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siege, in case of internal commotion, and to approve or suspend the state of siege declared during its recess by the Executive Power.
27. To exercise an exclusive legislation in the whole of the territory of the capital of the nation, and over the other localities. acquired by purchase or cession in any of the provinces, for the erection of fortresses, arsenals, magazines, or other establishments of national utility.
28. To make all the laws and regulations which may be fitting for the operation of the foregoing Powers, and all others granted. by the present Constitution to the Government of the Argentine nation.
Chap. V. Of the Formation and Sanction of the Laws.
LXVIII. The laws may have their beginning in either of the Chambers of Congress, by means of projects submitted by their members, or by the Executive Power, excepting those relating to the matters mentioned in Article XLIV.
LXIX. When a project of law has been approved by the Chamber wherein it originated, it passes to the other Chamber for discussion. When it has been approved by both Chambers, it passes to the Executive Power of the nation for his examination, and if it also meets with his approbation, he promulgates it as law.
LXX. Every project is considered as approved by the Executive Power, if it be not returned within the term of 10 available days.
LXXI. No project of law that has been totally rejected by one of the Chambers can be reintroduced during the sessions of that year. But if it have only been added to, or corrected by the revising Chamber, it is to return to that wherein it originated; and if the additions or corrections be approved therein by absolute majority, it is to pass to the Executive Power of the nation. If the additions or corrections be rejected, the project shall return a second time to the revising Chamber, and if the additions or alterations be again sanctioned by a majority of two-thirds of its members, the project shall pass to the other Chamber, and it shall not be understood that this latter rejects the said additions or corrections, unless it agrees to do so by the vote of two-thirds of its members present.
LXXII. When a project of law has been rejected wholly or in part by the Executive Power, it returns with his objections to the Chamber of its origin, by which it is again discussed, and if it be confirmed by a majority of two-thirds of the votes, it passes a second time to the Chamber of revision. If both Chambers sanction it by a like majority, the project becomes law, and passes to the Executive Power for its promulgation. The voting in both Chambers shall, in this case, be nominal, by Yes or No; and the names and grounds of
the voters, as well as the objections of the Executive Power, shall be immediately published by the press. If the Chambers differ about the objections, the project cannot be re-introduced during the sessions of that year.
LXXIII. In sanctioning the laws, this formula shall be used: "The Senate and Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine nation, assembled in Congress, and, decree, or sanction, with force of law:"
Sect. 2. Of the Executive Power.
Chap. I. Of its nature and duration.
LXXIV. The Executive Power of the nation shall be exercised by a citizen with the title of "President of the Argentine nation."
LXXV. In case of the sickness, absence from the capital, death, resignation, or deprivation of the President, the Executive Power shall be exercised by the Vice-President of the nation. In case of the dereliction, death, deprivation, or incapacity of the President and Vice-President of the nation, the Congress shall determine what public functionary shall perform the duties of the Presidency until the cause of inability shall have ceased, or a new President shall have been elected.
LXXVI. To be elected President or Vice-President of the nation it is requisite to have been born in the Argentine territory, or to be the son of a native citizen if born in a foreign country, to belong to the Apostolic Roman Catholic communion, and to possess the other qualifications required to be elected a Senator.
LXXVII. The President and Vice-President of the nation continue in their offices for the term of 6 years, and they cannot be re-elected until after the interval of a period.
LXXVIII. The President of the nation retires from power on the very day on which his period of 6 years expires, and no event that may have interrupted it can be a cause for his completing it later.
LXXIX. The President and Vice-President shall enjoy a salary paid by the Treasury of the nation, which cannot be altered during the period of their appointments. During that period they cannot hold any other office, nor receive any other emolument from the nation or from any province.
LXXX. On taking possession of their office, the President and Vice-President shall take oath at the hands of the President of the Senate (the first time at the hands of the President of the Constituent Congress) before the assembled Congress, in the following terms: "I, N.N., swear by God our Lord, and these Holy Gospels, to discharge with loyalty and patriotism the office of President (or Vice-President) of the nation, to observe faithfully, and to cause to be faithfully observed, the Constitution of the Argentine
nation. If I should not do so, let God and the nation call me to account."
Chap. II. Of the form and time of the Election of the President and Vice-President of the Nation.
LXXXI. The election of the President and Vice-President of the nation shall be effected in the following manner: The capital and each of the provinces shall appoint by vote a committee of electors, equal to twice the total number of the Deputies and Senators whom they send to Congress, with the same qualifications, and with observance of the same forms as are prescribed for the election of the Deputies.
The Deputies, the Senators, and persons in the pay of the Federal Government cannot be electors,
The electors assembled in the capital of the nation, and in those of the respective provinces, 4 months before the conclusion of the retiring President's term, shall proceed to the election of a President and Vice-President of the nation by signed papers, mentioning in one of them the person for whom they vote as President, and in another separate paper the person whom they elect for VicePresident.
Two lists shall be made of all the persons selected for President, and two others of those nominated for Vice-President, with the number of votes which each has obtained. These lists shall be signed by the electors, and two of them (one of each kind) shall be remitted closed and sealed to the President of the Provincial Legislature, and in the capital to the President of the Municipality, in whose archives they shall be kept closed and deposited, and the other two shall be sent to the President of the Senate (the first time to the President of the Constituent Congress).
LXXXII. The President of the Senate (the first time the President of the Constituent Congress) having collected all the lists, shall open them in presence of both Chambers. Four members of the Congress, chosen by lot, being associated with the Secretaries, they shall proceed to make the scrutiny and to declare the number of suffrages given in favour of each candidate for the Presidency and Vice-Presidency of the nation. Those who unite in both cases the absolute majority of all the votes, shall be immediately proclaimed President and Vice-President.
LXXXIII. In case that from the division of the votes, there be no absolute majority, the Congress shall elect between the two persons who shall have obtained the greatest number of suffrages. If the first majority should have fallen upon more than two persons, the Congress shall elect from among all of them. If the first majority should have fallen upon one person only, and the second upon
two or more, the Congress shall choose among all the persons who have obtained the first and second majority.
LXXXIV. This election shall be by absolute plurality of suffrages, and by nominal voting. If the first voting should not result in an absolute majority, there shall be a second, limiting the voting to the two persons who shall have obtained the greatest number of suffrages in the first. In case of equality the voting shall be repeated, and if the result be again an equality the President of the Senate (the President of the Constituent Congress the first time) shall decide. Neither the scrutiny nor the rectification of these elections can take place unless three-fourths of the whole number of the Members of Congress be present.
LXXXV. The election of the President and Vice-President of the nation must be concluded in one single sitting of the Congress, and the result is to be immediately published with the electoral proceedings by the press.
Chap. III.—Attributions of the Executive Power.
LXXXVI. The President of the nation has the following attri
1. He is the Supreme Chief of the Nation, and is charged with the general administration of the country.
2. He issues the instructions and regulations which are necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, taking care not to infringe their spirit by regulationary exceptions.
3. He is the immediate and local Chief of the capital of the nation.
4. He participates in the enactment of the laws in accordance with the constitution, he sanctions and promulgates them.
5. He appoints the magistrates of the Supreme Court, and of the other inferior federal tribunals, with the concurrence of the Senate.
6. He can remit or commute the penalties for crimes subject to the federal jurisdiction, on a previous report from the competent tribunal, except in cases of accusation by the Chamber of Deputies.
7. He grants superannuations, retirements, licences, and permission to keep monts-de-piété, in conformity with the laws of the nation.
8. He exercises the rights of the national patronage in the presentation of bishops for the cathedral churches, on the proposition of 3 names by the Senate.
9. He allows the introduction of, or withholds the decrees of the councils, the bulls, briefs, and rescripts of the Supreme Pontiff of Rome, in concert with the Supreme Court; a law being required when they contain general and permanent arrangments.
10. He appoints and removes the Ministers Plenipotentiary, and
Chargés-d'Affaires in concert with the Senate; and he appoints and removes, by his own authority alone, the Secretaries of State, the officers of their departments, the Consular Agents, and the other persons employed by the administration, whose appointment is not otherwise regulated by this Constitution.
11. He annually opens the Sessions of the Congress, both Chambers being assembled for that purpose in the hall of the Senate; on that occasion he gives the Congress an account of the state of the nation, of the reforms promised by the Constitution, and recommends to its consideration such measures as he deems necessary and expedient.
12. He prorogues the ordinary sessions of the Congress, or convokes it in extraordinary sessions, when important interests of order or progress require it.
13. He has the revenues of the nation collected, and decrees their application in accordance with the law of the estimates of national expenses.
14. He concludes and signs Treaties of Peace, Commerce, Navigation, Alliance, Boundaries, and Neutrality, Concordats, and other negotiations required for the maintenance of good relations with foreign powers; he receives their Ministers, and admits their Consuls.
15. He is the Commander-in-chief of all the military and naval forces of the nation.
16. He fills the military offices of the nation, in concert with the Senate, by conferring the posts or rank of the superior officers of the army and navy; and he does this on his own authority alone, on the field of battle.
17. He disposes of the naval and military force by land and sea, and attends to their organization and distribution, according to the necessities of the nation.
18. He declares war and grants letters of marque and reprisal, with the authority and approval of the Congress.
19. He declares one or more parts of the nation in a state of siege, in case of attack from without, and for a limited period, with the concurrence of the Senate. In case of internal commotion, he has this power only when the Congress is in recess, because it is an attribution which belongs to that body. The President exercises it within the limitations prescribed in Article XXIII.
20. He may demand from the chiefs of all the branches and departments of the administration, and through them from the other persons employed, such reports as he considers expedient, and they are bound to furnish them.
21. He cannot absent himself from the territory of the capital without the permission of Congress. During the recess of Congress