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Thus Douglas lent the influence of his name, with his party and the country, in aid of this decisive step, towards suppresing the rebellion by force. He soon after returned to Illinois, and at Springfield and Chicago, made speeches sustaining the policy of the President, and declaring, that now, there could be but two parties, “patriots and traitors.”

The speech of Douglas, at Chicago, was made in the immense building called the “Wigwam,” built for, and used by the National Convention which nominated Lincoln for the Presidency. Since the day of that nomination, no such crowd had gathered there, as assembled to hear Douglas. He said we had gone to the very extreme of magnanimity. The return for all which had been done, was war, armies marching on the Capital — a movement to blot the United States from the map of the globe. “The election of Lincoln,” said he, “is a mere pretext,” the secession movement is the result of an enormous conspiracy, formed by the leaders of the Southern Confederacy, before the election of Lincoln. “ There can be no neutrals in this war — only patriots or traitors."

There were those in the border States who deprecated this call, and who expressed the belief that this act precipitated war, and that continued forbearance would have brought on a reaction at the South, which would have resulted in a restoration of the Union. They who indulged in such dreams little knew the spirit of the conspirators. Had this call been delayed, even a few hours, or had there been less promptness in responding to it, the President would have been assassinated, or he would have been a fugitive or a prisoner, and the rebel flag would have waved over the Capitol, and Jefferson Davis would have issued his Proclamations from the White House. Mr. Lincoln pursued the policy of conciliation, in the vain hope of peace, to the very verge of National destruction.

The fall of Sumter and the President's call for troops, were the signals for the rally to arms throughout the loyal States. Twenty millions of people, forgetting party divisions, and all past differences, rose with one voice of patriotic enthusiasm, and laid their hearts and hands, their fortunes and

their lives upon the altar of their country. The Proclamation of the President calling for 75,000 men and convening an extra session of Congress to meet on the 4th of July, was followed, in every free State, by the prompt action of the Governors, calling for volunteers. In every city, town, village, and neighborhood, the people rushed to arms, and the strife was, wlio should have the privilege of marching to the defense of the National Capital. Forty-eight hours had not passed after the issue of the Proclamation at Washington, before four regiments had reported to Governer Andrews, at Boston, ready for service. On the 17th, he commissioned B. F. Butler, of Lowell, as their commander.

Governor Sprague, of Rhode Island, calling the Legislature of that State together, on the 17th, tendered to the Government, a thousand infantry, and a battallion of artillery, and placing himself at the head of his troops, started for Washington.

The great State of New York, whose population was nearly four millions, through her Legislature, and the action of Governor Morgan, placed her immense resources in the hands of the National Executive. So did Pennsylvania, with its three millions of people, under the lead of Governor Curtin. And Pennsylvania has the honor of having furnished the troops, that first arrived for the defense of the Capital, reaching there on the 18th, just in time to prevent the seizure of the nearly defenceless city.

By the 20th of April, although the quota of Ohio, under the President's call, was only thirteen regiments, 71,000 men had offered their services through Governor Dennison, the Executive of that State. It was the same everywhere. IIalf a million of men, citizen volunteers, at this call, sprang to arms, and begged permission to fight for their country. The enthusiasm pervaded all ranks and classes. Prayers for the Union and the integrity of the Nation, were heard in every Church throughout the free States. State Legislatures, Municipalities, Banks, Corporations, and Capitalists everywhere offered their money to the Government, and subscribed im mense sums for the support of the volunteers and their families. Independent military organizations poured in their offers of service. Written pledges were widely circulated and signed, offering to the Government the lives and property of the signers, to maintain the Union. Great crowds marched through the principal cities, cheering the patriotic, singing National airs, and requiring all to show, from their residences and places of business, the stars and stripes, or “the red, white and blue.” The people, through the press, by public meetings, and by resolutions, placed their property and lives at the disposal of the Government.

At this gloomy period, through the dark clouds of gathering war, uprose the mighty voice of the people to cheer the heart of the President. Onward it came, like the rush of many waters, shouting the words that became so familiar during the war —

We are coming, Father Abraham,
Six hundred thousand strong.

The Government was embarrassed by the number of men volunteering, for its service. Hundreds of thousands more, were offered, than could be armed or received. Senators, members of Congress, and other prominent men, went to Washington to influence the Government to accept the services of the eager regiments, everywhere imploring permission to serve.

The volunteer soldier was the popular idol. He was everywhere welcome. Fair hands wove the banners which he carried, and knit the socks and shirts which protected him from the cold; and everywhere they lavished upon him every luxury, and comfort, which could cheer and encourage him. Every one scorned to take pay from the soldier. Colonel Stetson, proprietor of the “Astor House IIotel, in New York, replied to General Butler's offer to pay — “The Astor Hlouse makes no charge for Massachusetts soldiers.” And while the best Hotels were proud to entertain the soldier, whether private or officer, the latch-string of the cabin and farm-house was never drawn in upon him who wore the National blue. Such was the universal enthusiasm of the people for their country's defenders.

The feeling of fierce indignation towards those seeking to destroy the Government, was greatly increased by the attack of a mob in the streets of Baltimore, upon the Sixth regiment of Massachusetts volunteers, while passing from one depot to the other, on their way to the Capital. This attack on the 19th of April, in which several soldiers were shot down, roused the people to the highest pitch of excitement. The secessionists were so strong in that State as to induce the Mayor of Baltimore, and Governor Hicks, a Union man, to protest against troops marching over the soil of Maryland, to the defense of the National Capital. They burned the bridges on the railroads leading to Washington, and for a time, interrupted the passage of troops through Baltimore. The Governor so far humiliated himself, and forgot the dig. nity of his State and Nation, as to suggest that the differences between the Government and its rebellious citizens, should be referred to Lord Lyons, the British Minister. The Secretary of State fittingly rebuked this unworthy suggestion; alluding to an incident, in the late war with Great Britain, he reminded the Governor of Maryland,“ that there had been a time when a General of the American Union, with forces designed for the defense of its Capital, was not unwelcome anywhere in Maryland;" and he added, “ that if all the other noble sentiments of Maryland had been obliterated, one, at least, it was hoped would remain, and that was, that no domestic contention should be referred to any foreign arbitrament, least of all, to that of a European Monarchy.”

While such was the universal feeling of loyal enthusiasm throughout the free States, in the border slave States, there was division and fierce conflict. Governor Magoffin, of Kentucky, in reply to the President's call, answered, “ I say, emphatically, Kentucky will furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern States.” Governor Harris, of Tennessee, said: “Tennessee will not furnish a man for coercion, but 50,000 for the defense of our Southern brothers.” Governor Jackson, of Missouri, refused, saying, “not one man will Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy crusade;" and Virginia, not only refused through her Governor, to respond, but her Convention then in session, immediately passed an ordinance of secession, by a vote of 88 to 55.

The Northwest, the home of the President, and the home of Douglas, was, if possible, more emphatic, it could scarcely be more unanimous, than other sections of the free States, in the expression of its determination to maintain the Union at all hazards, and at any cost. The people of the vast country between the Alleghanies and the Rocky Mountains, and North of the Ohio, regarded the Mississippi as peculiarly their river, their great outlet to the sea. Proud and confident in their hardy strength, familiar with the use of arms, they never at any time, for a moment, hesitated in their determination, in no event, to permit the erection of a foreign territory between themselves and the Gulf of Mexico. IIere were ten millions of the most energetic, determined, selfreliant people on earth, who had overcome difficulties, and surmounted obstacles; and the idea that anybody should dare to set up any flag, other than their's between them and the ocean, was a degree of audacity they would never tolerate. “Our great rirer,” exclaimed Douglas, indignantly, “has been closed to the commerce of the Northwest. The seceding States, conscious of the strength of this feeling, early passed a law, providing for the free navigation of the Mississippi. But the hardy Western pioneers were not disposed to accept paper guarantees for permission to “possess, , occupy and enjoy " their own. They would hold the Missis. sippi, with their rifles. When closed upon them, they resolved to open it, and they did open it. They immediately seized upon the important strategetic point of Cairo, and from Belmont to Vicksburg and Fort Hudson, round to Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, and Atlanta, they never ceased to press the enemy, until the great central artery of the Republic, and all its vast tributaries, from its source to its mouth, were free; and then, marching to the sea, joined their gallant brethren on the Atlantic coast, to aid in the complete overthrow of the rebellion, and the final triumph of liberty and law.

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