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The Occasion.

ONE of the few interest- | on the floor and in the galleries, were some ing ceremonials connected of the baffled conspirators, who, but for the with the installation of the premature explosion of their plot, and the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Depart-presence in the Capital of the peerless artilments of our Democratic Government, is that | lery that won the field of Buena Vista, would of counting the Electoral votes for President to-day have held high revel of riot, and, if and Vice-President of the United States. The need be, bloodshed, in the two Houses of occasion usually attracts a large concourse to Congress, and prevented, by force, the declathe Hall of the Lower House; and, although ration, according to the formula of the but a mere form of procedure, is invested Constitution, of the election of Lincoln and with a weighty interest, since that form is a Hamlin." requisite of legalization of the election, and a necessary preliminary to the inauguration of the Chief Magistrate of the Union.

The Prayer.

At twelve o'clock Speaker Pennington called the House to order, when the Chaplain, Reverend Thomas Stockton, pronounced an eloquent and impressive prayer, in which he said:

"Bless the outgoing Administration; may it close its labors in peace, without further violence, and without any stain of blood. And we pray for the incoming Administration; that Thy blessing may rest on the President-elect in his journey hitherward; that Thy good Providence may be around

The excitement reigning in the country rendered the occasion of February 13th, 1861, of more than ordinary interest. So many wild rumors had been afloat respecting the loss of the electoral votes-the refusal of the Vice-President to declare the vote-the withholding of the ballots of all the Southern States the use of violence to prevent the counting; and so many threats had been re-him day and night, guarding and guiding him at ported, of violence to Mr. Lincoln's person— then on his progress towards the Capital that the occasion referred to was invested with more than the usual importance. A description of the ceremonial, as well as of the special features of that particular event, will not be out of place at this point of our narrative.

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every step; and we pray that he may be peacefully and happily inaugurated, and afterwards, by pure, wise, and prudent counsels, that he may administer the Government in such a manner as that Thy name may be glorified, and the welfare of the people, in all their relations, be advanced, and that our example of civil and religious liberty be followed in all the world."

Advent of the

On motion of Washburne, of Illinois, a message was sent to the Senate, informing the Senators that the House was now waiting to receive them, so that, in a joint body, the Electoral votes for President and Vice-President might be opened, and the result announced.

After a short interval the Senators, preceded by their officers, were announced.

The members of the House immediately

rose and remained standing, till the Senators took seats in a semicircular range, in front of the Clerk's desk.

Vice-President Breckenridge was conducted to the right of the Speaker, and the Tellers, viz., Senator Trumbull and Representatives Washburne, of Illinois, and Phelps, of Missouri, took seats at the Clerk's desk. When order was restored, Vice-President Breckenridge arose and said: "We have assembled, pursuant to the Constitution, in order that the electoral votes may be counted, and the result declared, for President and Vice-President, for the term commencing on the 4th of March, 1861; and it is made my duty, under the Constitution, to open the certificates of election in the presence of the two Houses. And I now proceed to the performance of that duty.

Vice-President Breckenridge then opened the package containing the electoral vote of Maine, and handed it to the Tellers, when the certificate thereof was read, the Secretary of the Senate making a note thereof.

The electoral votes of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and New York were similarly disposed of, when Senator Douglas suggested, and no objection was made, that the formal part of the certificates and the names of the electors be omitted from the reading, which was done.

View from the Gallery.

The view from the Reporters' gallery, at this moment, was particularly pleasing. The galleries, "glittering with the gay," looked down upon the legislators below, to study the scene there presented, of the men who held the nation's fortune in their keeping. The person of each particular "great one" was pointed out, to be, for the moment, the object of opera-glass scrutiny and special remark. Men, in groups, canvassed the events of the day and of the moment with an earnestness quite in consonance with the solemn destiny which seemed to hang over all. Probably the country never before saw so many of its eminent sons gathered at the Capitol to devote their influence to their country's good. All were assembled in the gallery on the momentous occasion, and, for a brief period, were quite

as much the centre of observation as the Senators below.

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Life Photographs.

Of the personality of that assemblage of legislative wit and wisdom several of the reporters present gave graphic sketches. One, by the New York Herald correspondent, we may reproduce, as embodying a clear and admirably conceived picture of the men and their manners:-"Directly in front of us, and facing the Vice-President of the United States, whose duty it is to declare the result of the vote, is Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, the rival democratic candidate for the Presidency with the said Vice-President of the United States, John C. Breckenridge, of Kentucky. To the right of Judge Douglas— for he is at once the centre of all eyes as well as seated in the centre of the semicircle forming the area in front of the Speaker's chair-is the Premier of the incoming Administration, William H. Seward. To Douglas' left is the late candidate for Vice-President on the opposing Democratic ticket, General Joseph Lane. Beside Seward, to his right, is Senator Cameron, of Pennsylvania, and their familiar and easy manner towards each other is believed to be indicative of their warm and intimate relationpolitical as well as personal. Sweeping around a gentle curve, still to the right, facing the chair, are Senators Solomon Foot, of Vermont; J. R. Doolittle, of Wisconsin; J. W. Grimes, of Iowa; and snugly beside each other are Senators Daniel Clark, of New Hampshire, and Charles Sumner, of Massa chusetts, who is looking quietly on, appa rently indifferent, as if he felt that his hour of triumph had arrived in the election of a Republican President, and nothing more was at this time to be done; and just behind these twain we catch a glimpse of the bushy gray head of the unwearied Senator from Rhode Island, Hon. J. F. Simmons. We try to see who there are to his right, but the compact crowd prevents us, and we turn our glance to the left of our starting-pointJudge Douglas-and find in close proximity, calm as a June morning, the erudite Judge Collamer, Senator from Vermont; the brilliant-minded and silver-tongued Fessenden, of Maine; the industrious and able Powell,

Life Photographs.


of Kentucky; the clearheaded Fitch, of Indiana; the go-a-head and selfwilled Ten Eyck, of New Jersey; and beside him, in deep contemplation profoundly wrapt,' is the new Senator from 'away down East,' Morrill, of Maine. Hard by, looking as if he did not have more than his share of care on his mind, is K. S. Bingham, of Michigan. In the second circle of seats is to be noticed the patriotic and self-sacrificing, Union-loving and incessant and indefatigable laborer for his whole country, the venerable Senator from Kentucky, John J. Crittenden. And now to the right and left we have Senator Pearce, of Maryland; Senator Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, in confidential confab with the spirited and talented Etheridge, of the same State, member of the House. And then there is Senator Baker, of Oregon, looking a little more gray and bald than he did twenty-five years ago, when he and Col. John J. Hardin-good man-used to crack jokes together in Jacksonville, Ill. The worthy Senator is even looking a little more bald than when he first came to Washington this session, having probably worn a good deal of his hair off in rubbing through the Pacific Railroad bill, of which great project he is a firm and steadfast friend. That queer, rough, but intelligent-looking man with Baker is old Wade-old Senator Ben. Wade, of Ohio, who don't care a pinch of snuff whether people like what he says or not. He is a patriot who believes that he could pass the gates of St. Peter, whether he was entitled to or not, if he was only wrapped in the American flag. And near Wade are Senators Bigler, of Pennsylvania, and Bragg, of North Carolina. The former bears the same steady, careful, thoughtful front he usually presents. Near them are Anthony, of Rhode Island, and Foster, of Connecticut. And not far off you see the smooth face and marble brow of Senator Wilson, of Massachusetts, together with the honest features and sturdy frame of Chandler, of Michigan. And here you may be induced to inquire, 'Who is that burly-framed individual talking to Representative Spaulding, of New York? Do you mean him with the Atlas shoulders' 'No; he can't be an Atlas


Life Photographs.

man, I think-not the Albany Atlas, at any rate, for those men have not that amount of girth.' 'Ah! I see who you mean. That is PrestonKing, of New York, who has as much weight in the Senate, and probably will have as much in the next Administration, as "any other man." And then come before your vision the faces of Senators Rice, of Minnesota, and Latham, of California. They seem to take quite an interest in the proceedings as the electoral vote of the different States is declared. Near them sits Senator Hale, of New Hampshire, who is in a quiet way talking to Representative Hamilton, of Texas. They pause in their conversation to hear Representative Phelps declare the vote of Illinois. It goes for Lincoln. Douglas smiles faintly but good-humoredly, and twitches his cane closer between his legs. Lane, still sitting beside Douglas, does not want to hear how his State (Oregon) has gone-he has heard that before, probably, and proposes to leave. 'No, no, General,' says Douglas, laying his hand pleasantly on Lane, 'you have heard how my State has gone, now listen to how yours has.' Lane subsided into his seat again, and shortly after enjoyed the satisfaction of seeing the leading candidate on his ticket (Breckenridge) blush, when Senator Trumbull-who alternated with Mr. Phelps in announcing the vote-declared that even his State-his beloved Kentucky had gone against her favorite son. It is a somewhat remarkable fact that not one of the States to which two of the Presidential and one of the Vice-Presidential candidates belong, and who were present at the counting of the votes, cast its electoral vote for either. Douglas lost Illinois, Breckenridge Kentucky, and Lane Oregon.”

The reading of the vote of South Carolina was productive of good-humored excitement, and the comments which followed were anything but flattering to the little State with large aspirations.

The reading of all the

electoral votes having been The Electoral Vote. completed, the Tellers re

ported the result, which we give in tabular form, viz. :

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nois, having received a majority of the whole number of Electoral votes, is duly elected President of the United States, for the four years commencing on the 4th of March, 1861; and Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, having reTotal......39 ceived a majority of the whole number of Electoral votes, is duly elected Vice-President of the United States for the same term." He

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Michigan..... 6 Mississippi.... 7 DOUGLAS. Minnesota.... 4 N. Carolina...10 Missouri...... 9

New Jersey... 4 Texas......


N. Hampshire. 5 S. Carolina... 8 New Jersey.. 3 added, that the business for which the two Houses assembled having been completed, the Senate will now return to their own chamber.

New York.. 35

23 3


Total.... 12

Pennsylvania..27 For Lincoln and Hamlin. .180
Rhode Island. 4 For Breckenridge and Lane... 72
Vermont..... 5 For Bell and Everett......... 39
Wisconsin.... 5 For Douglas and Johnson..... 12

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The members of the House rose and remained standing until the Senators left the hall, when that imposing throng of five thousand spectators slowly and without excitement dispersed. A President of the United States had been constitutionally declared with that rather formal and not impressive ceremony. Was any ruler of a great nation ever before given the reins of power with less form?







The Programme.

THE journey of the President-elect to the seat of Government was one of those events of the time which, though an individual incident, still became historically significant, and formed one of the most exciting episodes of the month.

His preparations at first contemplated a speedy journey to the Capital; but, the feverish anxiety expressed by the people to see him on his way-the invitations of the State Legislatures of Indiana, Ohio, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, to visit their

The Programme.

respective Assemblies and to become their guest-the invitations of the Corporations of the leading cities on the route for him to tarry a day among them and receive their hospitalities, served to change the original purpose to that of a progress, by special trains and easy stages, from Illinois to Washington. The route, as finally arranged, embraced Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Columbus, Pittsburg, Cleveland, Buffalo, Albany, New York, Trenton, Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and Baltimore.



The Farewell.

At Indianapolis.

The President left Spring- | ing the Stars and Stripes, showed that a comfield on the morning of mon feeling moved all classes. And so the Monday, February 11th. train sped along, followed by the hearty He was greeted at the railway depot by a blessings of an honest people." large concourse of his fellow-citizens, whom At Indianapolis he was he addressed as follows: received by an immense concourse of people. Thirty-four guns announced his arrival. Governor Morton, on behalf of the citizens and Legislature of Indiana, welcomed him. A carriage and four white horses awaited his coming. The cortege presented a striking appearance the procession embracing both Houses of the Legislature, State officers, the municipal authorities, the military, firemen, and citizens. Arrived at the hotel, he thus addressed the multitude from a balcony: "FELLOW-CITIZENS OF THE STATE OF INDIANAam here to thank you much for this magnificent

"MY FRIENDS-No one not in my position can appreciate the sadness I feel at this parting. To this people I owe all that I am. Here I have lived more than a quarter of a century; here my children were born, and here one of them lies buried. I know not how soon I shall see you again. A duty devolves upon me which is, perhaps, greater than that which has devolved upon any other man since the days of Washington. He never would have succeeded except for the aid of Divine Providence, upon

which he at all times relied. I feel that I cannot succeed without the same Divine aid which sustained him. In the same Almighty Being I place my reliance for support, and I hope you, my friends, will all pray that I may receive that Divine assist-welcome, and still more for the very generous supance, without which I cannot succeed, but with which, success is certain. Again I bid you all an affectionate farewell."

port given by your State to that political cause which I think is the true and just cause of the whole country and the whole world. Solomon says, There is a time to keep silence;' and when men

wrangle by the month with no certainty that they mean the same thing while using the same word, it perhaps were as well if they would keep silence. The words coercion' and 'invasion' are much used in these days, and often with some temper and hot blood. Let us make sure, if we can, that we do not misunderstand the meaning of those who use them.

This touching address, it was reported, was given with a choked utterance. His auditors were moved to tears, and many responded, "We will pray for you." The train moved off amid tears and cheers. The President was accompanied by a select body of citizens and officers of the United States Army, who served as a body-guard and Com-Let us get the exact definitions of these words, not mittee of Arrangements through to Washington.

Multitudes were gathered at every railway station on the route. A delay of a few minutes was made at Decatur and Tolono, to give the crowds his greeting.

One of the reporters present wrote, of these country tributes: "In Macon County, where he lived in 1830, a large gathering of the old inhabitants, farmers for the most part, clad in the roughest garb, but showing that refinement of soul which belongs to this sturdy race of workers, were waiting at the station to greet their friend, and give him the encouraging word which strengthens the heart. At the small stations along the route one saw groups of saddle-horses, a score or more in number, who had brought their masters from long distances to pay their tribute of love and respect. At the small, uncouth schoolhouses, flags, rude in material, but all bear

from dictionaries, but from the men themselves, who

certainly deprecate the things they would represent by the use of the words. What, then, is coercion?'

What is invasion?' The marching of an army into South Carolina, without the consent of her people, and with hostile intent towards them, would be invasion. It would be coercion' if the South Carolinians were forced to submit. But if the United States should merely hold and retake its own forts and other property, and collect the duties on foreign importations, or even withhold the mails from places where they were habitually violated, would any or all these things be invasion' or 'coercion? Do our professed lovers of the Union, but who spitefully resolve that they will resist coercion and invasion, understand that such things as these on the part of the United States would be coercion or invasion of a State? If so, their idea of means to preserve the

object of their great affection would seem to be exceedingly thin and airy. If sick, the little pills of the homeopathist would be much too large for it to swallow. In their view, the Union, as a family relation, would seem to be no regular marriage, but

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