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the common defence and to carry on the government of the Confederate States, which has passed both branches of Congress. It is substantially the bill proposed by the commit
tee on conference:
1. The first section imposes a tax of eight per cent. upon the value of all naval stores, salt, wines and spirituous liquors, tobacco, manufactured or unmanufactured, cotton, wool, flour, sugar, molasses, syrup, rice, and other agricultural products, held or owned on the 1st day of July next, and not necessary for family consumption for the unexpired portion of the year 1863, and of the growth or production of any year preceding the year 1863; and a tax of one per cent. upon all moneys, bank notes or other currency on hand or on deposit on the 1st day of July next, and on the value of all credits on which the interest has not been paid, and not employed in a business, the income derived from which is taxed under the provisions of this act: Provided, That all moneys owned, held or deposited beyond the limits of the Confederate States shall be valued at the ⚫ current rate of exchange in Confederate treasury notes. The tax to be assessed on the 1st day of July and collected on the 1st day of October next, or as soon thereafter as may be practicable.
between $5,000 and $10,000, twelve and a half per cent.; over $10,000, fifteen per cent., subject to the following de ductions: On incomes derived from rents of real estate, manufacturing, and mining establishments, &c., a sum suthcient for necessary annnal repairs; on incomes from any mining or manufacturing business, the rent, (if rented,) cost of labor actually hired, and raw material; on incomes from navigating enterprizes, the hire of the vessel, or allowance for wear and tear of the same, not exceeding ten per cent.; on incomes derived from the sale of merchandise or any other property, the prime cost, cost of transportation, salaries of clerks, and rent of buildings; on incomes from any other occupation, the salaries of clerks, rent, cost of labor, material, &c.; and in case of mutual insurance companies, the amount of losses paid by them during the year. Incomes derived from other sources are subject to no deductions whatever.
All joint stock companies and corporations shall pay one tenth of the dividend and reserved fund annually. If the annual earnings shall give a profit of more than ten and less than twenty per cent. on capital stock, one eighth to be paid; if more than twenty per cent, one sixth. The tax to be collected on the 1st of January next, and of each year thereafter. 9. Relates to estimates and deductions, investigations, referees, &c.
2. Every person engaged, or intending to engage, in any business named in the fifth section, shall, within sixty days after the passage of the act, or at the time of beginning business, and on the 1st of January in each year thereafter, 10. A tax of ten per cent. on all profits in 1862 by the register with the district collector a true account of the purchase and sale of flour, corn, bacon, pork, oats, hay, rice, Dame and residence of each person, firm, or corporation en-salt, iron or the manufactures of iron, sugar, molasses made gaged or interested in the business, with a statement of the of cane, butter, woolen cloths, shoes, boots, blankets, and time for which, and the place and manner in which the cotton cloths. Does not apply to regular retail busigame is to be conducted, &c. At the time of the registryness. there shall be paid the specific tax for the year ending on the next 31st of December, and such other tax as may be due upon sales or receipts in such business.
3. Any person failing to make such registry and pay such tax, shall, in addition to all other taxes upon his business imposed by the act, pay double the amount of the specific tax on such business, and a like sum for every thirty days of such failure.
4. Requires a separate registry and tax for each business mentioned in the fifth section, and for each place of conducting the same; but no tax for mere storage of goods at a place other than the registered place of business. A new registry required upon every change in the place of conducting a registered business, upon the death of any person conducting the same, or upon the transfer of the business to another, but no additional tax.
5. Imposing the following taxes for the year ending 31st of December, 1863, and for each year thereafter:
Bankers shall pay $500.
Auctioneers, retail dealers, tobacconists, pedlers, cattle brokers, apothecaries, photographers, and confectioners, $59, and two and a half per centum on the gross amount of sales made.
Wholesale dealers in liquors, $200, and five per centum on gross amount of sales. Retail dealers in liquors, $100, and ten per centumu on gross amount of sales.
Wholesale dealers in groceries, goods, wares, merchandise, &c., $200, and two and a half per centum.
Pawnbrokers, money and exchange brokers, $200. Distillers, $200, and twenty per centum. Brewers, $100, and two and a half per centum.
Hotels, inns, taverns, and eating-honses, first class, $500; second class, $300; third class, $200; fourth class, $100; fifth class, $50. Every house where food or refreshments are sold, and every boarding house where there shall be six boarders or more, shall be deemed an eating house under
Commercial brokers or commission merchants, $200, and two and a half per centum.
Theatres, $500, and five per centum on all receipts. Each cirens, $100, and $10 for each exhibition. Jugglers and other persons exhibiting shows, $50.
Bowling alleys and billiard rooins, $40 for each alley or table registered.
Livery stable keepers, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, aud dentists, $50.
Butchers and bakers, $50, and one per centum.
6. Every person registered and taxed is required to make returns of the gross amount of sales from the passage of the act to the 30th June, and every three months there
7. A tax npon all salaries, except of persons in the military or naval service, of one per cent. when not exceeding $1,500, and two per cent. npon an excess over that amount: Provided, That no taxes shall be imposed by virtue of this act on the salary of any person receiving a salary not exceeding $1,000 per annum, or at a like rate for another period of time, longer or shorter.
8. Provides that the tax ou annual incomes, between $500 and $1,500, shall be five per cent.; between $1,500 and $3,000, five per cent, on the first $1.500 and teu per cent. ou the excess; between $3,000 and $5,000, ten per cent;
11. Each farmer, after reserving for his own use fifty bushels sweet and fifty bushels Irish potatoes, one hundred bushels corn or fifty bushels wheat produced this year, shall pay and deliver to the Confederate Government one tenth of the grain, potatoes, forage, sugar, molasses, cotton, wool, and tobacco produced. After reserving twenty bushels peas or beans he shall deliver one tenth thereof.
12. Every farmer, planter, or grazier, one tenth of the hogs slaughtered by him, in cured bacon, at the rate of sixty pounds of bacon to one hundred pounds of pork; one per cent. upon the value of all neat cattle, horses, mules, not used in cultivation, and asses, to be paid by the owners of the same; beeves sold to be taxed as income.
13. Gives in detail the duties of post quartermasters under the act.
14. Relates to the duties of assessors and collectors. 15. Makes trustees, guardians, &c., responsible for taxes due from estates, &c., under their control.
16. Exempts the income and moneys of hospitals, asylums, churches, schools, and colleges from taxation under the act.
17. Authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to make all rules and regulations necessary to the operation of the 18. Provides that the act shall be in force for two years from the expiration of the present year, unless sooner repealed; that the tax on naval stores, flour, wool, cotton, tobacco, and other agricultural products of the growth of any year preceding 1863, imposed in the first section, shall be levied and collected only for the present year.
The tax act of February 17, 1864, levies, in addition to the above rates, the following, as stated in the Richmond Sentinel of February, 1864:
SEC. 1. Upon the value of real, personal, and mixed property, of every kind and description, except the exemptions hereafter to be named, five per cent.; the tax levied on
property employed in agriculture to be credited by the value of property in kind.
*This is the section in full:
That on the 1st day of January, 1863, there shall be levied and assessed on each person residing in the Confederate States, for the support of the Government and the defence of the country, the following tax, to wit: One fifth the value of all the wheat, corn, rice, rye, oats, potatoes, hemp, flax, peas, beans, barley, hay, wool, rosin, tar, pitch, turpentine, cotton, sugar, molasses, and tobacco produced by him in these States during the previous calendar year; also, one tifth of the value of the increase for the preceding calendar year of the horses, asses, cattle, sheep, and swine; and also, one fifth of the profits made in the preceding calendar year of the feeding of swine, sheep, cattle, or mules; also, one fifth of each person's yearly income for the preceding cal endar year, from all sources whatsoever, except from the sources hereinafter described, and except from the interest on Confederate bonds, certificates, or treasury notes; Provided, That said tax so levied and assessed shall be due and payable on the 1st day of April, 1863. Provided further,
On gold and silver ware, plate, jewels, and watches, ten | the provisions of the "Act to lay taxes for the common
The tax to be levied on the value of property in 1860, except in the case of land, slaves, cotton, and tobacco, purchased since January 1st, 1862, upon which the tax shall be levied on the price paid. SEC. 2. A tax of five per cent on the value of all shares in joint stock companies of any kind, whether incorporated or aot. The shares to be valued at their market value at the time of assessment.
SEC. 3. Upon the market value of gold and silver coin or bullion, five per cent.; also the same upon moneys held abroad, or all bills of exchange drawn therefor.
A tax of five per cent. on all solvent credits, and on all bank bills and papers used as currency, except non-interest bearing Confederate Treasury notes, and not employed in a registered business taxed twenty-five per cent.
SEC. 4. Profits in trade and business taxed as follows: On the purchase and sale of agricultural products and mercantile wares generally, from January 1, 1863, to January 1, 1865, ten per cent in addition to the tax under the act of April 24, 1863.
The same on the purchase and sale of coin, exchange, stocks, notes, and credits of any kind, and any property not included in the foregoing.
On the amount of profits exceeding twenty-five per cent. of any bank, banking company, or joint stock company of any description, incorporated or not, twenty-five per cent. on such excess.
SEC. 5. The following are exempted from taxation: Five hundred dollars' worth of property for each head of a family, and a hundred dollars additional for each minor child; and for each son in the army or navy, or who has fallen in the service, and a member of the family when he enlisted, the further sum of $500.
One thousand dollars of the property of the widow or minor children of any officer, soldier, sailor, or marine, who has died in the service.
A like amount of property of any officer, soldier, sailor, or marine, engaged in the service, or who has been disabled therein, provided said property, exclusive of furniture, does not exceed in value $1,000.
When property has been injured or destroyed by the enemy, or the owner unable temporarily to use or occupy it by reason of the presence or proximity of the enemy, the assessment may be reduced in proportion to the damage sustained by the owner, and the tax in the same ratio by
the district collector.
SEC. 6. The taxes on property for 1864 to be assessed as on the day of the passage of this act, and collected the 1st of June next, with ninety days extension west of the Mississippi. The additional tax on incomes or profits for 1863, to be paid forthwith; the tax on incomes, &c., for 1864, to be collected according to the acts of 1863.
SEC. 7. Exempts from tax on income for 1864, all property herein taxed ad valorem. The tax on Confederate bonds in no case to exceed the interest payable on the same; and said bonds exempt from tax when held by minors or lunatics, if the interest do not exceed one thousand dollars.
States," approved April 24, 1863, and the act amendatory defense and carry on the Government of the Confederate thereof, approved February 17, 1864, shall, in addition to the ono tenth required by said acts to be paid as a tax in ducts of the present year and of the year 1865, one other kind, deliver to the Confederate Government, of the proaforesaid, which additional one tenth shall be ascertained, tenth of the several products taxed in kind by the acts for the said tax in kind, and shall be paid for, on delivery, assessed and collected, in all respects, as is provided by law by the Post Quartermasters in the several districts at the tobacco shall be made by the agents of the Treasury De assessed value thereof, except that payment for cotton and partment appointed to receive the same.
SEC. 2. The supplies necessary to the support of the producer and his family, and to carry on his ordinary business, shall be exempt d from the contribution required by the authorized by the act: Provided, however, That nothing preceding section, and from the additional impressments herein contained shall be construed to repeal or affect the pressment of meat for the use of the army, under certain provisions of an act entitled "An act to authorize the imcircumstances," approved Feb. 17, 1864, and if the amount upon between the assessor and the producer, it shall be asof any article or product so necessary cannot be agreed certained and determined by disinterested freeholders of the vicinage, as is provided in cases of disagreement as to the estimates and assessments of tax in kind. If required producer, who is found unable to furnish the additioual one by the assessor, such freeholder shall ascertain whether tenth of any one product, cannot supply the deficiency by the delivery of an equivalent in other products, and upor what terms such commutation shall be made all respects, as is provided for any other contribution remutation thus awarded shall be enforced and collected, in Any com quired by this act.
cline to assess, or, after assessment, may decline to collect
required, shall be disposed of and accounted for in the same
bution herein required, the necessities of the army or the
SEC. 6. The right and the duty of making impressments is hereby confided exclusively to the officers and agents lection of the tax in kind and of the contribution herein charged in tho several districts with the assessment and colrequired; and all officers and soldiers in any department of the army are hereby expressly prohibited from undertak
A tax additional to both the above was im- ing in any manner to interfere with theso officers and posed as follows, June 1, 1864:
A bill to provide supplies for the army, and to prescribe the mode of making impressments.*
SEC. 1. The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, Every person required to pay a tax in kind, under
That foreigners resident within the Confederate States shall not be required to pay, except from the aforesaid articles produced by or for them, or from income or profits derived from business conducted by them within those States; nor shall any tax be levied upon the produce of residents where the total value of such products during said years is less than $500; nor shall any tax be levied on the income of residents where the total value of such income is less than $500.
*The Georgia Supreme Court has made an important decision in the case of impressment of sugar in the hands of a merchant. One of the points was that "the C4 ngress of
agents in any part of their duties in respect to the tax in
SEC. 7. Supplies or other property taken by impressment shall be paid for by the post quartermasters in the several districts, and shall be disposed of and accounted for by them as is required in respect to the tax in kind and the contribution herein required: and it shall be the duty of the post quartermasters to equalize and apportion the impressments within their districts, as far as practicable, so as to avoid op pressing any portion of the community.
the Confederate States have the constitutional power to ture use of the army by impressment, where holders refuse authorize, by statute, the accumulation of supplies for fo to sell at fair prices: Provided, 'Just compensation' be made or tendered to the owner."
SEC 8. If any one not authorized by law to collect the tax in Lind or the contribution herein required, or to make impreusments, shall undertake, on any pretence of such authority, to size or impress, or to collect or receive any such property, or shall, on any such pretence, actually obtain such property, he shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by fine not exceeding five times the value of such property, and be imprisoned not exceeding five years, at the discretion of the court having jurisdiction. And it shall be the duty of all officers and agents charged with the assessment and collection of the tax in kind and of the contribution herein required, promptly to report, through the post quartermasters in the several districts, any viola
tion or disregard of the provisions of this act by any officer or soldier in the service of the Confederate States.
SEC. 9. That it shall not be lawful to impress any sheep, milch cows, brood mares, stud horses, jacks, bulls, or other stock kept or necessary for raising horses, mules, or cattle. The following is the vote by which the bill passed the Senate:
YEAS Messrs. Caperton, Graham, Haynes, Jemison, Johnson (Ark.), Johnson (Mo.), Mitchel, Orr, Walker, Watson10. NAYS-Messrs. Baker, Burnett, Henry, Hunter, Maxwell, Semmes, Sparrow-7.
The President on Colonization, in Au- and hence you may come to the conclusion that you have
1862, August 14-The President received a deputation of colored persons relative to emigration. The interview is thus reported:
WASHINGTON, THURSDAY, August 14, 1862.
This afternoon the President of the United States gave an audience to a committee of colored men at the White House. They were introduced by Rev. J. Mitchell, Commissioner of Emigration. E. M. Thomas, the chairman, remarked that they were there by invitation to hear what the Executive had to say to them.
Having all been seated, the President, after a few preliminary observations, informed them that a sum of money had been appropriated by Congress, and placed at his disposition, for the purpose of aiding the colonization in some country of the people, or a portion of them, of African descent, thereby making it his duty, as it had for a long time been his inclination, to favor that cause; and why, he asked, should the people of your race be colonized, and where? Why should they leave this country? This is, perhaps, the first question for proper consideration. You and we are different races. We have between us a broader difference than exists between almost any other two races. Whether it is right or wrong I need not discuss; but this physical difference is a great disadvantage to us both, as I think. Your race suffer very greatly, many of them by living among us, while ours suffer from your presence. In a word we suffer on each side. If this is admitted, it affords a reason, at least, why we should be separated. You here are freemen, I suppose.
A VOICE-Yes, sir.
The PRESIDENT-Perhaps you have long been free, or all your lives. Your race are suffering, in my judgment, the greatest wrong inflicted on any people. But even when you cease to be slaves, you are yet far removed from being placed on an equality with the white race. You are cut off from many of the advantages which the other race enjoys. The aspiration of men is to enjoy equality with the best when free, but on this broad continent not a single man of your race is made the equal of a single man of ours. Go where you are treated the best, and the ban is still upon you. I do not propose to discuss this, but to present it as a fact, with which we have to deal. I cannot alter it if I would. It is a fact about which we all think and feel alike, I and you. We look to our condition. Owing to the existence of the two races on this continent, I need not recount to you the effects upon white men, growing out of the institution of slavery. I believe in its general evil effects on the white race. See our present condition-the country engaged in war! our white men cutting one another's throats none knowing how far it will extend-and then consider what we know to be the truth. But for your race among us there could not be war, although many men engaged on either side do not care for you one way or the other. Nevertheless, I repeat, without the institution of slavery, and the colored race as a basis, the war could not have an existence. It is better for us both, therefore, to be separated. I know that there are free men among you who, even if they could better their condition, are not as much inclined to go out of the country as those who, being slaves, could obtain their freedom on this condition. I suppose one of the principal difficulties in the way of colonization is that the free colored man cannot see that his comfort would be advanced by it. You may believe that you can live in Washington, or elsewhere in the United States, the remainder of your life; perhaps more so than you can in any foreign country,
nothing to do with the idea of going to a foreign country. This is (I speak in no unkind sense) an extremely selfish view of the case. But you ought to do something to help those who are not so fortunate as yourselves. There is an unwillingness on the part of our people, harsh as it may be, for you free colored people to remain with us. Now if you could give a start to the white people you would open a wide door for many to be made free. If we deal with those who are not free at the boginning, and whose intellects are clouded by slavery, we have very poor material to start with. If intelligent colored men, such as are before me, would move in this matter, much might be accomplished. It is exceedingly important that we have men at the beginning capable of thinking as white men, and not those who have been systematically oppressed. There is much to en courage you. For the sake of your race you should sacrifice something of your present comfort for the purpose of being as grand in that respect as the white people. It is a cheering thought throughout life, that something can be done to ameliorate the condition of those who have been subject to the hard usages of the world. It is difficult to make a man miserable while he feels he is worthy of himself and claims kindred to the great God who made him. In the American Revolutionary war sacrifices were made by men engaged in it, but they were cheered by the future. General Washington himself endured greater physical hardships than if he had remained a British subject, yet he was a happy man because he was engaged in benefiting his race, in doing something for the children of his neighbors, having none of his own.
The colony of Liberia has been in existence a long time In a certain sense it is a success. The old President of Liberia, Roberts, has just been with me the first time I ever saw him. He says they have within the bounds of that colony between three and four hundred thousand people, or more than in some of our old States, such as Rhode Island or Delaware, or in some of our newer States, and less than in some of our larger ones. They are not all American colonists or their descendants. Something less than 12,000 have been sent thither from this country. Many of the original settlers have died, yet, like people elsewhere, their offspring outnumber those deceased. The question is, if the colored people are persuaded to go anywhere, why not there? One reason for unwillingness to do so is, that some of you would rather remain within reach of the conn try of your nativity. I do not know how much attachment you may have toward our race. It does not strike me that you have the greatest reason to love them. But still you are attached to them at all events. The place I am thinking about having for a colony is in Central America. It is nearer to us than Liberia-not much more than one fourth as far as Liberia, and within seven days' run by steamers Unlike Liberia, it is a great line of travel-it is a highway The country is a very excellent one for any people, and with great natural resources and advantages, and especially be cause of the similarity of climate with your native soil, thus being suited to your physical condition. The particu lar place I have in view is to be a great highway from the Atlantic or Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean, and this particular place has all the advantages for a colony. On both sides there are harbors among the finest in the world. Again, there is evidence of very rich coal mines. A certain amount of coal is valuable in any country. Why I attach so much importance to coal is, it will afford an opportunity to the inhabitants for immediate employment till they get ready to settle permanently in their homes. If you take colonists where there is no good landing, there is a bad show; and so where there is nothing to cultivate, and of
which to make a farm. But if something is started so that
"From age to age descends the lay
To millions yet to be,
Till far its echoes roll away
The above is merely given as the substance of the President's remarks.
The chairman of the delegation briefly replied, that they would hold a consultation, and in a short time give an answer." The President said, "Take your full time--no hurry at all."
The delegation then withdrew.
It was proposed to settle these persons on a tract of country in New Grenada, but that Government objected, and no further attempt has been made in that direction. (For further particulars see page 212.)
Incompatibility of Civil and Military
assigned him to the command of the Seventeenth Army Corps.
June 15-The Judiciary Committee reported this resolution:
Resolved, That an officer of the United States whose resignation has been duly accepted and taken effect, or who, having been elected a member of either House of Congress, qualifies and enters on the discharge of the duties of a member, is thereby, in either case, out of the office previously held, and cannot be restored to it without a new appointment, in the manner prescribed by the Constitution. June 30-This resolution passed witho' division.
June 13-The Committee on Elections mad a report, and submitted these resolutions: Resolved, That ROBERT C. SCHENCK, having resigned the office of Major General of Volunteers which he then held on the 13th day of November, 1863, which resignation was accepted November 21, 1863, to take effect December 5, 1863, was not, by reason of having held such office, disquali fied from holding a seat as a Representative in the ThirtyEighth Congress, whose first session commenced on the 7th day of December, 1863.
Resolved, That FRANCIS P. BLAIR, Jr., by continuing to hold the office of Major General of Volunteers to which he was appointed November 29, 1862, and to discharge the duties thereof till January 1, 1861, the date of his resignation, did thereby decline and disqualify himself to hold the office of Representative in the Thirty-Eighth Congress, the first session of which commenced on the first Monday in December, 1863.
June 29-They were adopted without a division.
Repeal of the Fishing Bounties. First Session, Thirty-Seventh Congress. Pending the consideration of a tax bill in the Senate,
July 29, 1861, Mr. SAULSBURY moved to add this section:
That from and after the 6th day of October, 1861, all acts and parts of acts granting allowances or bounties on the tonnage of vessels employed in the bank or other cod fisheries, be, and the same are hereby, repealed.
Which was rejected-yeas 15, nays 19, as follows:
YEAS-Messrs. Browning, Carlile, Chandler, Doolittle, Grimes, Harlan, Johnson of Missouri, Polk, Powell, Rice, Saulsbury, Sherman, Trumbull, Wilkinson, Willey-15. NAYS-Messrs. Anthony, Clark, Collamer, Dixon, Fessenden, Foot, Foster, Harris, King, Lane of Indiana, Lane of Kansas, McDougall, Morrill, Pomeroy, Simmons, Sumner, Ten Eyck, Wade, Wilson-19.
Third Session. Thirty-Seventh Congress.
1863, Feb. 2-Pending the legislative bill, Mr. POWELL offered this new section:
That all laws or parts of laws allowing or giving bounties
on the tonnage of vessels engaged in the cod or other bank fisheries, be, and the same are hereby, repealed.
Which was rejected-yeas 8, nays 35, as follows:
YEAS-Messrs. Carlile, Kennedy, Powell, Richardson, Sherman, Turpie, Wall, Wilson of Missouri-8.
ROBERT C. SCHENCK and FRANCIS P. BLAIR, Jr., were elected in the fall of 1862 members of the Thirty-Eighth Congress, the first named then being a Major General. The latter was commissioned a Brigadier, and then a Major General, subsequently to the election. The former resigned his commission November 13, 1863, to take his seat in Congress, the resignation to have effect December 5, 1863; the President accepted it November 21. The latter resigned January 1, 1864, which the President accepted January 12, giving it effect that day. He took the oath of office as Representative in Congress, January 12. April 23, he requested to withdraw his resignation as Major General of volunteers; and, same day, the President bill being under consideration in the Senate,
NAYS-Messrs. Anthony, Arnold, Chandler, Clark, Collamer, Cowan, Davis, Dixon, Doolittle, Fessenden, Foot, Foster, Grimes, Hale, Harding, Harlan, Harris, Hicks, Howard, Howe, King, Lane of Indiana, Lane of Kansas, Latham, Wade, Wilkinson, Willey, Wilmot, Wilson of Mass—35. McDougall, Morrill, Pomeroy, Rice, Sumner, Trumbull,
First Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress. 1864, April 12-The Naval appropriation