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EASTERN MONACHISM :

AN ACCOUNT OF THE

ORIGIN, LAWS, DISCIPLINE, SACRED WRITINGS,

MYSTERIOUS RITES, RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES, AND PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES

OF THE

ORDER OF MENDICANTS

FOUNDED BY

GÓT MA
G Ο Τ Α Μ Α

BU DHA,

(COMPILED FROM SINGIIALESE MSS. AND OTHER ORIGINAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION);

WITH COMPARATIVE

NOTICES OF THE USAGES AND INSTITUTIONS OF THE WESTERN ASCETICS

AND A

Keuiri of the Jtlunastic žystein.

BY

R. SPENCE HARDY,

MEJIBER OF THE CEYLON BRANCH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.

Το γεγεννημένον εκ της σαρκός, σάρξ έστι:

I. H. S.

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE,
14, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON ;

AND

20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.

GKCIS

EASTERN MONACHISM:

AN ACCOUNT OF THE

ORIGIN, LAWS, DISCIPLINE, SACRED WRITINGS,

MYSTERIOUS RITES,
RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES, AND PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES

OF THE

ORDER OF MENDICANTS

FOUNDED BY

GÓ T A M A

BU DHA,

(COMPILED FROM SINGIIALESE MSS. AND OTHER ORIGINAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION);

WITH COMPARATIVE

NOTICES OF THE USAGES AND INSTITUTIONS OF THE WESTERN ASCETICS

AND A

Kruiriu of the Manastir šystein.

BY

R. SPENCE HARDY,

MEMBER OF THE CEYLON BRANCH OF TUE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.

Το γεγεννημένον εκ της σαρκός, σάρξ έστι:

I. H. S.

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE,
14, IIENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON ;

AND

20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.

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PREFACE.

It has been computed by Professor Neumann that there are in China, Tibet, the Indo-Chinese countries, and Tartary, THREE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-NINE MILLIONS of Budhists. The laws and regulations of the priesthood belonging to a religion so extensively professed as the system of Gótama, must necessarily be an object of great interest. But whilst Brahmanism has been largely elucidated, comparatively little is yet known of Budhism by Europeans.

In the month of September, 1825, I landed in the beautiful island of Ceylon as a Wesleyan Missionary, and one of the first duties to which I addressed myself was, to acquire a knowledge of the language of the people among whom I was appointed to minister. After reading the New Testament in Singhalese, I began the study of the native books, that I might ascertain, from authentic sources, the character of the religion I was attempting to displace. From the commencement, I made notes of whatever appeared to me to be worthy of remembrance in the works I read ; and about ten years ago determined to pursue my researches with more of method, from the intention I then formed of publishing the result, if permitted to return to my native land.

In preparing the present work, it has been my principal aim to afford assistance to the missionaries who are living in

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