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Buell moved to the vicinity of Chattanooga, but he was forced back, and the rebels, under Bragg, entered Kentucky, and occupied Frankfort the Capital, Lexington, and other important positions. On the 18th of September, Bragg issued a proclamation, calling upon Kentucky to rally to his support. On the 4th of October, a “ Provisional Government” was proclaimed by the rebels at Frankfort. Louisville and Cincinnati were threatened and fortified. On the 6th of October, Buell's troops reached Springfield, sixty miles from Louisville. On the 8th of October, was fought the battle of Perryville. A portion of Buell's army, under McCook, was attacked unexpectedly, and thrown into confusion, and retreated. Crittenden's forces coming up in the evening, the forces of Bragg retired. He succeeded in escaping with large supplies. Buell, on the 25th of Ocober, by order of the President, was superceded by General Rosecrans.
Previous to this, on the 26th of September, General Rosecrans was in command at Corinth. 'On the 4th of October, he was attacked by Price, on the right, and Van Dorn, on the left. For a moment, the attack of Van Dorn was so severe that the division of Davis fell back, but Rosecrans, in person rallying his men, and leading the Fifty-sixth Illinois to a bold bayonet charge, drove back and scattered the enemy with great havoc; other forces participating, the whole force of Van Dorn was repulsed with a loss of near 5,000 killed and wounded, and 2,265 prisoners. Rosecrans' whole loss did not exceed 2,357.
The stronghold of Vicksburg, strong by nature, and fortified with all the skill of the ablest engineers, was, as yet, an insurmountable obstacle to the complete recovery of the Mississippi. A movement against it was defeated by the disgraceful surrender of Holly Springs, by Colonel Murphy on the 20th of December, by which a vast amount of stores and supplies fell into the hands of the enemy.
Generals Sherman and McClernand organized a movement against Vicksburg, from Memphis and Cairo, which sailed on the 20th of December, and which arrived at Millikens Bend on the 24th, and destroyed a portion of the Vicksburg and Texas Railroad. On the 27th, the troops disenbarked on the plantation of the late General Albert Sidney Johnson, on the Yazoo River. They met the active and efficient cooperation of a gunboat fleet, under command of Commodore Ellett.
On the 29th, a general and gallant assault was made upon the defenses in the rear of Vicksburg, in which General F. P. Blair particularly distinguised himself, but the place was too strong, and too well defended; and the assault, though gallantly made, was repulsed with severe loss. The forces of General Sherman retired to Milliken's Bend, and went into camp at the beginning of the year 1863.
The results in the West, subsequent to May, 1862, were much less decisive for the Union cause than the brilliant record of the Fall, Winter and Spring of 1861-2. The campaign of 1862, was however crowned with the victory of Rosecrans over General Joseph E. Johnston, at Stone River.
In November, the rebel army was concentrated at Murfreesboro, and the Union army at Nashville. Johnston supposing the Union army would go into winter quarters at Nashville, detached his cavalry under Forrest, to cut the railroad in Grant's rear, and another body under Morgan, to go into Kentucky. Rosecrans determined to improve this opportunity to strike the enemy. On the 26th, he began to move upon the enemy. On the 31st, McCook, who had the right of Rosecrans' army, was attacked by a heavy force on his entire line. He was driven back by overwhelming numbers, and his force retreated with a loss of many prisoners Rosecrans massed his artillery, and prepared for an attack on his left and centre by the rebels, sending Generals Negley and Rosseau, to the aid of McCook. This checked the rebel advance. As they were coming up the second time, Rosecrans, opened upon them his newly planted batteries, and after a short conflict, they turned and fled in confusion, leaving immense numbers of dead and wounded on the field. The rebels renewed the attack later in the day, and were again repulsed.
On the 4th of January, Johnston retreated to Murfreesboro. The Union loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners, was 11,578, and the rebel loss, 14,560.
CHAPTER X VII.
THIRD SESSION THIRTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS.
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE DEC., 1862— PROPOSAL TO AID MISSOURI
IN EMANCIPATION — BILL AUTHORIZING ENROLLING COLORED TROOPS — ENROLLMENT BILL-DEBATE IN SENATE AND HOUSEBINGHAM-Cox- DUNN - THOMAS-SENATOR WILSON — McDOUGALL - ADMISSION OF WEST VIRGINIA — DEBATE — MAYNARD- -STEPHENS — BINGHAM-THOMAS — ADMISSION OF MEMBERS FROM LOUISIANA — WAR POWERS OF THE GOVERNMENT ARBITRARY ARRESTS — VALLANDIGHAM - LINCOLN'S REPLY TO ALBANY MEETING — HABEAS CORPUS—CLOSE OF THIRTY-SEV
ENTH CONGRESS-SPEAKER GROW'S VALIDICTORY. THIE action of the drama calls us again from the field of war
to the forum of Congress; from the conflict of arms to the conflict of principles in the National council, and before the people. The tyranny over mind, which two centuries of slavery had riveted, was being broken, and the loyal people of the Nation had learned in the school of war, clearly to see that the unity of the Nation, with a homogeneous people, was a necessity to its grand destiny; and to secure that unity, slavery must be removed. Whatever the purposes of the administration at the beginning, the inexorable logic of war, was driving it to abolition. The Republic was based upon man's equality before the law. Slavery was an anomaly, inconsistent with the principles upon which the government was founded, and must either yield itself or overturn the Government. The war was a natural and perhaps inevitable conflict between the systems of free and slave labor. These truths gradually became more and more the settled convictions of the American people, and resulted in the proclamation of emancipation. The effect of this proclamation abroad, was sharply to define the issue between an established Government fighting for liberty, and a rebellion inaugurated to maintain and secure slavery. The emissaries of the insurgents abroad were disarmed by this act; from the hour of its promulgation, the danger of foreign recognition and foreign intervention ceased to exist. The response of the people of Europe, in hearty, genuine sympathy, was such as to prevent intervention by those of their rulers who wished success to the rebel cause.
The President in his annual message, calls attention to the success of the financial measures, which under the able lead of Mr. Chase, had been sanctioned by Congress. Large issues of Treasury notes had been made, and these had been declared by law, receivable for loans and internal duties, and made a legal tender in payment of all debts; and this made them a universal and very welcome and popular currency. The President recommended the passage of a law authorizing banking associations; the Government to furnish the notes for circulation on the deposit in the Treasury of the United States, of Government bonds as security. The bill authorized the conversion of existing State banks into National banking associations.
The leading feature of the message, was that which treated the great questions of emancipation, and the necessity of National unity. The President announced to Congress, that on the 22d of September, he had issued a preliminary proclamation announcing his intention to proclaim freedom to the slave, and communicated a copy of the paper.
In accordance with the second paragraph of the proclamation, in language, which for Statesman like views, and clearness of statement, will compare favorably with any State paper in American annals, he recalled to the attention of Congress, the proposition of " compensated emancipation."
, He said: *
“ A Nation may be said to consist of its territory, its people and its laws. The territory is the only part which is of certain durability. One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh, but the earth abideth forever. It is of the first importance to duly consider and estimate this ever-enduring part. That portion of the earth's surface which is owned and inhabited by the people of the United States, is well • McPherson, p. 220).
adapted to be the home of one National family; and it is not well adapted for two or more. Its vast extent and its variety of climate and productions, are of advantage, in this age for one people, whatever they might have been in former ages. Steam, telegraphs, and intelligence, have brought these to be an advantageous combination for one united
" There is no line, straight or crooked, suitable for a National boundary upon which to divide. Trace through from East to West, upon the line between the free and slave country, and we shall find a little more than one-third of its length are rivers easy to be crossed, and populated, or soon to be populated, thickly upon both sides, while nearly all its remaining length are merely surveyor's lines, over which people may walk back and forth, without any consciousness of their presence. of this line can be made any more difficult to pass, by writing it down on paper or or parchment as a National boundary.
“But there is another difficulty. The great interior region bounded east by the Alleghanies, north by the British dominions, west by the Rocky mountains, and south by the line along which the culture of corn and cotton meets, and which includes part of Virginia, part of Tennessee, all of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wiconsin, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and the Territories of Dakota, Nebraska, and part of Colorado, already has above ten millions of people, and will have fifty millions within fifty years, if not prevented by any political folly or mistake. It contains more than one-third of the country owned by the United States— certainly more than one million
Once half as populous as Massachusetts already is, it would have more than seventy-five millions of people. A glance at the map shows that, territorially speaking, it is the great body of the Republic. The other parts are but marginal borders to it, the magnificent region sloping West from the Rocky mountains to the Pacific, being the deepest, and also the richest in undeveloped resources. In the production of provisions, grains, grasses, and all which proceed from them, this great interior region is naturally one of the most important in the world. Ascertain from the statistics, the small proportion of the region which has as yet been brought into cultivation, and also the large and rapidly increasing amount of its products, and we shall be overwhelmed with the magnitude of the prospect presented. And yet this region has no seacoast, touches no ecean anywhere. As part of one nation, its people, now find, and may forever find their way to Europe by New York, to South America and Africa by New Orleans, and to Asia by San Francisco. But separate our common country into two nations, as designed by the present rebellion, and every man of this great interior region is thereby cut off from some one or more of these outlets; not