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MR. GARNETT'S SPEECH.

good enough, only wanted to be obeyed,* &c. A vote being obtained on Mr. Clark's substitute, it was adopted by 25 to 23-Messrs. Benjamin, Slidell and Wigfall not voting. Mr. Douglas afterwards recorded his vote against the substitute. The subject was then laid on the table, but, on a motion by Mr. Cameron, (of Pennsylvania), was resuscitated by a motion for reconsideration.

Resolutions.

In the House, WednesThe Ohio State day, Mr. Cox, (Dem.) of Ohio, presented the resolutions passed by the Legislature of Ohio, expressive of attachment to the Union, against secession, and declaring that the laws should be maintained against one State intermeddling with the affairs of another, &c. He said Ohio did not unanimously pass these resolutions, but has already begun the work of conciliation, giving a vital stab to the Personal Liberty bill; and he had been assured that the work will go on till every obnoxious act of legislation shall be removed from the statute book. Full justice will be done to all sections. He said that they held up the hands of the Administration in enforcing the laws and maintaining the Union, and that they were the sentiments of the people of Ohio. A member from Mississippi wishing to know the substance of the resolutions,† Mr. Cox answered :—

*A reporter present wrote of Mr. Simmons' speech:

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"Well, Sir, they indorsed the speech which I was making at the time they were passing the Senate. [Laughter.] Mr. Cox said that he would take the occasion to notice the perversion of his remarks and those of Mr. McClernand by gentlemen from Texas; the latter had predicated his attack on a remark made by a colleague, (Mr. Vallandigham,) as to carving out our way from the West with a sword. Every one knows that my colleague is against coercion; yet, his remarks were a basis of a speech as if he (Cox) had made unreasonable threats. What he said was, that the President was right. He acted on the defensive and against aggression, and he would be sustained. These resolutions sustain him."

Crawford, of Georgia, moved to lay them on the table. Sherman, of Ohio, called for their reading, when they were read. After some inquiries propounded by Southern members, and as frankly answered by Mr. Cox, the resolutions were ordered to be printed.

Mr. Garnett, of Virginia, having the floor, addressed the House. At the opening of the session, he said a committee had been appointed to consider the crisis that was upon the country, but it had been long since apparent that the Committee could do nothing effectual toward the end for which it had been formed. Their deliberations ap

Garnett's Speech.

peal by Congress, or they are adjudged to be unconstitutional by the proper tribunal. All attempts by State authority to nullify the Constitution and laws of Congress, or resist their execution are destructive of the wisest government in the world.

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"Fifth, The people of Ohio will fulfill in good faith all their obligations under the Constitution of the United States, according to their spirit.

Fourth, The people of Ohio are opposed to med"It was a feeling effort, beautiful in many of itsdling with the internal affairs of other States. parts, and powerful in all. Its eloquent peroration called forth marked and significant applause in the galleries. He enunciated one proposition worthy of a statesman. He declared with great emphasis that he was afraid to compromise, in the face of existing dangers, for fear of demoralizing the Government. No weightier remark has been uttered in the Senate since the opening of the session."

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"Sixth, Certain offensive laws in some of the States are rendered inefficient by the Constitution and laws of the Federal Government which guarantee to the citizens of each State the privileges and immunities of the several States. The several State Governments should repeal these offensive laws, and thus restore confidence between the States.

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Garnett's Speech.

must ultimately control the whole of the popular feeling in the North. It was impossible to adopt an opinion of this kind without making up the mind to carry what it professes. In other words, it was impossible for the Southern people to join the Republican party without a great revolution in the policy of that organization; and, therefore, the Republican must be a sectional party. In proof of this it was

only necessary to show that no portion of the people in the Southern States could join them without committing themselves to a radical change in their whole

peared as one of the strangest phenomena of these unsettled times. State after State had seceded, and yet nothing was done. Minute-guns continued to proclaim the separation of fresh States. The old ship of State was being broken up into fragments, and yet the representatives of the people stand idly by as spectators, with folded arms and helpless in the emergency. It was, therefore, time that they should seriously address them-social, moral and political system. Therefore, being selves to the dangers which surround the country, and, rising above the horizon of party prejudices, grapple with the responsibilities which, through Providence, had devolved upon them, and which must affect generations yet unborn. It was in such a spirit he addressed them. He proceeded :“Those who would trace their difficulties and the cause of their dangers to the 6th of November last, would be shallow thinkers and very superficial observers. That cause was not merely the election of Lincoln and Hamlin. Through the machinations of the Republican party, the interests and rights of one section of the country had been imminently endangered, and that section had been denounced by the other.

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Between those two sections there were wide differences of feeling and sentiment. They were dif ferent in institutions, and in some degree in race, and they were further separated by a geographical line. In times past the Anti-Slavery party had, after many viscissitudes, broken down; but upon its ruins a new party had arisen, which had burst beyond the last line of defence raised against the approaches of the former party. The new organization, under the name of Republicans, had gained a powerful majority of the Electoral votes in every Non-slaveholding State, with the exception of gallant little New Jersey. Since the organization of the AntiSlavery party, every Presidential election had shown on their part a steady growth, until now they have

gained possession of all the Northern States, in every department of the States' Government, and the control of the House of Representatives, beside a probable majority in the Senate. The life and sustaining principle of this organization was to be found embodied in one idea-hatred to Slavery. Their great party leader, Mr. Seward, said that the secret of their success lay in one idea-the equality of all men. Again, Lincoln declared that the limitation of Slavery was their avowed object, and confining it, so that all men might hope for its ultimate extinction. The emphatically declared sentiment of the party was, that Slavery was a social, moral and political evil. This was the doctrine of the men who

sectional and the stronger party, they will control the Government, to the detriment of the weaker Southern section. While the stronger would engross to themselves all the emoluments of office, and enjoy the patronage of Government, the South would have to pay the taxes, help to fight the battles and extend the boundaries of the Confederacy. Thus the South would be isolated and left to gradual decay, without

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hope of redemption. Thus the Federal patronage
and power, and all the moral and political influence
of the Government would be brought to bear against
Southern institutions, to the final overthrow of Sla-
* The South could no longer
very.
afford to hold their slaves at the mercy of the North,
and therefore they were compelled to seek safety
and honor out of the Union. If they were to remain
in the Union the South must be invested with the
power of an absolute veto in every department of
from the North. The crisis was now upon them, ard
the Government. They no longer expected justice

each must meet it as best they might.

He then adverted to the position of Virginia—that all her sympathies and interests were with the South.* That she, too, would follow the Seceded States was not a matter of doubt. Coercion, he said, would be the death blow to all hopes of a reconstruction. If a blockade of rebellious ports was attempted, England and France would both resist, as they must have cotton. So must New Eng

* Virginia's almost only product of sale has, for years, been slaves. She raised some tobacco and a little grain for the market; but, the raising of negroes for the Southern market was her chief source of revenue. The Richmond Inquirer, in arguing the question of Virginia's interest, said her revenue was four millions per year from the sale of negroes— * what commerce with the North could be a substitute for that traffic in "chattels?" The oldest families in the State-the true F.F.V.'s-derived their chief revenue from their annual sales of "black stock," which they bred for the market just as a Kentuckian bred his horses and hogs.

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land. As for an invasion of the South, it
would be at the cost of rivers of blood.
Peaceful separation was asked for, and ex-
pected. If it was denied let the responsibility
rest where it belonged-upon a persecuting,
wicked, and revengeful North.

Gurley's Reply.

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strongest. Did Southern gentlemen expect that the people of the North-west would fold their hands with indifference and see their steamboats fired into and their merchants driven home? How long was the Northwest to continue peaceful under this state of things? If a bill should be passed giving the President authority to sustain the National Government, you could have a hundred thousand men from the West. Then let the worst come! The people of Ohio have, through their Legislature, recently, unanimously passed resolutions in favor of maintaining the Government. [See page 233.]

There was no mistaking the tone and spirit of this speech. It was threatening, but not defiant-it breathed the spirit of the great North-west. Southern members felt more really disconcerted at its delivery, than at any speech yet pronounced on the Republican side. The South had courted force-this was the reply that ten millions in the Free States, west of the Alleghanies, had to make.

Holman's and Morris'
Speeches.

Mr. Gurley was followed by two Democrats, Messrs. Holman, of Ind., and Morris, of Ill., both of whom were firm in their stand against the revolution. Mr. Holman said no person would question the right of

Mr. Gurley, (Rep.,) of Ohio, replied, showing that the South had, for years, persecuted Northern citizens, and already had inaugurated the Civil War-she was at once the aggressor and the enemy of all peace. He adverted to the seizure of forts, arsenals, and public property in the South-the menacing attitude of the Seceding States, and, last in the record of outrages, to the firing upon a United States vessel-an act which, if committed by any power on the earth, would have been considered, in itself, a declaration of war. What a record to come before the world with and plead immunity from "persecution!" What a stultification of mo- | ral sensibilities did it argue, when the assassins could come forward and prate of peacecould charge the North with having inaugurated the war! For years the South had insulted the North, and had treated its citizens as a conquered and inferior people. Merchants of Cincinnati have been ordered home from Louisiana for no other reason than up-revolution for intolerable oppressions, but holding a Presidential candidate of their own choice. We should stop this work of traitors, and vindicate the laws, which must prevail, and the Government must put down traitors by its strong arm. Forbearance has ceased to be a virtue. He characterized the Southern movement as cold-blooded rebellion. There was no cause for rebellion in a Government where people make and control it. Rebellion is a leap in the dark; a high crime; wild anarchy; and, if successful, must end in civil war, and consequent desolation. He suggested to the Secessionists, would it be an act of prudence for them to stand against the ten millions of freemen of the West, who would be united as a man if attempts were made to interrupt the navigation of the Mississippi. The now peaceful foundations of New Orleans would become the bed of a lake where fishes would live instead of men. Should the Union be broken up there would be war, and the test will be as to who is the

those did not exist. Therefore, if the Government was overturned, it would be without justification or excuse. The people whom he represented would not consent that the Union should be destroyed. They would rally around it. He could not, however, despair of the Republic, and trusted that it would continue to endure.

Mr. Morris pronounced the Secession movement to be treason against the Constitution, and declared, in strong language, that the sooner resistance was offered to disunion, the better for the country. Every true patriot demands it. He then, in very severe terms, arraigned the President, charging upon him the authorship of the calamities which threatened to overwhelm the country. The last, last scene in the Lecompton drama has been played out, producing on one hand the overthrow of the Democratic party, and on the other the destruction of the Government. Who would have supposed that Mr. Buchanan,

Thomas' Speech.

on his return from abroad, would have be- | Book of Fate, to pronounce against the wrong, come the instrument of the nation's ruin. the treason, the fatal madness of the disuniNero fiddled while Rome was burning, and onists and their vast conspiracy. Mr. Buchanan, while the whole Republic is In the House, Thursday, falling into ruin, complacently comes forward Mr. Thomas, of Tenn., spoke and says he is not responsible for it. But he for himself and his consti(Mr. Morris) said with the whole country, as tuents. He assumed that Lincoln was elected Nathan said to David, "Thou art the man." because of his hostility to Slavery that he The blackness of darkness will overshadow was elected not to govern the North but the Mr. Buchanan's memory. If there were needed South, which had no more to do with his any other inscription on his tomb it should election than it had with that of the Emperor be, "God have mercy on him." [A voice of France. He argued the rights of the South from the Republican side-" Amen!"] He in the Territories which their cash and blood referred to his former remarks, to show that helped to secure. Why parcel out these lands, his predictions have been realized respecting by Homestead bills, to foreigners, many of the breaking down of the Democratic party whom cannot speak the English language, by an odious Administration. The President | and yet deny the South entrance to that comhad descended from his high position to ma- mon domain? Having been denied its rights liciously operate against Mr. Douglas. It had under the Constitution, the South had exer been said by outsiders that Buchanan is the cised only its "inalienable rights" of procelast of the constitutional Presidents, but it dure in leaving the Union and its tyranny. might, with more truth, be asserted that he Would coercion be attempted? It would reis the first of constitutional tyrants and usurp- sult in the solid unity of every Slave State ers. The President had virtually surrendered | against the mad act. The South would never the Government to the Secessionists, who be conquered nor turned from her course. gained his ear. He traveled with them to the verge of dissolution, but, refusing to take the leap, they turn their keen blades against him, and he now cries for help. While he preaches like a patriot, his acts are like those of a traitor. He would say to him, "Deceitful man, be sure that your sins will find you out." In the course of his remarks, he said that the Administration lent itself to the Disunionists, who, emboldened by his course, destroyed the Democratic party. The Union would have been in safety if Douglas had been elected President. The Southern people are alone to blame for the defeat of Democracy, and the election of Lincoln. The object to be attained in this was the dismemberment of the Union.

These words were uttered in a spirit of fervor which marked a deep and rankling feeling, and, coming from the lips of a leading Douglas man, produced a sensation in Democratic circles. They confirmed the evident tendency of a consolidation of all parties in the North in that of one whose only rallying cry should be the Union and the Constitution. Specch after speech came from the Democrats, like the turning of leaves in the

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Sickles' Speech.

Mr. Sickles, (Dem.,) of N. Y., followed. He took a strong stand against coercion. They could not, under any provision of the Contitution, enforce the laws against a seceding State. The law was applicable to individuals, and to enforce the law against the individual you must have judges and juries, and you must proceed against him according to the Constitution in the State where the crime was committed. It was clear, therefore, that they could not enforce the law against an individual, for no jury in South Carolina would bring in a verdict of guilty upon any indictment found at this juncture and under present circumstances. It was true, there was a general demand for the enforcement of the laws, but however true as an abstraction, however necessary at all times and imperative it might be on the Government to enforce them, it was now impracticable and impossible, as well as wholly unsuited to the occasion. The question then was, what was the duty of the Administration and of Congress ? It was one of pacification and reconstruction; a duty which must undoubtedly be committed

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MR. ASHLEY'S

SPEECH.

237

to the next Administration, and the country | of that imperial city are a unit for the Union. must therefore await an appeal to the peo-—Mr. S. fully conceded the property right ple. But what, in the meantime, is to be of a Slaveholder to his slave, and granted done? As yet no practical remedy had been the South the right to bear slaves to the Terdevised, and State after State was going out ritories. He, in fact, took no position against of the Union. All the votes taken in the dif- the South, except upon the sole issue of the ferent Crisis' Committees tended to strengthen property of the Federal Government and its the indication that a remedy from these just claims to its national possessions. These, sources is out of the question. The domi- he assumed, must be retained-if the South nant party have shown an indisposition to seized them they must be defended or remake those concessions indispensible to a re- taken at all hazards. Upon the South alone union. Their bounden duty, then, was to rested the responsibility, if the property preserve the status quo, and to preserve the taken was not restored. existing state of things as nearly as possible -to avoid the employment of coercion. But, to do this, it was essentially necessary to their policy that a like purpose and spirit should animate their Southern friends. It would not do for the South to protest against coercion, while at the same time they seized the arms, arsenals, fortresses, navy-yards, and ships that come within their reach and power. To act thus was not and could never be peaceable secession-that would not be preserving the status quo. It was a declaration of war; and when sovereign States make war they could not cry peace, nor call for protection against coercion.

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Ashley's Speech.

Mr. Ashley, (Rep.) of Ohio, charged that the conspirators for the overthrow of the Government had found cooperation from those connected with the administration. If the people knew what had been going on for the last four years in every department of the Government, there would have been such an expression at the ballot-box as would have effectually silenced the allies of the South living in the North. The party who had violated the Missouri and other compromises, now ask, as a condition of their remaining in the Union, such amendments to the Constitu *tion as will give a finality to the Slavery question. The Republican party ought to die if they engraft on that instrument the recognition of property in man! That Slavery shall be extended and made perpetual is the test demanded. To meet the secession movements, he would abolish all the ports of entry where the laws are now obstructed, proclaim a blockade in the ports of the rebellious States, and let thoughtless men take the consequences of their own illegal acts. Mr. Lincoln will be inaugurated in Washington, and this will remain the seat of Government so long as there can be found States loyal to the principles on which the Government was founded. If the conspirators succeed, Washington will not be the capital. If the President had acted with firmness, these troubles would not exist. He will retire from his office utterly disgraced. The speaker claimed to represent all of North-western Ohio when he said that his people would demand the recovery of all the stolen property, and the restoration of the authority of the General Government in all its rightful and constitu

Whatever may be the issue of eventswhether, happily, by conciliation and justice to the South, we may find an honorable and fraternal solution of our difficulties; or whether, unhappily, we blindly drift into alienation, war, and irrevocable separation-the great commercial interests of this country require, the destiny of American civilization demands, that the political and territorial control of this continent, from the mouth of the Hudson to the mouth of the Mississippi, from the Atlantic to the Pacific seas, shall remain where it now stands-in the hands of the Government of the United States. In all the partisan issues between the South and the Republican party, the people of the City of New York are with the South; but when the South makes an untenable issue with our country, when the flag of the Union is insulted, when the fortified places provided for the common defense are assaulted and seized, when the South abandons its Northern allies for English and French cooperation, then the loyal and patriotic population

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