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The London Times.
from the Federal Union, is by no means so lively and spiritstirring a composition as a little more literary skill might, perhaps, have made it. Of course it would not be in human nature-that is, American human nature-to commence any great public document without a proper fling at the old mother country, from whose tyranny the States emancipated themselves, in order to enjoy, from their mutual justice and forbearance, that perpetual concord and never-ending union and happiness which they sought for in vain from a society corrupted by the vices of monarchy, aristocracy and feudality, and a decrepit civilization. At this time were established, we are told, the right of a State to govern itself, and the right of the people to abolish a Government when it ceases to accomplish the ends for which it was instituted. We know not what histories are allowed to pass through the charmed circle which girdles the domestic institutions of South Carolina, or how much a man is allowed to know of the history of the world, in those fortunate regions, without being constituted thereby an Abolitionist, exposed to the halter and the tar barrel. should have thought that the right of a nation to govern itself was fully established by the English Revolution, and the right of a people to get rid of a Government which did not accomplish the ends of its institution, by the revolt of the United Netherlands and Spain.-January 19th."
"If every State is to claim to be the judge of its own grievances, if it is to act without concert and without appeal, and if, whenever it believes that Government does not do all that is required of it, or that its allies fall short of their obliga
tions, it is at liberty to break up the Union, how is it possible that the Union can be otherwise than transitory? It is quite true, as South Carolina says, that fourteen States of the Union have, in violation of one article of the Constitution, passed laws, the legality of which is something more than doubtful, to prevent the recovery, by their masters, of fugitive slaves. But this could scarcely be regarded of itself as a sufficient ground for the dissolution of the Government of the United States, and that it is not sufficient, is shown by the conduct of South Carolina herself, which has not thought it a sufficient ground heretofore for secession from the Union. With this single exception, nothing can be conceived more frivolous than the grounds of this manifesto."January 19th.
"On his (Lincoln's) accession, says the manifesto, it has been announced that the South shall be excluded from the common Territory, that the judicial tribunal shall be made sectional, and that war shall be made against Slavery until it ceases from the United States. It is impossible to read the speeches
and writings which circulate in the North, where the freedom of discussion still exists, which the South has exchanged for its favorite domestic institution," without being aware of the utter falsehood of these statements. The South is not to be excluded from the Territories, unless the Southrons consider themselves in the light, not of slaveholders, but of slaves. It is not sought to render the Supreme Court of the United States sectional, but to rescue it from the disgrace of being packed with judges placed there for the advocacy and promotion of Slavery, and we have not been able to discover a vestige even in the most excited speeches in an excited time of any intention, expressed or insinuated, to make war on the institution of Slavery.
"But what matters all this? Not a single observation that we have ventured to make could be made in the Republic of South Carolina, thus auspiciously taking her place among the nations of the world. Without law, without justice, without delay, she is treading in the path that leads to the downfall of nations and the misery of families. The hollowness of her cause is seen beneath all the pomp of her labored denunciation, and surely to her, if to any community of modern days, may be applied the words of the Hebrew Prophet, a wonderful and horrible thing is committed in the land. The Prophets prophesy falsely, and my people love to have it so."Jan. 19th.
We may say here, en passent, that the Times, if it afterwards treated the movement in the Free States captiously-if its scarcely concealed desire for a breaking up of this Government, led it a course of seemingly studied fault-finding, it did not much "aid and comfort" to the movement for a Slave Confederation, except its general depreciation of the North, and a denial of its belligerent rights can be so construed.
The Galway (Ireland)
"The State of South Carolina has ignored its connection with the American Union. It has deliberately divorced itself from those federative ties which bound together a great nation. Two conse quences must follow-either they will return to their proper position by some agreement or concession on both sides, or a civil war must follow in order to compel them. The Carolinians assert their right to this extreme step by laying before the country the fact that the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, have enacted laws for the non-delivery up of escaped slaves, and thus have violated their constitutional obligations.
"Viewing the question in the light they do, it is
OPINIONS OF THE
set down as a violation of the laws of property! to retain any of the States within the Union. The property in man, in woman, and in children!--pro- slightest consideration will show that the assertion perty in men-stealers and in bloodhounds, which are of independence on the part of any one State can the ferocious police to hunt escaping victims! They never be conceded; indeed, any such step must also deny the right of opinion, in morals or in prac-amount to revolution. But, admitting this, it may tice, of the Northern States to encourage slaves to escape from chains and bondage! Why, this is an attempt to uproot the first principles of humanity, and to put the rights of flesh and blood, and Christianity, under the feet of a Cottonocracy more vile than the refined vultures of the French Revolution, who stirred up at last the stagnant puddle in the veins of the victims of the Court and aristocracy of that period.
very well be that the non-Seceding States consider it more judicious to forego their strict rights, and so, practically, to acquiesce in the fact of Secession." |—January 10th.
"Apart from this perplexing question, we see no reason for anticipating that a severance
The London Econo. mist.
of the Union, once effected peaceably, and without catastrophe, will be, in any way, injurious to Great "The policy of the slaveowners is to compel the Britain. On the contrary, we are not sure that it opponents of that fearful creed to a cooperation with may not indirectly be rather beneficial than otherthem, in making all America an immense field for wise. In the first place, we may expect that AmerSlavery!-or elseThis is a wild and prepos- ica will be somewhat less aggressive, less insolent, terous fancy, and the attempt to enforce it by sepa-aud less irritable than she has been. Instead of one ration will only lead to results most disastrous to the vast State, acting on every foreign question cum toto States who shall proceed to that extremity. Under the present Anti-Slavery President, it could only end in compulsion, and perhaps the sweeping away of the whole infernal system from the country, which has brought on it the scorn and derision of mankind. The entire public opinion of Europe is against American Slavery. It was whispered that England, for her own cupidity, might be inclined to favor the Cotton States, and that she was sounded on that head. But England, with all her faults, would be incapable of such a diabolical connection. The people of England detest Slavery; and the Parliament of England showed the animus of the country in the case of the West Indies."-January 16th.
The London Daily
corpore regni, we shall have two, with different objects and interests, and by no means always disposed to act in concert, or in cordiality. Instead of one, showing an encroaching and somewhat bullying front to the rest of the world, we shall have two, showing something of the same front to each other. Each will be more occupied with its immediate neighbor, and therefore less inclined to pick quarrels with more distant nations. Then, too, for some time at least, that inordinate, though most natural sense of unrivalled prosperity and power, which swelled so flatulently and disturbingly in the breast of every citizen of the great trans-Atlantic Republic, will receive a salutary check. Their demeanor is "Up to the present time the likely to become somewhat humbler and more raFederal Government, though tional, and it will, therefore, be easier to maintain it has been called upon to de- amicable and tranquil relations with them than it has clare its right to stop secession, has never acted upon been. In place, too, of Europe being obliged to the declaration. The question now is, whether it watch and thwart their annexing tendencies, the two will act upon it at the present crisis, or whether the Federations will probably exercise this sort of moral predictions of M. de Tocqueville, in his admirable police over each other. Neither of them will look work, will be realized. 'It appears to me,' he says, with much complacence on the annexation of States 'unquestionable that if any portion of the United or Territories which will add power and dominion States seriously desired to separate itself from the to the other, and so disturb their relative equilibother States, they would not be able-nor, indeed, rium. Unprincipled and reckless Southerners, like would they attempt to prevent it; and that the Mr. Buchanan, may talk of seizing on Mexico, Nicapresent Union will only last as long as the States ragua, and Cuba; unprincipled and inflated Northwhich compose it choose to continue members of erners, like Mr. Seward, may talk of seizing on Canthe Confederation. If this point be admitted, the ada; but there will be some hope that we may question becomes less difficult, and our object leave them to each other's mutual control, and is not to inquire whether the States of the exist- smile at the villainous cupidities of both. With the ing Union are capable of separating, but whether Northern Federation, too, we may look to maintainthey will choose to remain united.' It must not ing more cordial relations than we have often herebe imagined that this opinion of M. de Tocque-tofore been able to do; not only will the embarrassville implies any doubt as to the right of the Federal ing question of Slavery, which has caused so much Government to interfere, by force of arms, in order | righteous indignation on our side, and so much bitter
Mr. Faulkener." The States will form one common Government, as heretofore. There is excitement in portions of the Confederacy, and there are indications of extreme measures being adopted by one or two of the States. But we are familiar with the excitement, as we are with the vigor which belong to the institutions of a free people. We have already more than once passed through commotions which would have shattered into fragments any other Government on earth, and this fact justifies the inference that the strength of the Union will now be found equal to the strain upon it."
resentment and irritation on theirs, be forever re- | States have separated from the General Govern. moved from between us; but the immediate and ment." marked improvement which we may look for in the tone and working, if not in the form of the institutions, of the North, when Southern Democracy, complicated as it has been with Slavery, shall have ceased to poison and degrade them, can scarcely fail to bring them more into harmony with English feeling, because to command more of English confidence and respect. The more they civilize (they must pardon us the word, for assuredly they are getting rid of a barbarising element), the more friendly and cordial shall we inevitably grow." At the usual New-Year'sday reception of the Emperor Napoleon, our minister, Mr. Faulkener, was interrogated by the Emperor. The conversation was thus reported: Emperor." What is the latest news you have from the United States. Not so alarming, I trust, as the papers represent it?"
The Emperor Napoleon's Words.
Mr. Faulkener.—“ Like most nations, Sire, we have our troubles, which have lost none of their coloring as described in the European press."
Emperor." I hope it is not true that any of the
Emperor." I sincerely hope it may be so; and that you may long continue a united and prosperous people."
This important declaration was here construed to mean sympathy for the Government, to which French interests are so closely allied. The United States are the counterpoise, in the balance of nations, to England, and the French are not solicitous that that counterpoise should be broken. Napoleon's words were wise while they were kind.
IN the Senate, Monday, Slavery, in places under its exclusive jurisdic Bigler's Propositions. January 14th, Mr. Bigler tion, and to make the United States pay for (Dem.) of Pennsylvania, in- fugitive slaves. These clauses he proposed troduced resolutions calling upon the people to make perpetual, never to be amended or of the United States to hold an election striken out. They embodied the substance throughout the country, on February 12th, of the Crittenden resolutions, but added the and vote for the acceptance and rejection of amendments proposed to be engrafted peramendments to the Constitution, said amend-petually on the Constitution. After some ments proposing to divide all present and remarks upon its reference to a committee, future Territory between Freedom and Slavery against which Mr. Bigler protested, the matby a line on the parallel of 36 deg. 30 min.; ter was laid over. to permit Slavery to extend South of that Mr. Grimes, of Iowa, introduced a resolu line, and to protect it there by constitutional tion requesting the President to communicate sanctions. The resolutions also proposed to any information he may have regarding at deprive Congress of the power to abolish, tempts made, or contemplated, by any large
THE ENGLISH RESOLVE.
body of men to interfere with the free navi- | people-these States being parties to the gation of the Mississippi, and what efforts Union-was that they added to the insult of have been made to suppress the same. This the passage of Personal Liberty bills, Underresolution referred to the erection of a battery ground Railroad operations, not only in the on the banks of the Mississippi River, at Border States, but the entire South. He Vicksburg, by order of the authorities of knew gentlemen having lost thousands of Mississippi, which proposed to call every boat dollars worth of negroes who fear to attempt passing down the river to “land and give an to recover them. Kentucky loses $200,000 account of herself"-amounting to a virtual annually in slaves stolen and enticed away. blockading of the river. The resolution was Mr. Lincoln is the first man elected to the laid over. office of President who announced the doc
Mr. Brown, of Mississippi, speaking for himself and his colleague, Mr. Davis, announced their withdrawal from the Senate,
in view of the late action of their State.
Mr. Mason, of Va., tried to bring forward his resolutions of inquiry, calling upon the Secretary of War to communicate informa
tion of reenforcements sent to Charleston
harbor and other defences. The Crittenden resolutions were then called, and were finally set for consideration on Tuesday.
Mr. Polk's Views.
trine of the irrepressible conflict. This house, built by our forefathers, now becomes a house divided against itself. These remarks scarcely attracted notice. The palpable misstatements in regard to Kentucky's loss, and the usual exaggeration regarding Northern sentiment, elicited no catechising from the Republicans.
The 'English' Resolve.
able compromise, involving no sacrifice to any party or section which should not promptly be made for the sake of the inestimable blessings of peace and a united country, hereby instruct the Committee of Thirty-three, heretofore appointed by this House, to report without delay the necessary measures to carry that plan into practical effect."
In the House, Monday, Mr. English (Dem.) of Indiana, introduced, or rather "read for information," the following resolution : "Resolved, That the present alarming condition of the counMr. Polk, (Dem.) of Mo., addressed the try imperatively demands that Senate, basing his remarks on Mr. Hunter's Congress should take immediate steps to preserve resolution to withdraw all Federal forces the peace and maintain the Union, by removing, as from Seceded States. His sentiments were far as possible, all causes of sectional irritation and of the usual extreme Southern tone. The unut- division, and, to that end, patriotism should prompt terable crime of an Anti-a cheerful surrender of all partizan prejudices and Slavery triumph had been minor differences of opinion; and this House, believing the plan of adjustment proposed by the achieved. The canvas is Honorable John J. Crittenden, in the Senate, Denow over, and Abolitionism has brought, as cember 18th, 1860, would be an equitable and favorits first offering, astonishment and regret. From a state of peace the sudden change to a state of sectional antagonism had almost immediately followed. An unnatural animosity exists between sections only separated by a geographical line, and a universal panic prevails throughout the country. The public and private credit are prostrate., Of the Government loan of five millions, only half was taken, and that at usurious rates of interest. Commerce is curtailed, trade is checked, industry is paralyzed, artisans and mechanics are idle, manufactures are stopped, and the operatives discharged. The consequence is want and starvation. The Union is tottering and ready to fall. Four pillars have already gone, one being of the original thirteen. The admission of California disturbed the equilibrium between the Slaveholding and NonSlaveholding States. One cause of complaint against the action of certain States and their
It being objected to by the Republicans, Mr. English said, at the proper time he should move to suspend the rules. He tried to get it before the House a few hours later, by a motion for the previous question, but the House decided against it. It was killed.
Mr. Maynard, of Tennessee, introduced and had adopted, a resolution instructing a select Committee on the President's Special Message, to consider that portion which recommended to a vote of the people the questions at issue between the two sections, and that the Committee, at an early day, report thereon a bill or joint resolution.
Mr. Holman, (Democrat), | tain recognized.
a State to withdraw from its Federal re-
He referred to the decisions of the Supreme Court in support of this view, saying, the unity of the American people pervaded the Convention which framed the Constitution. Any mode of withdrawing from the Union, excepting by a Convention, would be revolutionary. The Government being sovereign, its first duty is to preserve itself; and, being sovereign, where is the power to dissolve it? He argued, it would be unjust, unsafe and inexpedient for some States to secede from the others, for with the possession of the Southern forts and the aid of foreign powers, they would be capable of inflicting great wrongs upon the commerce of the adhering State. He spoke of the Mississippi valley as a geographical unity, which the people of the great North-west could not consent to share with a foreign power. He had heard much about coercion. But was it coercion for us to do what we have sworn to do; namely, uphold the Constitution and the laws, and stay the lawless, violent hand that would tear down the Government? Were we to be required to submit to State spoliations? No? Such submission would be disgraceful, utter imbecility. But if we must submit let it be proclaimed that our system of Government is a splendid failure. In the course of his remarks he earnestly appealed to the Northern States to remove the grievances which are complained of. He believed the Northern States would all do so when the sober second thought of When the the citizens had time to act. anti-Slavery agitation commenced in the North, he could not say that the South were blameless. The Garrisons and the Philipses find their counterpart in the Rhetts and Yanceys. Such men, in fact, formed the two great sectional parties. In conclusion he appealed to all Conservative men to rally in favor of the integrity of the Constitution, merge the partizan in the patriot, and make a generous sacrifice on the altar of their country, for the general welfare and happiness of all.
Another significant step was a motion, by Mr. Stanton, (Rep.,) of Ohio, to make the special order for Tuesday the bill for organizing and disciplining the militia of the District of Columbia. Objected to by the Southern side, and lost by one majority on a motion to suspend the rules. The Army appropriation bill then came up for consideration in Committee of the Whole on the State of the Union. Speeches were made by McClernand, (Dem.,) of Illinois, and Cox, (Dem.,) of Ohio, both looking to a vigorous policy to sustain the Union. Mr. McClernand assumed that when danger could not be averted it was then the point of wisdom to meet it-to endeavor to overthow it. In this spirit he proposed to deal with the question of Secession now upon us. He denied the right of any State to secede from the Union, and deprecated the consequences of any such assumed right, as a measure of revolution which must A dispatch from Washington to the Assonecessarily, in the present case, embroil the ciated Press said, in regard to this speech: country in a sanguinary and wasteful war. In "The speech of Mr. McClernand, of Illinois, his legal argument he said the idea of nation- in its geographical, commercial and national ality is as old as the Rovolution itself, that significance, is producing quite a sensation that war was a national measure. The treaty here. It is rallying the Union feeling." Mr. of 1783 was made as a nation which Great Bri- | Corwin, from the Committee of Thirty-three