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his occupation and craft; he shall likewise enjoy the most complete protection and security for his person, provided that he respect the authorities and the laws of the State.
V. Every foreigner is exempt from forced military service by land or water, from military exactions or requisitions, from extraordinary contributions; and he shall only pay the ordinary ones established for natives, with the slight difference which the law appoints between natives and foreigners.
VI. No foreigner shall be persecuted or molested for religious reasons, only their special worship must not be public, and they must respect that of the State in itself, in its ministers, as well as in its public uses and customs.
VII. Foreigners are not obliged to commit their business to any other person, or to brokers; they enjoy the same guarantees as natives in this respect.
VIII. Capital, revenue, and property of whatever kind, belonging to foreigners residing within the territory of the Republic, which may be confided to the State or to private persons, shall be respected and inviolable both in peace and war.
IX. In conformity with the principle recognized in the preceding Article, in case of a rupture between the Republic and any foreign nation, the subjects or citizens of the latter, residing within the dominions of the Republic, may remain therein, and continue their trade and occupation without interruption, while they conduct themselves with due fidelity, and do not in any way violate the laws and regulations in force.
X. For the exportation of gains from the Republic, they shall not pay any higher tax than is paid by natives.
XI. The Supreme Government of the Republic may cause the departure from it, either in peace or in war, of every foreigner who by his ill behaviour may give cause for such measure; granting him, however, a reasonable time for the arrangement of his affairs.
XII. Every foreigner resident in the Republic has the right to dispose of his property, whether by will or in any other form that he may think fitting.
XIII. In case any foreigner should die within the territory of the Republic without having made his last will or testament, his property shall be preserved in the manner directed by the following Article, for his heirs ab intestato, or for his creditors, if they appear.
XIV. In the case mentioned in the foregoing Article, that is to say, of the decease of any foreigner without a will, the magistrate of his district, accompanied by two honourable countrymen of the deceased, or for want of them, with two neighbours, shall proceed as soon as possible to draw up a detailed inventory of all the pro
perty which he may have left, and after placing it in security, shall give an account to the Government, with the inventory, in order that it may provide a depository, according as the nature of the property may admit.
XV. The said intestate death shall afterwards be announced by the press, for the information of those interested. If any one should appear as heir or creditor, he shall be heard by way of legal procedure.
XVI. If no interested persons should appear, or if the proceed-ings should be delayed so that the property might be deteriorated, it shall be put up to public auction, and its produce shall be deposited with the Treasurer and Collector-General.
XVII. In case those interested do not prove their claims legally, or do not appear within two years from the date of the publication ordered in the above Article XV, the deposit shall, after the expiration of that term, be adjudged to the National Treasury.
XVIII. The property which may be delivered to foreigners who are legitimate relations, in the descending or ascending line, of foreigners who died leaving wills or intestate, shall pay a tax of 5 per cent. at the time of delivery. If it should be delivered to any other foreign inheritors, not being relations in the descending or ascending line, whether by virtue of a will, or by succession through intestacy, it shall pay 10 per cent.
And in order that this may be made known to all, let it be published in the usual form, and let it be sent to the national repertory.
Assumption, May 20, 1845.
CARLOS ANTONIO LOPEZ.
ANDREAS GILL, Secretary of the Supreme Government.
TREATY of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation, between Prussia and the other States of the Zollverein, on the one part; and Paraguay, on the other part.-Signed at Assumption, August 1, 1860.
His Royal Highness the Regent, Prince of Prussia, in the name of His Majesty the King of Prussia, for himself, and as representing the Sovereign countries and provinces associated in the Prussian Customs and Commercial system, namely, the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, the Grand Ducal Mecklenburg detached territories of Rossow, Netzeband, and Schönberg, the Grand Ducal Oldenburg Principality of Birkenfeld, the Duchies of Anhalt-Dessau-Cœthen and Anhalt-Bernburg, the Principalities of Waldeck and Pyrmont,
the Principality of Lippe, and the superior bailiwick of Meissenheim belonging to the Landgraviate of Hesse, as also in the name of the other members of the German Customs and Commercial Union, namely, the Crown of Bavaria, the Crown of Saxony, the Crown of Hanover, representing at the same time the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe, and the Crown of Wurtemburg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, representing, at the same time, the bailiwick of Homburg, belonging to the Landgraviate of Hesse, in the name of the States. forming the Thuringian Customs and Commercial Union, namely, the Grand Duchy of Saxony, the Duchies of Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Cobourg and Gotha, the Principalities of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Reuss of the elder and Reuss of the younger line, the Duchy of Brunswick, the Duchy of Oldenburg, the Duchy of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfort, on the one part; and his Excellency the President of the Republic of Paraguay, on the other part, being animated by the desire of extending and consolidating the relations of friendship, commerce, and navigation between the States of the Zollverein and the Republic of Paraguay, have thought it fitting and convenient to open negotiations, and to conclude a Treaty for that purpose, and have therefore appointed as Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Prussia, Herr Frederich von Gülich, his Royal Highness's Chargé d'Affaires in the Republic of Paraguay; and
His Excellency the President of the Republic of Paraguay, Francisco Sanchez, citizen of Paraguay and Minister Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;
Who, after having communicated to each other their full powers, which were found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles :
ART. I. There shall be perfect peace and sincere friendship between the States of the Zollverein and the Republic of Paraguay, as well as between the subjects and citizens thereof, without distinction of persons and places. The High Contracting Parties will take all the pains in their power for the constant and perpetual maintenance of that friendship and good understanding.
II. The Republic of Paraguay, by virtue of the sovereign right appertaining to it, grants to the subjects of the Zollverein States the free navigation of the river Paraguay up to Assumption, the capital of the Republic, and also of the right side of the Paraná, from the point where it belongs to the Republic up to the town of Encarnacion. The subjects of the Zollverein States shall be at
liberty to enter into and to depart from all the places and ports above mentioned, freely and securely, with their vessels and cargoes, to remain and reside in any part of the said territories, hire houses and warehouses, and carry on trade in all kinds of natural and manufactured produce and articles of authorized traffic, so far as the laws of the land allow, provided that they observe therein the customs and established usages of the country. They may discharge the whole or part of their cargoes in the ports of Pilar, and where commerce is allowed with other nations, or proceed with the whole or part of their cargo to the port of Assumption, as the captain, master, or other person duly authorized, may think fitting.
Paraguayan citizens who may arrive at the ports of the Zollverein States with cargoes in Zollverein or in Paraguayan vessels, shall be treated and considered in the same manner.
III. The two High Contracting Parties agree that any favour, privilege, or immunity relating to commerce or navigation, that either of the two Contracting Parties actually has conceded or may concede in future to the subjects or citizens of any other State, shall be extended in identity of cases and circumstances, to the subjects or citizens of the other Contracting Party, gratuitously if the concession to that other State should have been gratuitous, or in exchange for an equivalent compensation, if the concession should have been conditional.
IV. No other or higher duties shall be imposed either on the importation or on the exportation of any article the natural or manufactured produce of the two Contracting States, than those which are paid or may hereafter be paid for the like article being the natural or manufactured product of any other foreign country. No prohibition whatever shall be imposed on the importation or on the exportation of any article of the natural produce, the productions or manufactures of the territories of either of the Contracting Parties, into or out of the territories of the other, which shall not be likewise extended to the importation and exportation of the like articles for the territories of any other nation.
V. No other or higher duties or charges shall be imposed in any of the ports of the territories of the Republic of Paraguay on vessels of the States of the Zollverein for tonnage, lighthouse, port or pilotage dues, or for salvage in cases of damage or shipwreck, or any other local charges whatever, than those which are paid in the same ports by Paraguayan vessels; nor in the ports of the States of the Zollverein on Paraguayan vessels than those which are paid in the same ports on vessels of the States of the Zollverein.
VI. The same duties on importation and exportation shall be paid for any article which can now be legally imported or exported in the dominions of the States of the Zollverein and in those of
Paraguay, whether the importations or exportations be in vessels of the States of the Zollverein or in Paraguayan vessels.
VII. All vessels which, according to the laws of the States of the Zollverein, are to be considered as vessels of the Zollverein States, and all vessels which, according to the laws of Paraguay, are to be considered as Paraguayan vessels, shall be considered for the purposes of this Treaty as vessels of the Zollverein States and Paraguayan vessels respectively.
VIII. The subjects of the Zollverein States shall pay in the Republic of Paraguay the same duties on importation and exportation as are established, or shall be established for Paraguayan citizens. In like manner the latter shall pay in the Zollverein States the duties established or hereafter to be established for the subjects of the Zollverein States.
IX. All merchants, commanders of vessels, and others, subjects or citizens of each country respectively, shall have full liberty in all the territories of the other to manage their affairs themselves, or to entrust the management thereof to whomsoever they may think best, as agent, broker, factor, or interpreter; and they shall not be obliged to employ any other persons than those employed by the natives, nor to pay the persons whom they think proper to employ more salary or remuneration than what is paid in similar cases by the
X. The subjects of the Zollverein States in Paraguay and the citizens of Paraguay in the Zollverein States, shall enjoy the same complete freedom as is now enjoyed, or shall be enjoyed in future by the natives of each country respectively, for buying of whomsoever they may think best, and for selling all articles of lawful commerce, and for fixing the prices thereof according as they may think fitting, without restriction by reason of any monopoly, contract, or exclusive privilege of sale or purchase, subject nevertheless to the general and ordinary taxes and imposts established by law.
The subjects or citizens of each of the two Contracting Parties shall enjoy in the territories of the other complete and perfect protection for their persons and property; shall have free and easy access to the courts of justice for the prosecution or for the assertion and defence of their just rights; they shall enjoy in this respect the same rights and privileges as the native subjects or citizens, and they shall be at liberty to employ in all their causes such advocates, attorneys, or agents of any kind as they may think proper.
XI. In all that relates to the police of the ports, to the loading or unloading of vessels, the warehousing and security of merchandize, goods, and effects, to succession to movable property by testament or otherwise, and to the disposal of movable property of every kind and denomination by sale, donation, exchange, or testament, or in