sanctimonious and hyerly matured, or have determined to dedicate pocritical Cromwell. And had he not written all, or the chief of your time, to the public himself blind in the filthy cause of personal politics, he might have been long since for12th. But the talents of every citizen be- gotten or remembered with regret for talents long, in some measure, to his country; and it perverted, and patriotism misguided. Gentleis the duty of every one to contribute to the men, always be independent, and give your welfare of the commonwealth. If, therefore, own reason full scope and fair play. Never at any time, you should think that you may be pin your faith on a politician's sleeve. "Cum able to render valuable service in public life, Platone errare quam cum aliis recte sentire"—— and should be prepared to surrender your pro- is yet the practical maxim of too many men fession, or to make it only a secondary object who are entitled to be free. The authority of and occasional pursuit, we would not dissuade a great or popular name too often consecrates you from yielding to a spontaneous call by error and vice by confounding them with your country into her public employment. truth and virtue. Never flatter or deceive the And should it be the fortune of any of you to people. Honestly seek for truth and justicebe thus engaged, never forget your sacred ob- and never either do or utter that which your ligations to truth, to patriotism, to honor, and impartial and enlightened mind may condemn. to justice. Remember that your own fame Such a course of conduct will secure for you will, at last, depend on your own integrity, public confidence and esteem, whatever may rectitude and talents; and that no man ever be your condition; and it will be almost sure acquired honorable and lasting influence to obtain for you, sooner or later, a just share without intrinsic and superior merit. If you of the public patronage-but, in any event, it, wish to be truly useful-if you desire the sin- and it alone, will console you with an approv cere esteem of virtuous and intelligent men- ing conscience. And is it not better to live if you hope for posthumous remembrance and like Aristides or to die like Socrates, than to gratitude-be sure never to court or seek a be an Alcibiades or a Cleon, hoisted on the vulgar and ephemeral popularity, which is the shoulders of an insulted or deluded populace? idol of unreflecting and unprincipled ambi-Nothing but virtuous motives and useful deeds tion, and is caressed and won by duplicity, (will embalm your names in the grateful re


your fellow men, and to him who gave you, as a sacred trust, all you have. Do all the good you can to others by a scrupulous attention to all positive and negative obligations, personal, social, and civil; and never forget that you should always "do unto others as you would, your places being changed-wish that they should do unto you"-this is the golden rule of philosophy as well as of religion. Cherish

membrance of honest men; and an honest man would be ashamed of any other fame than honest fame. This alone is creditable-this alone useful-this alone will be pure and lasting. Not what, for the moment, may be popular, but what is right should be your purpose. Have the courage always to do right, and be afraid only of doing wrong. Honorable ends by honorable means--be this your motto-and then, if you fall, you fall aa rational love of your country, not only bemartyr to truth, and will be blessed. But if you should ever rise by unworthy or dishonest means, you will, at last, surely fall, and be cursed both in this world and in that which is

to come.

"Oh! is there not some chosen curse,
Some hidden thunder in the stores of Heaven,
Red with the uncommon wrath,
To blast the wretch who owes
His greatness to his country's ruin."

cause it is your country, but because it deserves your love and support. But let your patriotism be not selfish or contracted, but benevolent and comprehensive-embracing your whole country in all its parts, and interests, and institutions, and with an intensity proportionate to the benefits it confers, and the moral ties which bind you to it. Encourage the diffusion of moral, religious and political truth, and countenance organized efforts tendIn political, as well as in civil and social encourage falsehood or vice, nor infect the ing to promote the common welfare. Never life, be justly tolerant. Every freeman has an morals, pervert the taste, nor unhinge the equal right to liberty of opinion and of con- principles of any rational being by conversascience. There is no real freedom when an tion or example either demoralizing or licenhonest man is denounced or disfranchised for tious. The ruin of one immortal mind could an honest opinion. In describing a perfect never be expiated by all the beneficence of a democracy, Thucydides put into the mouth of long and active lifetime. But, as the surest Pericles, the following among other admira-means of preserving every thing else most valble suggestions-"Not offended at any man for uable, strive, by all proper efforts, to maintain following his own humor, nor casting on any unpolluted the principles of constitutional libcensure or sour looks-we converse freely with erty and equality, to uphold the authority of one another without fear of offence, fearing law, and to strengthen the ligaments and inonly to transgress against the public." crease the harmony of the North American But whatever you may be, you will be citi-Union. Thus you may be usefu! and honored zens of a country the most interesting, at a in your day, and inscribe your names on the time the most eventful, and under institutions roll of virtuous and enduring Fame. And the most popular the world ever knew. The thus, truly, you will have lived to the honor of pilgrim fathers who planted the seeds of civil your race, and the glory of your age and counand religious liberty-the revolutionary worthies who conquered tyranny, consolidated they. The good a man does dies not with him; rights of man, and embalmed them in the af- after he is dead. Remember Socrates, Cato, his example and his labors live and act long fections of mankind—are all gone, and we, too, Newton, Sydney, Franklin, Washington, and of this generation, who have succeeded them, Marshall-their deeds live after them, and will soon pass away and leave to you, who are will long live to enlighten and bless mankind. coming after us, and are about to take our We must here conclude. The suggestions places, a land and a government blessed, as now offered, though cursorily presented raptim we trust, by a benignant Almighty, as the ei carptim, we beg you to consider seriously and abiding place of liberty and light for all gen-long remember. erations of men in all times to come. We

have anxiously endeavored to assist you in You will now go forth as the winds, to scatmaking some useful preparation for the enjoy-ter over this great valley of the west seeds of ments and the duties that lie before you. The knowledge which have been gathered under field is unlimited-the harvest is ripe-the our auspices. May these take deep roots, and be precepts of Washington and the memory of the watered and nourished until they shall grow, illustrious dead are fresh and full before you-and fructify, and cover the land with a richer the happiness of the living, your own desti-moral foliage and a fragrance of more perfect nies, and the hopes of the unborn, rest upon liberty and truth. Whatever may be your you as among the laborers of the dawning destiny, may you ever cherish fraternal symday, and urge you to be in all things, and at pathies for each other, and a filial rememall times, zealous, and active, and true. In brance of your Alma-Mater. She will never all the relations of life, important duties will cease to feel a deep interest in all that condevolve upon you--and in all, however hum-cerns you, and in whatsoever you may do, or ble or circumscribed, you may be eminently may be; and it will rejoice her to hear of your and lastingly useful. Enlightened reason, prosperity and honest fame. May she, like perfect justice, and comprehensive patriotism Berecinthia, be now and always

and benevolence, should be your cardinal

guides. Cultivate, to the utmost, all your mor

Felix prole virum

al faculties-this you owe to yourselves, to Proud of her sons, she lifts her head on high,

Proud as the mighty mother of the sky—

Though-after our approaching separationwe may not meet again on earth, yet, as we are taught to believe, it will not be long until we

And may we too be allowed to hope that you will not forget us, nor neglect our pre-shall be re-assembled at the bar of Almighty cepts. If we have contributed to your improvement, we shall be happy to hail you as sons, and to be long and kindly remembered; and when our earthly course is finished, may YOU, our cherished pupils and friends, still live to adorn, to save, and to bless our beloved country.

God, to be severally judged for the deeds of our probationary pilgrimage. May the light of that day, like a bright fixed star, guide us from the shares through which we pass to the tomb, and cheer our hearts with a hope be yond the grave.


Lexington, Nov. 8, 1852.

Dear Sir:-The undersigned have been appointed a Committee on behalf of the members of the Law Class of Transylvania University, to request of you a copy of your Introductory Lecture, delivered on the 4th inst., for publication.

We hope you may find it convenient to comply with this request; as we believe that the lucid and masterly exposition of the principles of the American Constitution, to be found in that address, will have the tendency to check the monstrous doctrines of nullification and secession, which threaten, ere long, unless firmly resisted by the patriotic intelligence of the people, to undermine the fabric of our Government, and "to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts" of our beloved country. We have the honor to be, sir, with very high regard, your obedient servants, J. M. HARLAN,





Lexington, Nov. 12th, 1842.

Gentlemen:-Absence from home has delayed an answer to your kind note, requesting a copy of my Introductory Lecture for publication. If the deliberate perusal of it in print, shall help to impress you with right conceptions of the radical principle of the Constitution of the United States, and of the extent of the powers of the Government it established, the Lecture will have effected as much good as I could expect. It was intended for you alone, and, if its publicity shall extend its influence beyond the Lecture Room, and tend, in any degree, to arrest the progress of pernicious errors, and to prevent the unhingement of the Government of our model Union, I shall be more than compensated for my effort, through you, to contribute to save and exalt the great work of the Washingtons, and Madisons, and Hamiltons, and Marshalls of America.

In compliance with your request, therefore, I commit the Address to your discretion, to be disposed of as you deem best.

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