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Art. Sec. Art. Sec.

Art. Sec. Art. Sec be uniform

1 8 1 8 Jury trial, further regulated............. 6 A m'a. 1 9 Duties, further provision respocting 1 9 1 9 secured' in suits at common law cannot be levied by the States......... 1 10 1

where the value in controversy on exports prohibited......

1 9

shall exceed twenty dollars......... 7 A m'd. 1 9 on exports may be authorized by two-thirds vote..........

1 9

L. on imports and exports imposed by States, sball enure to the treasury

Law, what is declared the supreme...... 6 1

1 of the General Goverument.... 1 10 110 common, recognized and established 7 Am'd. i may not be laid on imports to foster

President to see faithfully executed.. 2 3 any branch of industry.........

1 | 8 of the Provisional Government to be
valid .....

6 1 E.

every, shall relate to but one subject,
which its title shall express...

1 9 Elections of Senators and Representa

Legislative powers vested in Congress. tives shall be prescribed by the

(See Congress.) States... 14 1 4 Loans, authority to make.....

1 81 8 qualifications and returns of members of Congress to be determined

M. by each House......

1 5 1 5 Electors of President and Vice Presi

Marque and reprisal, letters of

1 8 1 dent, how chosen, and their duties 2 1 2 1 Militia, to be called out.

1 8 altered (see 12th amendment) to vote

to be officered by the States.........

8 1 8 the same day throughout the Uni

to be commanded by the President.. 2 2 2 2 ted (or Confederate) States......... 2 1 2 1 their right to keep and bear arms no Senator, or Representative, or


2 Am'd. 1 9 public officer shall serve as.... 2 1 2 1

Money shall be drawn from the treasEnumeration every ten years............. 1 2

2 ury only by appropriation laws...... 1 9 1 9 first within three years.....

1 2 Congress to coin and regulate value Executive power vested in a President,


1 8 1 8 (see President,).........

2 1 2 1
States cannot coin....

110 1 10 Erporis, not to be taxed...

1 9 may be, by two-thirds vote....

1 9

Es post facto law, not to be passed... 1 9 1 9
prohibited to states.......

1 10

Naturalization, uniform rules of........ 1 8 1 8

Navy, Congress to provide and govern... 1 8 1 8 F.

Nobility, titles of, not to be granted by

the United (or Confederate) States 1 9 1 9 Fines, exeessive, prohibited...... 8 A m'a. 1 9 nor by the States........

1 10 1 10 Fugitives, from justice, to be delivered up........ 4 2 4 2

0. from service, to be delivered up....... 4 2 4 2

Officers of the House of Representa-

tives to be chosen by the House..... 1 2 1 2

of the Senate to be chosen by the Habeas Corpus, writ of, can only be


1 3 1 3 suspended in cases of rebellion or

civil, may be removed by impeachinvasion.............................. 1 9 1 9 ment.....

2 4 2 4 House of Representatives-(see Repre

Order of one house requiring the consentatives.)

currence of the other...

7 1 7 Heads of Executive Departments may be

Oath of the President...

2 1 2 1 allowed to have seats in either

of the public officers............

6 1 6 1 House for certain purposes.......

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President, not re-eligible........

wlio sliall act in case of vacancy ...... compensation of..... sball take an oath of office....... may be removed by impeachment.... President, commander of ariny, navy,

aud militia... may require the written opinions of

heads of departments.. may reprieve and pardon.... may make treaties with consent of

the Senate..... may appoint to office with consent of

the Senate .... shall fill vacancies happening during

the rtcess of the Senate... shall give information to Congress

and recommend measures..... may convene both Houses or either

House........ may adjourn them in case of disa

greement ............. shall receive embassadors and pub.

lic ministers..... shall take care that the laws are

faithfully executed.... shall commission all othcers.. Pririleges aud immunities of members

ol Congress of citizens, (sen Citizens; also, Rights.) Property, Congress to provide for caré

of public shall not be taken for public use

without just compensation..... Congress shall pass no law impairing

or denying the right of, in slaves... Punishment, cruel and unusual, pro


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Representatives and direct taxes, apportioned according to numbers..

1 2 Represesentation of a State ; vacancies

in, supplied until a new election by
executive authority

1 2 Resolution, order, or vote, requiring

the concurrence of both llousey, to

undergo the formalities of bills...... 1 7 Removal of certain civil officers to be

reported by the President to the

Senate, with his reasons therefor... Revenue bills to originate in the House ot' Representatives

1 7 Rights of the citizen declared to be priv.

ileges of citizens of the several

4 2 liberty of conscience in matters of religion....

1 Am'a. freedom of speech and of the press.... 1 Au'd. to assemble and petition....

1 Am'a. to keep and bear arms...

2 Amu. to be exempt from the quartering of soldiers...

3 Am'd. to be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures.........

4 Am'a. to be free from answering for a

crime, unless on presentment or
indictment by a jury....

5 A m'a. not to be twice jeoparded for the sare offence....

5 Am'd. not to be compelled to be a witness against bimself.

5 Am'd. not to be deprived of life, liberty, or

property without due process of

5 Am'd. private property not to be taken for public use.....

5 Am'd. in criminal prosecutions shall have

speedy trial by jury, with all the

means necessary for his defence..... 6 A m'u. in civil cases trial to bo by jury, and

shall only be re-examined accord-
ing to coinmon law....

7 A'md. excessive bail shall not be required,

excessivo fines imposed, nor cruel

and unusual punishments inflicted... 8 Am'd. enumeration of certain rights not to

operate against reserved rights...... 9 Am'd. Rules, cach house shall determine its own....................

1 5

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Q. Quorum for business, what shall bo a 1 5 1 of States, in choosing a President by

tho House of Representatives. 2 1 2 Quartered—No soldiers to be quartered upon a citizen.............................. 3 Am'd. 1

R. Receipts and expenditures, accounts of, to be published .......

1 9 1 Records, how to be authenticated.... 4 1 4 Religion-no law to be made; free exercise of......

1 Am'd.

1 religious test not requir ů.......

6 1 6 Reprieves granted by the President...... 2 2 2 Representatives, House of, members of

chosen every second year......... 1 2 1 qualifications of members of............. 1 2 1 apportionment of

1 2 1 vacancies, how supplied....

1 2 1 shall choose their officers..

1 2 1 shall have the power of impeachment..........

1 2 1 shall be the judge of the election and

qualification of its members.... 1 5 1 what shall be a quorum

1 5 1 any number may adjourn, and com

pe) the attendance of absentees... 1 5 1 may determine the rules of proceeding.......

1 5 1 may punish or expel a member.... 1

1 shall keep a journal and publish, ex

cept parts requiring secrecy... 1 5 1 shall not adjourn for more than three

days, nor to any other placo, with

out the consent of the Senate... 1 5 1 one fifth may require the yeas and Days...

1 5 1 shall originate bills for raising reve nue....

1 7 1 compensation to be ascertained by law

1 6 1 privileged from arrest, except in certain cases......

1 6 1 Representatives shall not be questioned

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Seat of Government, exclusive legisla-

1 8 Searches and seizures, security against.. 4 A m'd. Senate, composed of two Senators from each State...

1 how chosen, classed, and terms of service...

1 3 qualifications of Senators

1 3 Vice-President to be President of the 1 3 sball chooso their officers.......

1 3 shall be the judge of the elections

and qualifications of its members... 1 5 what number shall be a quorum........

1 5 any number way adjourn, and com

pel attendance of absentees............ 1 5 may determine its rules......

1 5 may punish or expel a member.

1 5 shall keep a journal and publish the

same, except parts requiring sc-

1 5 shall not adjourn for more than three

days, nor to any other place, with

out the consent of the other house.. 1 5 one-fifth may require the yeas and nays.

1 5 may propose amendments to bills for raising revenue................

1 7 shall try impeachments...

1 3 effect of their judgment on impeachment...

1 3 compensation to be ascertained by law......

1 6 members of, privileged from arrest... 1 6 members not to be questioned for words spoken in debate...........

6 shall not be appointed to once......... 6

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for speech or debate in the House... 1 6 1 shall not be appointed to office........ 1 6 1 shall not be electors of President...... 2 1 2

6 6 1

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Art. Sec. Art. Sec.

Art. Sec. Art Sec. Sonrim shall not be elector.......

2 1 2 1 cese may be filled temporarily by Seactors and Representatives, election

the President

2 2 2 2 f how prescribed.....

1 4 1 Slares their importation may be pro

Vacancies in representation inCongress,
how filled

1 2 1 2 bibited after 1808....

1 91

Veto of the President, effect of and protheir importation prohibited, no law

ceedings on..

1 7 1 7 to be passed impairing right of

Vice-President to be President of the property in......


1 3 1 3 right of transit and sojourn with, in

how elected......

2 1 2 1 aus State, guarantied..

4 2 also, Amendment...

12 in trduction of, from any State not a

shall in certain caseg discharge the member of the Confederacy, may

duties of Prosident......

2 1 2 1 be probibited by Congress.

1 9 may be removed by impeachment...... 2 4 2 Soliers Lot to be quartered on citizens 3 Am'd. 1 9 Vote of ono house requiring the concurSpezler, how chosen ...........................

1 2 1 2
rence of the other....

1 7 1 7 & , freedom of......

1Am'd. 1 9 &ctes prohibited from

W. entering into treaty, alliance, or confederation... 1 10 1 10 War, Congress to declare......

1 8 1 8 granting letters of marque............

1 10 1 10 Warrants for searches and seizures, oining money .......

10 1 10 when and how they shall issue....... 4 A m'd. 1 9 eniitting bills of credit..

1 10

Witness in criminal cases, no one commaking anything a tonder but gold

pelled to be against himself......... 5 Am'd. 1 9 and silver

1 10 1 10 Weights and Measures, standard of........ 1 8 1 8 passing bills of attainder, ex post facto la3, or laws impairing contracts... 10

10 granting titles of nobility...

1 10 1 10 Lying duties on imports and exports 1 10


Yeas and Nays entered on journal, and laying duties on tonnage. 1 | 10 1 10 published....

1 5 bay lay tonnage duty on sea-going

Tessels for the improvement of rivere, &e...

1 10

THEIR CONSTITUTION AS INTERPRETED BY THE keping troops or ships of war in time of peace ...


1 10 1 10 entering into any agreement or com

1861, March 21, Alex. H. STEPHENS delivered pact with another Stato or foreign Power

1 10 1 10

a speech at Savannah, in explanation and vinmay enter into compact for improve

dication of the Constitution, from which this ment of certain rivers..

1 10 is a well known extract: ezaging in war .......

1 10 1 10 Sates, new, may be admitted into the

“The new Constitution has put at rest forever all the Caion (or Confederacy).

4 3 4 3

agitating questions relating to our peculiar institutions Dew, may be admitted upon two

African slavery as it exists among us--the proper status of thin's vote of both Houses, the Sen

the negro in our form of civilization. This was the im ste voting by States....

3 mediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. may be formed within the jurisdic

Jefferson, in his forecast, had anticipated this as the 'rock tion of others, or by the junction

upon which the old Union would split?' He was right. of two or more, with the consent of

What was conjecture with him, is now a realized fact. Congress and the Legislatures of

But whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon the States concerned........

3 4 3

which that rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The State judges bound to consider treaties.

provailing ideas entertained by him and most of the leadthe Constitution, and the laws

ing statesmen at the time of the formation of the old Conunder it, as supremo....u.

6 1 61

stitution, were that the enslavement of the African was in State, every, guarantied a republican

violation of the laws of nature: that it was wrong in prinform of government, protected by

ciple, socially, morally, and politically. It was an evil they the United (or Confederate) States

4 4 4 4

knew not well how to deal with, but the general opinion of Supreme Court(See Court and Judi

the men of that day was, that somehow or other, in the ciary.)

order of Providence, the institution would be evanescent Suits at Common Law, procendings in... 7 Awd. 1

and pass away. This idea, though not incorporated in the

Constitution, was the prevailing idea at the time. The T

Constitution, it is true, secured every essential guarantee to

the institution while it should last, and hence no argument Tas, direct, according to representa

can be justly used against the constitutional guarantees

thus secured, because of the common sentiment of the day. tion...

1 2

1 2 shall be laid only in proportion to

Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They

rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This census..

1 9

1 9 on esports prohibited

was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of a

1 9 except by vote of two-thirds of both

government built upon it; when the storm came and the Houses

wind blew, it fell.'

1 9 Tuolit, what shall be a legal.....

“Our new Government is founded upon exactly the op1 10

10 Teritory, or public property, Congress

posite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner stone rests : may make rules concerning.....

upon tho great truth that the negro is not equal to the

3 Te religious, shall not be required...... white man. That slavery-subordination to the superior

1 6

1 Ties, (sco Nobility.)

race, is his natural and normal condition. This, our new Til from foreign State prohibited...... 1

Government, is the first, in the history of the world, based 9

9 freason, defined.....

upon this great physical and moral truth. This truth has 3 3

3 3 two witnesses, or confession, neces

been slow in the process of its development, like all other

truths in the various departments of science. It has been sary for conviction..


3 so even amongst us. Many who hear me, perhaps, can punishment of, may be prescribed by

recollect well, that this truth was not generally admitted, Congress...

3 3 3 3 even within their day. The errors of the past generation Trozsury, money drawn from only by appropriation.....................

still clung to many as lato as twenty years ago. Those at 1

1 9 the North who still cling to these errors, with a zeal above Treaties, how made.................

2 2 2 2 the supretne law..............................

knowledge, we justly denominate fanatics.

6 1 6 1 “In the conflict thus far, success has been, on our side, States cannot make..

1 10 1 10 complete throughout the length and breadth of the Confedo

erate States. It is upon this, as I have stated, our actual V.

fabric is firmly planted; and I cannot permit myself to

doubt the ultimate success of a full recognition of this prinfacancies happening during the re

ciple throughout the civilized and enlightened world.


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"As I have stated, the truth of this principle may be slow | the granite; then comes the brick or the marble. The subin development, as all truths are, and ever have been, in stratum of our society is made of the material fitted by nathe various branches of science. It was so with the prin- ture for it, and by experience we know that it is best, not ciples announced by Galileo-it was so with Adam Smith only for the superior, but for the inferior race that it should and his principles of political economy-it was so with be so. It is, indeed, in conformity with the ordinance of Harvey and his thoory of tho circulation of the blood. It the Creator. It is not for us to inquire into the wisdom of is stated that not a single one of the medical profession, His ordinances, or to question them. For His own purliving at the time of the announcement of the truths made posos He has made one race to differ from another, as He by him, admitted them. Now they are universally ac- has made 'one star to differ from another star in glory.' knowledged. May wo not, therefore, look with confidence "The great objects of humanity are best attained when to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths conformed to His laws and decrees, in the formation of govupon which our system rests. It is the first government ernments, as well as in all things else. Our Confederacy is ever instituted upon principles of strict conformity to na- founded upon principles in strict conformity with these ture, and the ordination of Providence, in furnishing the laws. This stone which was first rejected by the first builders materials of human society. Many governments have been is becomo the chief stone of the corner' in our new edifice. founded upon the principle of certain classes; but the "The progress of disintegration in the old Union may be classes thus enslaved, were of the same race, and in viola- expected to go on with almost absolute certainty. We are tion of the laws of nature. Our system commits no such now the nucleus of a growing power, which, if we are true violation of nature's laws. The negro, by nature, or by the to ourselves, our destiny, and high mission, will become curso against Canaan, is fitted for that condition which he the controlling power on this continent. To what extent occupies in our system. The architect, in the construction accessions will go on in the process of time, or where it wil of buildings, lays the foundation with the proper materials, end, the future will determine."


Abraham Lincoln's Inaugural dress, March 4, 1861.


Ad-consistently with the Constitution and the laws, can be given, will be cheerfully given to all the States when lawfully demanded, for whatever Fellow-citizens of the United States: In com-cause- as cheerfully to one section as to pliance with a custom as old as the Government itself, I appear before you to address you There is much controversy about the deliverbriefly, and to take in your presence the oathing up of fugitives from service or labor. The prescribed by the Constitution of the United clause I now read is as plainly written in the States to be taken by the President "before he Constitution as any other of its provisions: enters on the execution of his office."

I do not consider it necessary at present for me to discuss those matters of administration about which there is no special anxiety or excitement.

"No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in conse quence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due."

the whole Constitution to this provision as that slaves, whose cases come within the terms much as any other. To the proposition, then, of this clause, "shall be delivered up," their oaths are unanimous. Now, if they would make the effort in good temper, could they not, with nearly equal unanimity, frame and pass a law by means of which to keep good that

Apprehension seems to exist among the peoIt is scarcely questioned that this provision ple of the Southern States that by the accession was intended by those who made it for the reof a Republican Administration their property claiming of what we call fugitive slaves; and and their peace and personal security are to be the intention of the law-giver is the law. All endangered. There has never been any reason-members of Congress swear their support to able cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches when I declare that "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so." Those who nominated and elected me did so with full knowledge that I had made this and many similar declarations, and had never recanted them. And more than this, they placed in the platform for my acceptance, and as a law to themselves and to me, the clear and emphatic resolution which I now read:

unanimous oath?

this clause should be enforced by national or There is some difference of opinion whether by State authority; but surely that difference is not a very material one. If the slave is to be surrendered, it can be of but little consequence to him, or to others, by which authority it is done. And should any one, in any case, be content that his oath shall go unkept, on a merely unsubstantial controversy as to how it shall be kept?

Resolved, That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially the right of each State to order Again, in any law upon this subject, ought and control its own domestic institutions according to its awn judgment exclusively, is essential to the balance of not all the safeguards of liberty known in civipower on which the perfection and endurance of our polit-lized and humane jurisprudence to be introcal fabric depend, and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of


I now reiterate these sentiments; and, in doing so, I only press upon the public attention the most conclusive evidence of wh ch the case is susceptible, that the property, peace, and security of no section are to be in anywise endangered by the now incoming Administration. I add, too, that all the protection which,

duced, so that a free man be not, in any case, surrendered as a slave? And might it not be well at the same time to provide by law for the enforcement of that clause in the Constitution which guaranties that "the citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States ?"

I take the official oath to-day with no mental reservations, and with no purpose to construe the Constitution or laws by any hypercritical

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