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ing "in the State from which the fugitive escaped." This was carried, and then the whole proposition was voted down by the Democrats, all the Republicans sustaining it.

This was lost as follows:

"YEAS.-Messrs. Grimes, Seward, Wade, Doolittle, Collamer, and Crittenden--6.

"NAYS.-Messrs. Powell, Hunter, Toombs, Douglas, Davis, Bigler, and Rice-7."

The Southern men voted adversely upon the ground that, though it was not openly assigned, this proposition would affect their laws imprisoning colored seamen.

It will be seen that the extremists would not sustain the propositions intended to meet the very cases they had specifically charged against the North.

Mr. Toombs' resolutions were then called up, and four of them voted upon, Mr. Doug las refusing to go upon the record. They were then postponed till Wednesday, Mr. Toombs and the ultras resisting any delay, for the transparent object of using the action of the Committee to operate upon the pending elections for the Southern Conventions. Mr. Davis offered the following resolutions, which went over with the others : “That it shall be declared by amendment of the Constitution that property in Slaves, recognized as such by the local law of any of the States of the Union, shall stand on the same footing in all Consti

tutional and Federal relations as any other species of property so recognized; and, like other property, shall not be subject to be divested or impaired by the local law of any other State, either in escape thereto, or by the transit or sojourn of the owner therein. And in no case whatever shall such property be subject to be divested or impaired by any legislative act of the United States, or any of the Territories thereof."

Toombs and Davis resolutions. SubsequentOn Wednesday the Committee rejected the ly, Mr. Seward offered the following on behalf of the Republican members:

"Resolved, That under the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution, Congress should pass an efficient law for the punishment of all persons engaged in the armed invasion of any State from another by combinations of individuals, and trial and conviction in the State and District where punishing all persons in complicity therewith on their acts of complicity were committed in the Fed

eral Courts."

Mr. Toombs proposed to amend by including "insurrections," and Mr. Douglas, by inserting his sedition law of last session, after which the resolution was voted down.

Mr. Douglas explained that he declined voting on the Toombs and Davis resolutions, on Monday, because he had presented amendments to the Constitution, in due form, covering the same points.



Major Anderson's

true position.

THE evacuation of Fort Moultrie, by Major Anderson, on the night of Dec. 26th, quite took the country by surprise. His great peril the steady refusal of the President to allow the dispatch of reinforcements -excited the most painful apprehensions throughout the entire North for his safety. An occasional note like the following, dated December 24th, came from the gallant commander to intensify the feeling in his behalf:

"When I inform you that my garrison consists of only sixty effective men, and that we are in a very

indifferent work, the walls of which are only about fourteen feet high, and that we have, within one bundred and sixty yards of our walls, sand hills which command our work, and which afford admirable sites for batteries, and the finest covers for sharp-shooters, and that beside this, there are numerous houses, some of them within pistol-shot, you will at once see

that, if attacked in force, headed by any one but

a simpleton, there is scarce a possibility of our being able to hold out long enough to enable our friends

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The desertion of this untenable post for the In the mutterings of an excited populace— fastness of Fort Sumter, which lay like a vast in the gathering of soldiery-in the resolution monster on the bosom of the waters far out of inquiry [see page 112], Major Anderson in the harbor, was a step certainly never con- detected the evidence of an early occupation templated by the South Carolina authorities of Fort Sumter, if not of an actual assault nor by the President. Anderson's last instruc- upon Fort Moultrie. If Sumter were occutions from the War Depart-pied by an enemy, Moultrie would not be ment as averred by the tenable for five hours. It was, in fact, the President in his correspon- key to the harbor, which, if properly garrisdence with the South Carolina Commissioners oned, would defy the assault of any force for -were as follows: months. Noting carefully the daily, almost

Anderson's last In


"Verbal instructions to Major Anderson, First Ar- hourly, gathering strength of the revolutiontillery, commanding Fort Moultrie, S. C." “You are aware of the great anxiety of the Secretary of War that a collision of the troops with the people of this State shall be avoided, and of his studied determination to pursue a course with reference to the military force and forts of this harbor, which shall guard against such a collision. He has, therefore, carefully abstained from increasing the force at this point, or taking any measures which might add to the present excited state of the public mind, or which would throw any doubt on the confidence he feels that South Carolina will not attempt by violence to obtain possession of the public works,

ists; seeing, upon all sides, unconcealed preparations for large military movements; looking wistfully, but in vain, for succor from reinforcements, it would have been a base betrayal of trust for him to have remained in Moultrie when Sumter offered him the shelter of its kindly walls.

or interfere with their occupancy.

"But as the counsel and acts of rash and impulsive persons may possibly disappoint these expectations of the Government, he deems it proper that you should be prepared with instructions to meet so unhappy a contingency. He has, therefore, directed me, verbally, to give you such instructions.

"You are carefully to avoid every act which would needlessly tend to provoke aggression, and for that reason you are not, without necessity, to take up any position which could be construed into the assumption of a hostile attitude; but you are to hold possession of the forts in the harbor, and if attacked, you are to defend yourself to the last extremity. The smallness of your force will not permit you, perhaps, to occupy more than one of the three forts, but an attack on, or attempt to take possession of either of them, will be regarded as an act of hostility, and you may then put your command into either of them which you may deem most proper to increase its power of resistance. You are also authorized to take similar steps whenever you have tangible evidence of a dengn to proceed to a hostile act.


"Assistant Adjutant-General.

"FORT MOULTRIE, S. C., Dec. 11, 1860."

The Occupation a Military Necessity.

A correspondent from Washington, under date of December 29th, said: "Major Anderson had command of all the forts of Charleston. He held and occupied them at his discretion. Before he went to his command last Autumn he was here, and was depressed at the position he felt he was about to occupy. But his views of duty were wholly those of a soldier. His business was to defend his position, and the fact that he intended to do it was what depressed him. He felt the delicacy of his situation, and he knew the weakness of his command. He found himself at Fort Moultrie, threatened with an attack. He besought the Executive for more troops. General Scott, over and over again, urged that they be sent. The President refused. Major Anderson went on strengthening his position while, at the same time, he urged forward the completion of Fort Sumter, the mounting of its heavy ordnance, &c. This was done as promptly as possible by Captain Foster of the Engineers. When the engineering labors of Captain Foster were completed, he reported the fact to Major Anderson. Without any special orders or suggestions from the President, the Secretary of War or the Commander-in-chief, Major Anderson, looking upon his position

"This is in conformity to my instructions to Major from an exclusively military point of view,


"Secretary of War."

seeing the weakness of Fort Moultrie and the strength of Fort Sumter, did precisely that

thing which, as a military man, he was compelled to do, and which he could not avoid doing without inflicting a stain upon his military reputation. He left the weaker for the stronger position. As a military act its propriety admits of not the slightest question among military men. As a political question, or an act of policy, in reference to the difficulties between South Carolina and the United States, Major Anderson had nothing to do with either, and acted with no reference to either. He simply discharged his duty as a wise and gallant soldier."

rapidly relieved of their heavy cargoes. The small-boats pulled away after everything needful, which it was possible to transport, had been recovered. By daylight the entire force was within the walls of the great water fortress, excepting Capt. Foster and eight men, left to dismantle the big guns bearing on Sumter, by burning their carriages. This duty Capt. Foster proceeded to perform. At an early hour, Thursday morning, the smoke from the burning carriages gave the Charlestonians their first intimation of an extraordinary occurrence. The alarm immediately spread, and the people thronged the wharves and battery looking out upon the harbor. The military were ordered under arms. Everything betokened a crisis in the affairs of the "sovereign" State. It was at first supposed that a reinforcement had arrived-then it was reported that the garrison had evacua

This statement presents a correct view of the circumstances, and justly gives to the commander the entire credit of the movement, so applauded by friends, so execrated by foes. If merely a military act it nevertheless was potent with political results. The little vessels which, in their night duty between Moultrie and Sumter, bore to the fast-ted ness the men and munitions that were to hold it for their country against conspirators, held the fate of a Republic on their slender decks; and the soldier who ordered the transfer became an instrument in the hand of destiny, of leading the Crusade against the Goths who sought to sack the citadel of the Republic, and scatter its glories to the four He proved a worthy

winds of Heaven. leader.

Particulas of the Evacuation.


When informed by Capt. Foster of the readiness of Sumter for occupancy, the Major secured three vessels as transports. It was given out that the service required was to remove the families, furniture, &c., of the garrison to a place of safety at Fort JohnBesides the vessels, several row-boats were brought into requisition, to be manned by the soldiers. At an early hour Wednesday (Dec. 26th), the order was given for the evacuation. Not a soldier of the garrison knew the destination, but all were zealous for duty. The vessels were rapidly loaded from the landing-place with all the personal effects of the officers and men, with munitions, provisions, and with the women and children of the post. They then stood out toward Fort Johnson, on James Island, but brought up at Sumter, where, by the aid of the workmen in the fort, the vessels were

the harbor, after destroying the fort. Some laborers, however, arrived at the wharves, direct from Sullivan's Island, and communicated the truth to the thoroughly exasperated people and the anxious authorities.

The Convention immediately came together, in secret session, scarcely waiting for the formality of a breakfast. It gave orders for the military disposition necessary in a moment of danger. Governor Pickens was out on duty, gathering the masses of men into soldierly consistency. The battery was filled with troops, ready for any service. When news arrived of the course pursued by Anderson, Governor Pickens sent off a note to inquire by what authority the evacuation was made, and what was the object of the movement. Anderson replied, stating that it was a military step for which he alone was responsible-that it was an act of defence only. While these messages were on their way, Captain Foster appeared in the streets of Charleston to repeat the facts of the case to all inquirers. Intense indignation was expressed at the coup de main, but no violence was offered to the officer. Having imparted the information as authorized by Major Anderson, he returned to Fort Moultrie to retain its possession and await the action of the authorities. It was thus retained to throw upon the State the responsibility of its seiz ure from a United States garrison.


Condition of Moultrie

after the act.

"The entire place was, to all appearances, littered up with the odds, ends, and fragments of war's desolation. Confusion could not have been more complete had the late occupants retired in the face of a besieging foe. Fragments of gun carriages, &c., broken to pieces, bestrewed the ramparts. Sandbags and barrels filled with earth, crowned the walls, and were firmly imbedded in their bombproof surface, as an additional safe

The Charleston Courier's small arms, clothing, provisions, accoutrespecial reporter, visiting ments, and other munitions of war had been the partially evacuated fort removed off and deposited - nothing but to observe its condition, gave an interesting heavy balls and useless cannon remained. statement of his observations. He wrote:-| "In order to ascertain truthful statements of the actual damage done to the forts, of the causes of the movement, and of the state of affairs generally, reporters were despatched to the scene during the forenoon. On the way across the harbor, the hoisting of the American flag from the staff of Fort Sumter, at precisely 12 o'clock, gave certain indication that the stronghold was occupied by the troops of the United States. On a nearer ap-guard-and, notwithstanding the heterogeproach the fortress was discovered to be occupied, the guns appeared to be mounted, and sentinels were discovered on duty, and the place to give every sign of occupancy and military discipline. The grim fortress frowned defiance on every side; the busy notes of preparation resounded through its unforbid ding recesses, and everything seemed to indicate the utmost alacrity in the work on hand. Turning towards Fort Moultrie, a dense cloud of smoke was seen to pour from the end facing the sea. The flagstaff was down, and the whole place had an air of desolation and abandonment quite the reverse of its busy look one week ago, when scores of laborers were engaged in adding to its strength all the works skill and experience could suggest.

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"In the immediate vicinity of the rear or landside entrance, however, greater activity was noticeable. At the time of our visit, a large force of hands had been summoned to deliver up their implements for transportation to Fort Sumter. Around on every side were the evidences of labor in the fortification of the work. In many places, a portion of the defences were strengthened by every appliance that art could suggest or ingenuity devise; while, in others, the uncompleted works gave evidences of the utmost confusion. On all hands the process of removing goods, furniture, and munitions was yet going on. The heavy guns upon the ramparts of the fort were thrown down from their carriages and spiked. Every ounce of powder and every cartridge had been removed from the magazines; and, in fact, everything like

neous scattering of materials and implements,
the walls of the fort evinced a vague degree
of energy in preparing for an attack. A
ditch some fifteen feet wide and about the
same in depth surrounds the entire wall on
On the south side, or front, a
three sides.
glacis has been commenced and prosecuted
nearly to completion, with a rampart of sand-
bags, barrels, &c.

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On one side of the fort a palisade of Palmetto logs is extended around the ramparts as a complete defense against an escalading party. New embrasures have been cut in the walls so as to command the faces of the bastion and ditch. These new defenses are all incomplete, and are evidence of the haste with which they were erected. Considering the inferior force, in point of numbers, under his command, Major Anderson had paid particular attention to strengthening only a small part of the fort.

This he had

"A greater portion of the labor expended was spent upon the citadel or centre of the west point of the position. caused to be strengthened in every way; loop-holes were cut and everything was so arranged that in case a well-concerted attack was made, he would have retired from the outer bastions to the citadel, and afterwards blow up the other portions of the fort. For this purpose mines had already been sprung, and trains had been laid ready for the appliThe barrack-rooms cation of the match. and every other part of the fort that was indefensible would have gone at a touch.

"On the ramparts of the fort fronting Fort Sumter, were nine eight-inch columbiads,

mounted on wooden carriages. As soon as the evacuation of the fort was complete, the carriages of these guns were fired, and at the time of visiting the fort yesterday, were nearly consumed, and the guns thereby dismounted. These guns, as well as those constituting the entire armament of the fortress, were spiked before it was abandoned. This is the only damage done the fortification, further than cutting down the flagstaff, and the breaking up of ammunition wagons to form ramparts on the walls of the fort."

Active Preparations for Resistance.

took possession of Moultrie. Captain Foster, seeing the approach of the troops, retired up the beach to a small boat with his eight men, and was suffered to pull over to Sumter. The work of restoration immediately commenced. Anderson could have shelled the fort, had he dared to assume the offensive; but, as his orders were imperative, to stand only on the defensive, he soon had to see one thousand troops and Negroes swarming on Sullivan's and Morris' islands, throwing up fortifications and mounting guns for his own destrucThis movement of the tion. Had he been empowered to forbid this commander was construed hostile work, the shot and shell of his treby the Convention as a mendous Columbiads would haver endered it threat of coercion, and every means were simply impossible for the revolutionists to taken to prepare for resistance. A commu- erect their batteries. One of Mr. Buchanan's nication was dispatched to the Commission- most unfortunate mistakes was to resist reiners at Washington, authorizing them to de-forcements of the forts in the harbor, when mand of the President the unconditional evacuation of the forts in the harbor in event of his refusal to order Anderson back to Moultrie, and thus restore the status ante quo bellum. The telegraph offices were placed under State control. The post-office was considered to be under surveillance. The custom-house already had become part of the machinery of State. Orders were issued, during the day, for the occupation of Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie by the State troops. The arsenal, already in possession of State troops under Major Humphreys, gave freely of its plentiful stores to equip the troops, and to furnish munitions and artillery as they were required. Mr. Floyd had, during his four years' administration, succeeded in placing ten years' ordinary supplies in that arsenal, and thus had, indeed, befriended "the cause."

Seizures by the State

they could have been thrown in early in November. His next great error was to hamper Anderson with orders which forbade him to assume the responsibility of destroying fortifications expressly designed for the subjuga tion of the besieged garrison. The patriotism and courage afterwards introduced into the Cabinet, in the persons of Judge Holt, Judge Black and General Dix, gave the country good cause to regret their introduction at so late an hour.

Honor to Major Anderson.

The movement into Sumter was received with remarkable unanimity of approval in all sections of the country, save in the disaffected States. Even there many were found who saw in the act the attitude best calculated to force matters to a speedy settlement. It would seem to prove that, if it had "precipitated" matters politically, it During the afternoon of had also precipitated the unsettled patriotism Thursday (December 27th), of the people to glisten like a ruby on the the two forts were occu- "Ethiop breast" of the rising storm. The pied. Castle Pinckney was taken by Colonel | press, the pulpit, the platform, the poets-all J. J. Pettigrew, with a force of two hundred chaunted pæans for the loyal AndersonThat fort had not a soul in it, and was more loyal and true, indeed, than his supeso barricaded that scaling ladders had to be riors. His name became the theme of disused to secure an entrance. The guns were course, for many a day, in public and private, found spiked, the ammunition and stores throughout all the States still faithful to the secured, and the flagstaff down. When it Constitution and the Laws. Such spontahad been stripped no one knew. Lieutenant-neous, heartfelt congratulation never before Colonel De Saussure, with two hundred men, was offered to a servant of the United States.



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