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solicitation of Shirley to the home authorities, had been ordered to coöperate with the colonial forces.* In command of the New England armament was William Pepperell, a wealthy merchant of Maine, who had had no actual training in warfare and no military service whatever, except in commanding a small small body of militia. On the last day of April the squadron arrived off Louisburg, and in spite of all opposition the troops were landed and the siege begun. Though the troops were inexperienced and had had no training whatever in the art of war, the siege was conducted with enthusiasm, cannon being dragged through marshes and over rocky hills, and batteries being established in a very irregular man


For some time the continued battering of the fort by the colonial cannon made no impression upon the stronghold, and after the first outburst of enthusiasm, even the most sanguine were compelled to admit that Louisburg was almost impregnable and that the siege would be long and arduous. But the French commander had neglected to supply the garrison with a stock of provisions necessary to withstand a long siege, and the English succeeded in cutting off the supplies. In addition, as before stated, the garrison was much disaffected, and finally, to add to the discomfit of the garrison, the English succeeded in capturing a vessel under

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the very walls of the fort which had been sent to the relief of the garrison.* Consequently, as the provisions and ammunition were running low, the commander deemed further resistance impossible, and on June 17 he surrendered the fort. Needless to say, this capture was a source of great rejoicing to the Boston people, particularly as the enterprise had been chiefly their own, for though aided by some reinforcements from England, the operations against the fort and its subsequent capture had been due almost entirely to their own efforts. As a reward for the capture, Pepperell was made a baronet (being the only native American who ever attained that rank), and both he and Shirley were given commissions as colonels in the British Army. Warren was made rear admiral.+ In 1746 the French made an attempt to retake Louisburg, but the fleet under Duke D'Anville, D'Anville, carrying 7,000 veteran troops, was defeated in its project by storms and by sickness among the soldiers. Nevertheless, when the

Doyle, Colonies under Hanover, p. 417.

For details see Parkman, Half-Century of Conflict, vol. ii., pp. 83-161, 288 et seq., and authori ties cited; ibid., The Capture of Louisburg in the Atlantic Monthly (1891); Parsons, Life of Wil liam Pepperell; Fiske, New France and New England, pp. 248-257; Gibson, Journal of the Siege of Louisburg; S. A. Drake, The Taking of Louisburg; the Journal and Letters of Samuel Curwen, ed. by George A. Ward, extracts from which are in Hart's American History Told by Contemporaries, vol. ii., pp. 346-349; histories of Canada by Miles, pp. 277-278; Roberts, pp. 115-119; MeMullen, 99-101.

For details see Parkman, Half Century of Conflict, vol. ii., pp. 162–185.


treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was concluded, the fortress was returned to the French which greatly excited the indignation of the New Englanders as they considered that they had won it and it could not therefore be disposed of by George II. without consulting them.* As the colonists had expended large sums of money in promoting this enterprise, Parliament reimbursed them to the extent of upwards of $1,000,000, £183,649 being returned to the colonies, of which £16,355 was paid to New Hampshire, £28,863 to Connecticut, £6,332 to Rhode Island, and the balance to Massachusetts.t

The war was

brought to a conclusion by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle,+ and for the present the struggle was terminated, though the dispute was by no means definitely settled. The war had on the whole been unsatisfactory, the chief result being the increasing of England's national debt.

At this time the Bostonians showed that they would not allow their liberties to be entrenched in any manner whatsoever. In 1747 a ship had arrived at Boston under Commodore Charles Knowles, and in November he sent a press gang ashore for the purpose of impressing the inhabitants of the town into his service for

N. Y. Col. Docs., vol. x., p. 147. † Hutchinson, vol. ii., p. 380.

For text of treaty see Chalmers, Collection of Treaties, vol. i., pp. 424-442, and for parts relating to America MacDonald, Select Charters, pp. 252-253.


the next voyage. When the outrage
became known, the whole city rose in
rebellion, and a mob of several thou-
sand people collected and besieged
the town house where the Council was
in session supplementing their de-
mands with a volley of stones and
brickbats. Shirley came forth upon
the balcony, and after a disavowal of
the act and a promise to obtain re-
dress, attempted to subdue the upris-
ing, but this did not satisfy the mal-
contents, and they seized the officers
of the ship who happened to be on
shore at this time and detained them
as hostages pending the release of the
prisoners on board the ship.* The

governor then earnestly entreated
Knowles to release the imprisoned
citizens, but the latter replied by
offering to send a body of marines to
support the governor in putting down
the mob, and also threatened to bom-
bard the town unless the rioting
ceased. Despite this threat, however,
the excitement only increased and the
militia, who were called out the next
day, evinced a sympathy with the
mob. Shirley, therefore, considering
himself to be in personal danger, re-
tired to the castle situated on an
island in the neighboring bay, and left
the town to revenge Knowles' actions
as best it could. A few of the leading
citizens of the town now decided that
matters had reached the limit and
that it was best that the tumult be
suppressed. They therefore called a

* Doyle, Colonies under Hanover, p. 423.

town meeting, at which their determination was expressed to stand by the governor and executive, though they said that they yielded to none in their sense of the enormous outrage committed by Knowles. Meanwhile, at the earnest solicitation of the governor, Knowles decided to release the men he had imprisoned, and shortly afterward departed from the harbor. Shirley then returned to the town. under the escort of the same militia

who had a day or two previously refused to obey his orders. In his report to the Board of Trade on this occurrence Shirley says that the constitution was responsible for the "mobbish turn of a town inhabited by twenty thousand people " because the management of affairs was given into the hands of the "populace assembled in their town meetings.”*

Ibid, pp. 424-425.


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