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right in the territories; of a repeal of the Personal Liberty bills in the Northern States; of a strict execution of the Fugitive Slave law, &c., &c. This class of men were devoted to the Union, and most of them favored a firm defence of the Government property, and the

enforcement of the laws.

Position of the Republican Party.

martial terms, such as 'defeat' and 'victory' obtain in our system of elections. The parties engaged in an election are not, never can be, never must be, enemies, or even adversaries. We are all fellowcitizens, Americans, brethren. It is a trial of issues by the force only of reason; and the contest is car

ried to its conclusion with the use only of suffrage. An appeal lies from the people this year, to the people themselves next year to be argued and determined in the same way, and so on forever. This is, indeed, a long way to the attainment of rights and the establishment of interests. It is our way, however, now, as it has been heretofore. Let it be our way hereafter. If there be among us, or in the. country, those who think that marshaling of armies or pulling down the pillars of the Republic is a better, because a shorter way, let us not doubt that if we commend our way by our patience, our gentle

The Republicans were, also, strong in their Union sentiments, and apparently favored the idea of such compromises as were consistent with their ineradicable opposition to the extension of Slavery. They could but deplore the want of firmness in the President, and looked hopefully forward to Congress, which would come together December 3rd. Senator Seward-who, it was well understood, would be Secretary of State under the newness, our affection towards them, they too will, beadministration-in a speech made to the "Wide-Awakes" of Auburn, on the evening of November 20th, advised conciliation in these terms:

"What is our present duty? It is simply that of magnanimity. We have learned, heretofore, the

practice of patience under political defeat. It now remains to show the greater virtue of moderation in triumph. That we may do this, let us remember that it is only as figures of speech that the use of

fore they shall have gone too far, find out that our
way, is not only the shortest but the best."
way, the old way, their old way as well as our old

This reflected the feelings of the great majority of Republicans. There was no committal, on the part of the leaders of the party, to any definitive line of conduct in the crisis they appeared willing to await the issue of events, leaving all responsibility with the President and Congress.



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THE action of the South Carolina Legisla- that Free Governments should exist in slaveholding ture in ordering a Convention, and in provid- countries. The republics of Rome and Greece --still ing for the "military defence" of the State, gave almost unanimous satisfaction to the people of the State. If a Union sentiment was existent it did not appear. Although the Convention was not to assemble until December 17th, the feeling prevailed, early in November, that the State was virtually out of the Union. November 12th, Barnwell Rhett, one of the leading men of the State, said, in a public address:

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the light and glory of ancient times-were built on
domestic slavery. But it is an experiment to main-
tain Free Government with universal suffrage, and
the whole population to control the Government.
The forts and fortresses in our bay
should never again be surrendered to any power on
earth. We have seen the cannon, placed in them for
our defence, turned against us for our subjugation.
When our flag again floats over them, let it remain
there, until our existence is blotted out as a free
people. *
What shall prevent the people
of the South from being a great and free people?
Taught by the bitter experience we have had, we
can frame a Constitution the best for securing jus







tice and liberty, the world has ever seen.

With such a Constitution and our institutions, we can establish a Confederacy which shall endure for ages; and our Confederacy will be as powerful as it will be great. * The Union is dissolved, and henceforth there is deliverance and peace and liberty for the South. We leave it, not in a time of public danger and trouble, but in a time of established security; not in a time of war, with a foreign enemy thundering on our coasts, but in a time of profound peace with all the world. We leave it victorious in three wars, led on by Southern generals; and with a vast domain of territory, stretching from sea to sea, greater than all civilized Europe contains-the glorious fruits of Southern statesmanship. We leave it, as our fathers left their union with Great Britain, after a patience of endurance, which they would have scorned; and armed like them, with the mighty consciousness of right, more powerful than armies with banners. The long weary night of our humiliation, oppression, and danger is passing away, and the glorious dawn of a Southern Confederacy breaks on our view. With the blessing of God, we will soon be a great people-happy, prosperous and free."

This speech was significent not only of the state of sentiment in the State, but demonstrated, incontestably, that the work of rebellion had been progressing long enough before the Presidential election to render secession a fixed fact in event of Lincoln's success.

started the ball of revolution, and they will carry it forward to the consummation and the end they have in view. Solitary and alone, it is my fixed belief that the State of South Carolina, whatever may betide her, whoever refuse to stand by her-that South Carolina, solitary and alone if need be, will launch her gallant little bark of independence upon an untried political sea; abiding in the justice of her cause, and relying upon the gallant arms and the stout hearts of her people, will peril all in the contest with our enemy."


Another speaker from the delegation said:
"The wicked and nefarious plot which forty years
ago was conceived to seize the reins of this Govern-
ment for the purpose of plundering the South and
uprooting her institutions has, day by day, matured,
until the hour of its accomplishment has come.
The knell of this Union has been sounded, and it
must go down, if it has to go down in a stream of
blood and in a multitude of human suffering. Of
what value, my friends, is this Union to you now?
Three thousand millions of property is involved in
this question, and if you say at the ballot-box that
South Carolina shall not secede, you put into the

sacrifice three thousand millions of your property.
Aye, my friends, that Union of which so many speak,
in terms of laudation-its virtues, its spirit, its splen-
dor has forever fled. It is now a dead carcass, stink-
ing in the nostrils of the South. *
* Aye, my
friends, a few weeks more and you will see floating
from the fortifications the ensign that now bears the
Palmetto, the emblem of a Southern Confederacy.
A thousand hearts will rally to its support, and a
thousand swords will leap from their scabbards, re-
solved to make it their winding-sheet ere it shall

trail in dishonor in the dust."

On Thursday evening a great meeting was held in Charleston, to welcome the returning delegates to the Legislature, to secure the passage of the Convention bill. Mayor Macbeth presided. From the speeches made we see that the mere act of calling Reception of DeleUpon the adjournment of the Court of a Convention was regard- Chancery, on the afternoon of Friday, Nogates. ed as equivalent to seces-vember 16th, the Chancellor, in his parting sion, although the Convention would not asaddress, "expressed the earnest hope that semble until December 17th. One speaker, when they again met, it would be as the Mr. Porter, responding for the delegates, Court of an independent State, and that State a member of a Southern Confederacy." About this time a de-. Navy and Army offi mand was made by the cers to re-ign. Mercury, of "all the Army and Navy officers of the State of South Carolina, now in the service of the General Government," to throw up their commissions and join in the revolutionary movement.


"This great Government, the wonder of the world --this mighty Federal Union, the centre of so many hopes and aspirations-is now sliding from under our feet, and those great sovereign communities that

breathed into it the breath of life; that called it

into being, but which has been most perfidiously

abused and betrayed, are about to recall the powers with which they clothed it, and to assume their orig. inal positions among the people of the earth as a sovereign and independent nation. But, fellow-citizens, what is most remarkable of all is, that it is not a legislative, but a popular revolution. The people

The call read :

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vice of the Government of the United States, to renounce at once the sword and the rations of the vulgar oppressor, and to hasten at once to the homes that gave them birth, for the protection of their native soil, the preservation of the institutions of their State, and the maintenance of the liberty of freemen, bequeathed them by their fathers.

blessed our fathers belng imperiled, we ask Thy fa vor and aid. Inspire us with courage, with a spirit of self-sacrifice, with a love of law and order, and with dependence upon Thee. Bless our State, and her sister States, in this great crisis. May they act as becometh a moral and religious people. Consecrate with Thy favor the banner of liberty this day "South Carolina wants her soldier citizens around hung in the heavens. May the city over which it her now. The mother looks to her sons to protect floats be in Thy gracious keeping. Shield our comher from outrage. Shall she look in vain? She merce on the seas, and protect our homes and firewants, now, military skill and science, to direct the sides. May agriculture bring her stores to our mart, courage and energies of her people. She looks to and order and quiet abide in our streets, if it be Thy her Army and Navy officers to supply that want. will. Avert from our land the horrors of war; but Let them return home at once, without any hesita- whatever we may be called upon to endure, be Thou tion whatever. They need have no more doubt of our fortress and defence. O God! our fathers have South Carolina's going out of the Union, than of the declared unto us the noble works which Thou didst world's turning round. Every man that goes to the in their days. Continue Thy goodness to us their Convention will be a pledged man-pledged for im- children, and make us that happy people whose good mediate separate State secession, in any event whats the Lord, through Jesus Christ, our Redeemer. ever. Once out of the Union, nothing but conquest will bring her back. She is resolved, sick of the Union, disgusted with it upon any terms that are within the range of the widest possibility.

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Great Popular Demon


Saturday morning, Nov. 17th, the people of Charleston inaugurated a gala-day by erecting a pine pole, ninety feet in height, from which was flung the Palmetto flag. It consisted of a white ground with a palmetto tree in the centre, under which was inscribed -"Animas assibusque parati." The State flag also flew from all the public buildings and leading houses in the city. It is estimated that twenty thousand persons took part in the festivities of the day "to inaugurate the revolution." As the flag ran up the "liberty pole," the Washington artillery fired a salute of one hundred guns, while a band discoursed the "Marseilles Hymn"-adding the "Miserere" from Il Trovatore, as a requiem for the departed Union.

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This was succeeded by speeches, chiefly from business men, since it was a business men's, or people's celebration. The crowd was addressed as 66 Citizens of the Southern

99 66

Republic." Processions came pouring into the public square from all sections of the city, bearing banners and mottoes expressive of the sentiments of the hour, viz. :---"Now of Never," Stand to your Arms," "South Carolina Goes it Alone," "God, Liberty, and the State," "No Stripes for South Carolina,” “Let us bury the Union's Dead Carcass," &c., &c. Secession badges were worn by men, women and children. A reporter present said:"All classes are arming for the contingency of coercion. Revolvers and patent fire-arms are selling like hot cakes." The same authority said:

"Not a ship in the harbor has the Federal flag flying, but, far down in the Bay, it can still be discerned flying over Fort Moultrie."

In the evening of the same day another vast concourse of people assembled in the square to hear speeches, all of the most radical disunion character. One thought, feeling and devotion to the secession sentiment prevailed. Merchants from Northern cities, it is

said, took part in the proceedings-giving the people strong assurances that New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore, would sustain South Carolina in her course.

From the speech of Mr. Theodore G. Barker we must re-produce a paragraph to show



The True Cause Cropping Out.

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that a strong feeling prevailed against the Union for its majority rule. Mr. B. said :"I am not one of those who can bear to scoff at the lost grandeur of this dying Republic. It has indeed been, a glorious triumph of free institutions. The diseases which have undermined it are common to all known human systems. Its death should be no discouragement to our continuing the grand experiment of self-government for ourselves. The great lessons of its short but brilliant history will not be lost to us or mankind. But remember, also, its warnings. Beware of the tendencies of a majority government-Remember the teachings of the great State-Rights Champion of Carolina, your own Calhoun. See to the protection of the minority; beware of the abuses of universal suffrage; beware of Democratic Absolutism! But be not discouraged. The torch of liberty, which was kindled by the great men of 1776 in the fires of the American Revolution, is already passing into the hands of the leaders of the Southern Revolution of 1560. The experience of near a century will teach them how to keep it bright forever."

A Congressman's Views.

On the evening of November 21st, Hon. John McQueen and others addressed the people of Columbia. Mr. McQueen said, among other things:

"In three short weeks, according to his humble judgment, the sovereignty of South Carolina will be again established. The people are determined to live free or die. In a journey of three thousand miles that the speaker had made through many Southern States, he had not met one man who was not ready to strike the blow at once. They say you are ready, and if you strike we will soon follow you. Had they not heard it said by the other Southern States that if South Carolina goes now, whether we unite with you or not, yet upon the shedding of the first drop of blood we will be with you in such numbers that there will not be soil enough in South Carolina to hold us?"

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with the men of the western part of the State. They would come up to the Convention with hearts resolved to do or die. The people of South Carolina had determined, right or wrong, to be free. The die was cast.

All these expressions, taken in connection with the resolves of the Legislature, leave no reason to doubt that the people 'were prepared for any contingency which might arise, either in separate secession, in a peaceful negotiation of terms of settlement with the authorities at Washington, or in a conflict with the Federal Government. It was, apparently, a matter of indifference what turn events might take-all appeared to feel that their mere act of secession was equivalent to the full accomplishment of the States independence.

Vigilance Associa


As a further feature of the attitude of the people throughout the State, we may mention the formation of "Vigilance Associations," whose objects will be inferred from the following resolutions adopted November 24th, by citizens of Lexington District :-

Resolved, That the officers shall be elected every four months by the members of the Association, and they are required to meet monthly, and transact all business that may be referred to them, having full power to decide all cases that may be brought before them, and their decisions shall be final and conclusive.

Resolved, That the President appoint as many captains of patrol as he may think necessary to carry out the object of the Association, each company of patrol to consist of not less than five men.

Resolved, That the patrol companies have the power to arrest all suspicious white persons, and bring them before the Executive Committee for trial.

Resolved, That each captain of patrol be required to call out his company for duty once a week, or as often as he may think necessary.

Resolved, That we pledge ourselves to put down all negro preachings, prayer-meetings, and all congregations of negroes that may be considered unlawful by the patrol companies.

Resolved. That the patrol companies have the power to correct and punish all slaves, free negroes, mulattoes, and mestizoes, as they may deem proper, as nothing herein justifies any patrol company to injure any person's property.

Resolved, That we pledge ourselves to give no general passes-each pass to specify where to go and when to return.

Resolved, That each and every captain of patrol be furnished with a copy of these resolutions, which they must show to all persons residing in their neighborhood, and request their signatures.

Resolved, That each captain of patrol be required to make a return to the President monthly, and report all persons who refuse to do duty.

Resolved, That we will prohibit all peddlers from passing through our section of the district, unless

they be legally authorized to do so by law.

according to the Constitution of this State, to exercise the office to which I have been appointed, and will, to the best of my abilities, discharge the duties thereof, and preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of this State and of the United States."

It was also provided, among other things, by the State Constitution, that the Governor "shall command the military forces of the State, except when they shall be called into

the service of the United States." As it was

Resolved, That any of the above resolutions may be changed at any regular meeting by a majority of impossible to alter that Constitution for the emergency, the entire obligations of the inResolved, That the officers do duty equal to any of strument were ignored as part of the scheme of the revolution. The Constitution could

two-thirds of the votes of the members present.

the members.

These Vigilant Associations and Commit-only be altered after the following process:tees were soon at work, and large numbers of Northern men and women-teachers, preachers, travellers, peddlers, &c.—were arraigned by them and compelled to leave the State. In a few cases violence was resorted to, in the way of tar and feathers, where an "abolitionist" was "spotted."

"No part of the Constitution shall be altered unless a bill to alter the same shall have been read three times in the House of Representatives and three times in the Senate, and agreed to by two-thirds of both branches of the whole representation; nei

ther shall any alteration take place until the bill, as agreed to, be published three months previous to a new election for members to the House of Represen

ne-tatives; and if the alteration proposed by the Legislature shall be agreed to in the first session by twothirds of the whole representation in both branches of the Legislature, after the same shall have been read three times, on three several days, in each House, then, and not otherwise, the same shall become a part of the Constitution."

From the planter owning six hundred groes, down to the "white trash," all seemed to feel the fire of enthusiasm in the cause of disunion-all alike were inspired with hatred of the North and contempt of the Federal compact. So far as we can know, not one solitary voice in South Carolina was raised in behalf of the Union, after the middle of November.

A Queer Case.

A strict constructionist may, very properly declare the whole act of secession illegal and [A very remarkable fea- unconstitutional under the laws of South Cature of this "popular up-rolina. As the Wheeling Convention afterrising" is the fact that the wards declared the entire vote of Virginia Legislature and the people in the action taken and the declaration of secession illegal, so any abrogated their own Constitution, and never for citizen or body of men in South Carolina can a moment regarded its provisions. Thus, declare the acts of their Legislature and Conevery officer serving the State was required vention entirely illegal under their State orto subscribe to the following oath:ganic law, and consistently might repudiate the entire proceedings.]

"I do swear (or affirm) that I am duly qualified

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