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majority," and £50,000 in provincial bills of credit were issued on that scheme, and distributed among the counties in the ratio of their taxes, to be put into the hands of trustees, and lent out in sums from £50, to £500, on mortgages, reimbursable in five annual installments."'*


In this same year, August 1, 1714, Queen Anne died which led to a change in the colonial affairs. Colonel Burgess was appointed to the governorship of the colony, and as he was in needy circumstances, he was paid $5,000 to relinquish his appointment, and Colonel Shute, who had served under Marlborough, was made In October, 1716, Shute arrived in Massachusetts and immediately proceeded to embroil himself in the currency question, taking the side of those who favored the public bank. The third party, Elisha Cooke acting as leader, naturally opposed his measures. In 1720 Cooke was elected speaker of the House, but the governor vetoed the choice and dissolved the Court, which resulted in bitter feeling on both sides. Being unable to come into popular favor, Shute in disgust suddenly left the colony (January 1, 1723), and during the next six years William Dummer, lieutenant-governor, guided the af

* Hildreth, vol. ii., p. 295; Hutchinson, vol. ii., p. 208. See also Felt's Currency of Massachusetts, and H. Phillips, Historical Accounts of the Paper Currency of the American Colonies, for a detailed account of the various disputes.

fairs of the colony.* During Shute's administration, the pirates became troublesome and a strong effort was made to suppress them. One of the most noted of these in the vicinity of New England was Bellamy, who was wrecked on Cape Cod, where he perished with 100 of his men. Those who escaped were seized and hanged in Boston in 1723. Nearly 30 more of these pirates were condemned to death at a session of the commission of admiralty at Newport. By such measures piracy was soon suppressed. In 1721, a severe epidemic of smallpox broke out in Boston and excited wide-spread alarm. It was determined to try the new treatment of inoculation, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston being persuaded by Cotton Mather to conduct the experiment. This was violently opposed by a large number abuse was heaped upon those who of the inhabitants, and all manner of were conducting the practice, but both Mathers took a noble stand against the prejudice of the community, and the success of the new practice quickly silenced all protests. About this time, Lady Mary Wortley Montague introduced the practice in England.†

In July, 1728, Shute was succeeded in the governorship by William Burnet, who came from New York.

* See Palfrey, History of New England, vol. iv., pp. 406-428, for a history of these dissensions; Hildreth, vol. ii., pp. 294–299; Doyle, Colonies under Hanover, pp. 86 et seq., 98 et seq.

Hildreth, vol. ii., pp. 300-302.


He immediately proceeded to reopen the old quarrel regarding salary, and in his first speech informed the House that he would insist upon having a permanent salary paid him. The House was not at all willing to make the necessary grants of money for the support of the governor and absolutely refused to pay a fixed salary. The first year the House appropriated £1,700, dividing this into two sums, of which £1,400 was for salary and £300 for the expenses of the governor's journey. While Burnet accepted the money for the journey, he declared that he would not accept £1,400 on account of salary.* The Assembly still persisted in their refusal to vote the full salary requested, and on October 24 the governor adjourned the Assembly to meet on the 31st at Salem, where prejudices had not taken root, and where of consequence his majesty's service would in all probability be better answered " than in the town of Boston.† The Assembly now believed that it was the fixed purpose of the governor to keep them in session until his demands were acceeded to, and they therefore drew up a remonstrance to be presented to the king, setting forth the reasons for their conduct regarding the salary question. In this memorial they say, "it is, and has been very well known in this, as well as other nations and ages, that governors, at a distance

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Hutchinson, vol. ii., pp. 333-334; Doyle, Colonies under Hanover, pp. 89-90.

† Doyle, Colonies under Hanover, p. 91.


from the prince, or seat of government, have great opportunities, and sometimes too prevailing inclinations, to oppress the people; and it is almost impossible for the prince, who is the most careful father of his subjects, to have such matters set in a true light." This memorial was referred for consideration to the Board of Trade, and there was an excited hearing before the Board regarding the matter. Upon reaching a decision, the Board condemned the conduct of the House for refusing to comply with the instructions given by the king, and in the conclusion of the report it was evident that the home government was becoming extremely jealous of the growing wealth and power of Massachusetts, and also of the spirit of independence which the inhabitants of that colony were manifesting toward the crown. The Board further said:

"The inhabitants far from making suitable returns to his majesty for the extraordinary privileges they enjoy, are daily endeavoring to wrest the small remains of power out of the hands of the crown, and to become independent of the mother kingdom. The nature of the soil and products are much the same with those of Great Britain, the inhabitants upwards of ninety-four thousand, and their militia, consisting of sixteen regiments of foot and fifteen troops of horse, in the year 1718, fifteen thousand men; and by a medium taken from the naval officers' reports for three years, from the 24th of June, 1714, to the 24th of June, 1717, for the ports of Boston and Salem only, it appears that the trade of this country employs continually no less than three thousand four hundred and ninety-three sailors, and four hundred and ninety-two ships, making twenty-five thousand four hundred and six tons. Hence your excellencies will be apprised of what importance it is to his majesty's service that so powerful a colony should be restrained within

due bounds of obedience to the crown, and more firmly attached to the interests of Great Britain than they now seem to be, which, we conceive, cannot effectually be done without the interposition of the British legislature, wherein, in our humble opinion, no time should be lost."

Jeremiah Dummer now warned the colony that the matter would be taken up by Parliament unless they acceeded to the governor's demands, in which case they would lose anyhow. So the colonists decided to pay the sum demanded, and it was raised by voluntary contribution.*

Governor Burnet had become so worked up by this controversy that he was driven into a fever, which finally terminated in his death on September 7, 1729.† His successor was Jonathan Belcher, who at that time was acting as agent for the colony in England. He also was ordered to arrange for a permanent salary, but met with as little success as his predecessor; and in order to obtain a certain amount of popularity, he finally accepted whatever grants the Assembly was willing to make. Thus the firmness of the colonists triumphed over all attempts to coerce them into submission on this point.

Meanwhile trouble had arisen on the eastern frontier, chiefly because of disputes regarding the boundary between the English and

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French territory. Previous to the treaty of Utrecht, the present Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and a part of Maine were collectively called Acadia by the French, but when the territory had been given to the English by the treaty, the French claimed that the name Acadia only included Nova Scotia. In addition, the Massachusetts people had no kindly feelings toward the Jesuit missions on the Kennebec and the Penobscot, and were ready at any time to encroach upon the lands inhabited by the Indians. In 1721 the Massachusetts people claimed that Sebastian Rale* was exciting the Indians to hostility in the vicinity of Norridgewock, and an expedition was organized to seize him, which resulted in partial success. Rale, however, succeeded in escaping capture at this time, but some time later (on August 12, 1724) in a sudden attack on the settlement, he was killed with about 30 Indians, and both the chapel and village were burned and the settlement completely broken up. Following this affair, the Massachusetts government offered large


This name is also spelled Rasle, Rasles, Ralle,

On Rale and the various Indian attacks, see Parkman, Half-Century of Conflict, vol. i., pp. 205-240; Shea, American Catholic Missions, pp. 144-152; the life by Convers Francis in Sparks' American Biography, new series, vol. vii., p. 259; Belknap, History of New Hampshire, vol. iii.; Williamson, History of Maine, vol. ii.; Wheeler, History of Brunswick, Topsham, and Harpswell; Temple and Sheldon, History of Northfield; Hutchinson, vol. ii., pp. 309-314; Doyle, Colonies under Hanover, pp. 269–276.


rewards for Indian scalps which excited the cupidity of John Lovewell, a well-known partisan of that time. Raising a band of frontiersmen, he carried on operations against the Indians during the next year with considerable success. Surprising and capturing a band of ten Indians near the head of Salmon Falls River, he entered Dover in triumph with the scalps hooped and elevated on poles. A few months later, he met with a violent death himself. Falling into the hands of a band of Indians near the head of the Saco, he was shot at the first fire together with eight of his party, but the rest of the band succeeded in repulsing the Indians after a severe conflict, and finally escaped. The Indians now began an expedition in retaliation. At the gut of Canso Bay they succeeded in capturing 17 fishing vessels belonging to the people of Massachusetts, but they were soon compelled to return them after suffering severe loss. This dispute, which nearly involved all the northern colonies in a fresh war of mutual extermination with the Indians, was at length found to be unprofitable to both sides, and a treaty of peace was agreed upon. Nevertheless, these struggles only proved that sooner or later the weaker party would be gradually exterminated, and that the

* Kidder, The Expedition of Captain John Ludwell; Bouton, Lovewell's Great Fight; Parkman, Half-Century of Conflict, vol. i., pp. 241–261. See also the ballad quoted in Hart, American History Told by Contemporaries, vol. ii., pp. 344–346.


whole country would be opened up to settlement and development by the white man.*

It was during this time, in 1720 or 1721, that the New England Courant was started by James Franklin. This paper had for one of its contributors Benjamin Franklin, at that time a youth of about 15 years, he having been born January 6, 1706, O. S.t This paper, however, was not long lived, as it soon got into trouble with the authorities because of too great freedom in its opinions regarding men and events. For this the younger Franklin was severely reprimanded by the authorities, and his brother was forbidden to publish the paper without license. Soon after it began to lose support, and finally was entirely discontinued. The Philadelphia Mercury, the only newspaper in the colonies outside of Boston, commented severely upon the course taken by the authorities regarding the Courant.||

In 1740 Governor Belcher's enemies succeeded in having him deposed, and William Shirley, a Boston lawyer, was appointed as his successor. During his term of office Belcher had,

* See the resumé of this period in Fiske, New France and New England, pp. 233–248.

See Franklin's Autobiography, edited by John Bigelow, p. 31; and by H. H. Weld, p. 28; Parton, Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin, vol. i., p. 77 et seq.

Autobiography, Bigelow, p. 33 et seq.; Weld, p. 30 et seq.; P. L. Ford, The Many Sided Franklin, p. 177 et seq.

|| See Doyle, Colonies under Hanover, pp. 228231, who follows Isaac Thomas, History of Printing in America.

in accordance with his instructions, resisted all new issues of paper money, which only tended to involve him still further in trouble with the colonists." "The operation of the Massachusetts banks were cut short by an act of Parliament, extending to the colonies that act of the previous reign occasioned by the South Sea and other bubble schemes, which prohibited the formation of unincorporated joint stock companies with more than six partners."* The companies The companies were therefore compelled to discontinue their business, and the partners were held liable individually for the notes which had been issued. Shirley being well acquainted with the people he was to govern, found little difficulty in attaining immense popularity and undoubtedly because of this he succeeded in obtaining a new issue of paper money to meet expenses of the war which had just broken out; also by tacit consent the General Court granted him an annual allowance of £1,000 sterling for salary.

For a long time the people of Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire had been disputing among themselves regarding rights to certain territories claimed by each. In 1737 the case was brought before the commissioners appointed by the crown to settle the dispute. Various attempts had previously been made to settle the controversy, and the crown had

* Hildreth, History of the United States, vol. ii., p. 380.

recommended to the Assemblies of the two provinces to appoint arbitrators from the neighboring colonies for the purpose of arbitrating their differences, and also to pass acts which should bind each province to abide by the decision of its arbitrators, but neither province had seen fit to obey this suggestion. In 1737, therefore, commissioners had been appointed, with Philip Livingston of New York as president, to settle the dispute, and greatly to the mortification of Massachusetts, it was decided against her, several hundred thousand acres, more than she had claimed, being allotted to New Hampshire. In 1741 Shirley was succeeded by Benning Wentworth, who held office for the next twenty years. During his term Massachusetts entered into disputes with Maine, Rhode Island, and Connecticut regarding boundaries, and was equally as unsuccessful as she had been with New Hampshire. The western boundary of Maine was determined as it now runs, which was according to the claims of New Hampshire. Massachusetts also lost in her dispute with Rhode Island, which colony obtained a decision giving her possession of all that tract which Massachusetts claimed as being within the patent granted to the old Plymouth Company.


*Arnold, History of Rhode Island, vol. ii., p. 134; Rhode Island Colonial Records, vol. iii., p. 134, vol. iv., pp. 586-587; Bates, Rhode Island and the Formation of the Union, pp. 25–26.

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