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nonade, and during the night abandoned some entered the fort with the point of the bayonet, redoubts and retired within the town. Col. without firing a gun. The American loss Alexander Scammel while reconnoitering the was eight killed and thirty wounded. Major ground just abandoned by the enemy, was Campbell who commanded the fort was wounsurprised by a party of horse and after he ded and made prisoner with about thirty solhad surrendered, received a wound from a diers; the rest escaped. During the assault Hessian, of which he died in a few days, the British kept up a fire along their whole greatly lamented. On the 3rd of October, line. Washington, Lincoln and Knox, with in a skirmish before Gloucester Point, Tarle- their aids, having dismounted, stood in an ton was unhorsed and narrowly escaped be- exposed situation awaiting the result. The ing made prisoner. The British sent out other redoubt on the right of the British was from Yorktown a number of negroes infected taken at the same time, by a detachment of with the small pox. On the night of the 7th, the French, commanded by Baron de Viothe first parallel was extended two miles in menil. He lost about 100 men killed and length, and within 600 yards of the British wounded. Of the enemy at this redoubt, eighlines. By the evening of the 9th several bat- teen were killed and forty-five captured, incluteries being completed, Washington himself ding three officers. By this time many of the put the match to the first gun and a heavy fire British guns were silenced and their works was opened. The cannonade continued till were becoming ruinous. About 4 o'clock the 15th. Cornwallis was driven from Secre- on the morning of the 16th, Col. Abercromtary Nelson's house where he had made his bie, with 400 men, made a sortie against two head-quarters. * A red-hot shell from a unfinished redoubts occupied by the French. French battery set fire to the Charon, a Brit- After spiking some cannon, the British were ish 44 gun ship, and two or three smaller driven back with a small loss on each side. vessels, which were consumed in the night. One hundred pieces of heavy ordinance were The ships were wrapped in a torrent of fire, now in full play against the enemy. The which ran like lightning over the rigging and British had nearly ceased firing. On the 17th, to the tops of the masts. A second parallel Cornwallis by a flag requested a cessation of was now completed and batteries erected hostilities. On the 19th of October, 1781, within 300 yards of the enemy's works. The the British forces at Yorktown and GloucesBritish had two redoubts about 300 yards in ter Point were surrendered. At about 12 front of their lines and it was resolved to take o'clock, the combined army was drawn up them by assault. The one on the left of the along a road, in two lines, extending more enemy, bordering the banks of the river, was than a mile, the Americans on the right, the assigned to a brigade of light infantry under French on the left. At the head of the AmeriLafayette. The advanced corps was con- can line, Washington appeared on horseback ducted by Col. Alexander Hamilton assisted surrounded by his aids. At the head of the by Col. Gimat. The attack commenced at French line was posted Count Rochambeau. 8 o'clock in the evening and the assailants The concourse of spectators from the coun
try was equal in number to the military. At * Upon the breaking out of the revolution, secretary Nel. son, who had been long u member of the Council, retired 2 o'clock the captive army advanced through from public affairs. He lived al Yorktown, where he bad the line formed for their reception. Cornerected a handsome house, adorned with "a chimney.piece and some bas reliefs of very fine marble exquisitely sculp wallis pretending indisposition was not pretured." Lord Cornwallis inade his head quarters in this house, which stood near his line of defensive works. It
sent. His place was filled on the occasion soon attracted the attention of the French artillery and was by General O'Hara. This officer mounted on almost entirely destroyed, Secretary Nelson was in il when the first shot killed one of his negres at a line dis. a fine charger, made the surrender. The loss tance from him. What increased his solicitude was that during the siege was, French 50 killed, 127 whether fired from the town or from the trenches inigh wounded; Americans 27 killed, 73 wounded. prove equally fatal to himn. When a flay was sent in to According to Cornwallis' account, his loss request that he might be conveyed within the Ainerican lines, one of his sons was observer gazing wistfully at the was 156 killed, 326 wounded, 70 missing; out. Cornwallis perniued his wibdrawaland he was taken total, 552. The whole number of men sur10 Washington's head quaners. Upon alighting, with a rendered, 7,247 ; 75 brass, 169 iron cannon; stood around him, what has been the effect of their batte- 7,794 muskets with stores, money and 28 ries and how inuch his mansion had suffered from the first colors. sbol. 2 Chastellux, pp. 24-27.
This remark applies particularly to that secAPPENDIX.
tion commonly called the Valley of Virginia, The following Memoir of the Battle of Point from the Potomac to the Alleghany mountain.
which lying along the Blue Ridge, stretches Pleasant was composed by my uncle, the late of this many of the inhabitants know little Dr. Samuel L. Campbell, of Rockbridge county, Virginia. He married, in 1794, a try possessing salubrity and fertility, yielding
more than what they see. They see a counsister of the Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander, plentifully, in great variety, most of the neProfessor in the Theological Seminary, of cessaries of life ; a country which has adPrinceton and died at an advanced age, in vantages, conveniences and blessings, in 1840. During several years previous to his abundance, in profusion, I had almost said death, he was blind, and it was during this in superfluity. But they know not how it period, that he dictated to his children the
came into the hands of the present occufollowing narrative. It so happened that
pants; they know not who were the first setwhen I was preparing my own manuscript oftlers, whence they came, at what time, in the “ Introduction to the History of the Col- what numbers, nor what difficulties they had ony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia,” for
to encounter, nor what was the progress of the press, a copy of my uncle's Memoir was
population. One who would become accommunicated to me by his son, the Rev. quainted with these matters, must travel back Samuel D. Campbell, and, with his consent, a century or more; he must witness the early it is here published, and I am happy in hav- adventurers leaving the abodes of civilization ing it in my power to lay before the reader and singly, or in families, or in groups, comso interesting a production.
posed of several families, like pioneers on a Memoir of the Battle of Point Pleasant, by forlorn hope, entering the dark, dreary, track
Samuel L. Campbell, M. D., of Rockbridge less forest, which had been for ages the nurCounty, Virginia.
sery of wild-beasts and the pathway of the The following Memoir relates to an event- Indian. After traversing this in hospitable ful period in the history of Western Virginia, solitude for days or weeks and having becomprising all the years from 54 to 79 of the come weary of their pilgrimage, they deterlast century. At first nothing more was con- mined to separate and each family taking its templated than a short account of the cam- several course in quest of a place where they paign of 74, but on examination, that trans- may rest, they find a spot such as choice, action was found to be so intimately connec- chance or necessity points out; here they ted with others, both anterior and subsequent, sit down; this they call their home—a cheerthat it was judged best to give greater latitude less, houseless home. If they have a tent, to the memoir. It has been chiefly formed they stretch it and in it they all nestle ; otherfrom recollections partly of some portions of wise the umbrage of a wide-spreading oak, history which the writer met with many years or, mayhan, the canopy of heaven is their ago; partly from the parratives of sundry only covering. In this new-found home, persons, most of whom had been actors in while they are not exempt from the common the Indian wars. Resting as it does so much frailties and ills of humanity, many peculiar upon memory, there may be inaccuracies, and to their present condition thicken around incidents may have been overlooked, which them. Here they must endure excessive lashould have been noticed. But these it is bor, fatigue and exposure to inclement seathought will not be of much importance, sons; here innumerable perils and privations when it is known that the writer in want of a wait them; here they are exposed to alarms sufficient materials, was unable to go much from wild beasts and from Indians. Someinto detail. The memoir itself is little more times driven from home they take shelter in than an outline or general view, and there- the breaks and recesses of the mountains, fore can possess little interest otherwise than where they continue for a time in a state of as it excites enquiry and attracts attention to ansious suspense; venturing at length to rea subject important indeed, but hitherto neg- connoitre their home, they perhaps find it a lected. The inhabitants of this country are heap of ruins, the whole of their little pecuvery imperfectly acquainted with its history. lium destroyed. This frequently happened.
The inhabitants of the country being sew and in this service until the struggle was over, at in most cases widely separated from each which time he was discharged with the rank other, each group, fully occupied with its of colonel. Soon after returning to his naown difficulties and distresses, seldom could tive state he was appointed by the legislature have the consolation of hoping for the advice, a member of the privy council, the duties of assistance or even sympathy of each other. which office he performed during the conMany of them, worn out by the hardships in- stitutional term. He was again appointed separable from their new condition, found by the same authority to an important agency premature graves; many hundreds, probably in the south-west, the object of which is not thousands, were massacred by the hands of now distinctly remembered. He removed the Indians, and peace and tranquillity, if it about the end of the last century to the neighcame at all, came at a late day to the few sur- borhood of Natchez, where he undertook the vivors.
cultivation of the cotton plant. When a ter
ritorial government was established in Mis. “Tapiæ erat molis-condere gentem."
sissippi he was, by the President of the UniHere have been stated a few items of the first ted States, appointed governor. Nothing cost of this country, but the half has not more of him is known by the writer, sare been told; nor can we calculate in money that he died at an advanced age, about half the worth of the sufferings of these people; a century after receiving the wound at the especially we cannot estimate in dollars and battle of Point Pleasant. cents the value of the lives that were lost.
During the war between France and Great An historical account of the early settlements Britain, which commenced about the middle of the country is a desideratum. Much in- of the last century, the new settlements of deed that might go to form such a work has Virginia suffered much from Indian depredabeen irrecoverably lost; much might, by care tions. At this time France had possession and industry be collected, enough, if used by of Quebec and the Canadas; the river St. a skilful hand, to form a work which would Lawrence and the lakes were under her conmerit the public patronage. The writer must trol. For the defence and maintenance of here acknowledge that a number of facts these possessions many strong fortifications were communicated to him by two individu- were erected at different points, among which als of Rockbridge county, of which he has were Ticonderoga, Fort Stanwix, Detroit and availed himself. These individuals were An- others. Fort DuQuesne was erected in 1756 drew Reid, Esq. and William Moore, Esq. at the confluence of the Monongabela and They were both in the campaign of 1774, and Alleghany rivers. It is evident that the deboth in the battle of Point Pleasant, and acted sign of the French monarch was to connect well their several parts. Mr. Reid was known Quebec with New Orleans, by establishing a to have certainly killed an Indian early in the chain of posts along the great waters, and engagement; Mr. Moore bore from the bal- thus to limit the extension of the British tle-ground a wounded soldier. Standing provinces in North America. That large near to his fellow when the wound was given, scope of country bounded by the north-westat much personal risk, being in full view of ern lakes, the river Mississippi and the Ohio the enemy's line, he received his wounded was wholly claimed by the western Indians. companion on his shoulders and bore him to Many separate and independent tribes were the camp, there placing him under the care planted throughout its whole extent. These, of attendants he returned to the fight, in for the most part, resided in villages and which both he and Mr. Reid continued until were often at war with each other, but all victory declared in favor of the white men. viewed the whites as common enemy. This wounded soldier was John Steel, of Au- Among them the Shawnees stood pre-emi. gusta, who was shot quite through the chest. nent for power and prowess. Their villages From this wound, although at first deemed were on the Scioto, and were near to the mortal, he recovered so rapidly as to be able whites. These different causes rendered to ride home at the end of the campaign. them more formidable. Early in the revolutionary war he entered the At fort DuQuesne was constantly kept, army as a subordinate officer, and continued by the French traders, a full supply of arms,
ammunition, blankets, wampum and such prisoners, and spoils, unopposed and unpurother articles of traffic as suited the Indian sued. These are specimens of the mode of market. Thus the Indians were attached to Indian warfare, and they show the depressed the interests of France and enlisted in her spirit of the whites, when twenty-seven In
The frontier of Virginia, at that time, dians could come a distance of three or four extended from the North Carolina line on hundred miles, commit such depredations the Holston, to a point somewhere near fort and go off unscathed! [1763.) A treaty of DuQuesne, a distance of probably three or peace was ratified between France and Great four hundred miles. The whole of this great Britain, * which gave some respite. Hostiliextent was exposed to the incursions of the ties, in a great measure, ceased and prisonIndians and was often entered by them in ers were surrendered. Many of the settlers bands of ten or twenty, murdering, plunder- now supposed that there were grounds to ing, and capturing families, seldom remain- hope for a permanent peace. In the year ing longer than from ten to twenty hours, 1759 Quebec had been subdued to the Britretreating in so short a time that rarely an ish arms under General Wolfe, and by treaty adequate force could be collected to oppose all the French possessions in the northern or pursue them, and if pursued, the Indian, part of North America were surrendered to by wily stratagems, would often elude his the British, and it was hoped that the French pursuers. The settlement remained in this influence would cease. But this hope was unpleasant state for a number of years with chimerical ; deep-rooted enmity and strong no protection, and always apprehensive of antipathy existed. The whites, during the danger. By the fall of the unfortunate Brad- | late war, had suffered much from Indian bardock and the annihilation of his army in the barity, pillaging and burning their dwellings, year 1755, matters were rendered incompara- murdering the inhabitants, carrying many bly worse. The dogs of border war were into captivity, and of these putting to death completely unkennelled. A large portion of not a few by lingering and painful tortures. Pennsylvania and Maryland felt the shock of These cruelties were commonly perpetrated this catastrophe; but the settlements most along the frontier. Few settlements or even exposed were in the district of country lying neighborhoods escaped. Where had lately west of the Blue Ridge from the Potomac stood a comfortable cabin, occupied by an the whole length of the valley and thence to industrious, and peaceable, and contented the Carolina line on the Holston. Many in- family, might now be seen a pile of ashes dividuals and families fled from the valley over slaked with blood. All ages, all conditions the Blue Ridge for safety. Fear seemed to were alike exposed. The ruthless savage seize the whole community, and the name of felt no more pity for the delicate female or an Indian struck terror through the entire set- helpless infant, than did his hatchet or scalptlements. Those who did not leave their ing knife. The settlers viewed the savages homes depended for safety upon rudely con- as enemies to mankind, that ought to be structed forts, which were to be found in blotted from the face of the earth, and many every neighborhood. But alas ! the first alarm thought that he who killed one, of whatever was often the sound of the rifle or war-whoop tribe, was doing God's service. The Indians, of the Indian ready to pounce upon his prey. too, were not behind in hate. Their ancient (1759.) A band of the Shawnees made a de-jealousies still existed. They viewed the scent upon Kerr's creek, in what is now whites as unrighteous intruders upon a soil Rockbridge county. They killed and took which had been theirs by birthright and long prisoners many persons, the number not now possession. They recollected their unexamknown. One of these being tomahawked, pled success in the late border wars, and no scalped and left for dead, recovered and lived doubt many of them wished their renewal. thirty or forty years. In 1763 a party of the From such tempers and dispositions, from same tribe visited the same place, killed and the indulgence of such passions, it were took captive thirty or forty persons, and set strange if there should not result consequenout on the next day on their return to their ces similar in their nature, and ere long this towns. In both instances they returned by
* Col. Stewart says that this treaty was formed by Col. easy journeys, carrying with them their scalps, Bouquet in 1764 instead of 1763.
did happen. A party of armed men entered There were besides a number of unarmed the cabin of Logan, a celebrated Mingo chief attendants, such as pack-horse-drivers, bul. and in his absence slaughtered his family, con-lock-drivers, &c. The subsistence of the sisting of women and children. This chief, troops was a per-diem allowance of flour and upon his return, became indignant, implaca- fresh beef. The flour and camp equipage ble, and irreconcilable. Another massacre were conveyed on pack-horses; the bullocks was perpetrated far up the Ohio, upon a set- were driven in the rear of the army and tlement of peaceable Indians, inhabiting the slaughtered as occasion required. Since borders of Grave creek. This outrage and there was neither road nor pathway through the murder of Bald Eagle, a Delaware chief, the mountainous wilderness, Captain Arare believed to have been the first violations buckle preceded with a band of men who of the treaty of 1763. Indians consider it acted as pioneers to examine and mark out an imperative duty to revenge the death of the route for the army. This was so laid out their friends. The hatchet was consequently as to strike high on the Kanawha, near to the raised and blood streamed along the frontier point where it takes its name and thence throughout its length and breadth. Thus down its right bank. At the mouth of the these imprudent men, by murdering those Elk a halt was made for the purpose of conIndians in time of peace, brought destruc- structing canoes to transport the heavy bag. tion on hundreds, and perhaps thousands of gage to Point Pleasant. By this scheme it was defenceless individuals. This state of things intended to get rid of the incumbrance of all continued until the year 1774. In this year those pack-horses, which would not be wantthe government of Virginia determined to ed after a junction with the northern division. send an army into the Indian country. One The canoes being completed, the army moved division of this army was to be levied from forward and arrived at Point Pleasant on the the Redstone country, near Pittsburg, and last day of September. This point is a profrom the north-eastern counties of the great montory formed by the Great Kanawha and Valley, to march under the immediate com- Ohio rivers, where the former falls into the mand of Lord Dunmore, governor of Vir- latter at right angles. As the northern diginia. Another division was to be raised vision had not reached this place and no adwest of the Blue Ridge, chiefly from the vices nor orders had been received from the counties of Augusta and Botetourt, to be Governor, the troops were directed to form under command of General Andrew Lewis an encampment. For this purpose
the proof the latter county, and were directed to montory afforded ground highly eligible, demarch directly through the mountains to the fended on the north by the Ohio and on mouth of the Great Kanawha, and there to the south-west by the Kanawba, whilst its await the arrival of the governor with the eastern side lay open to an immense wilderfirst division. About the first of September ness. This promontory was elevated connearly all the troops destined for the south- siderably above the high-water mark, and afern division of the army had assembled in forded an extensive and variegated prospect Greenbriar and pitched their tents at Camp of the surrounding country. Here were seen Union, * where Lewisburg now stands. A hills, mountains, valleys, cliffs, plains, and few companies, however, which were to have promontories, all covered with gigantic forbeen raised on the head-waters of Holston ests, the growth of centuries, standing in and New River, under the direction of Col. their native grandeur and integrity, unsubChristian, had not yet arrived. For these dued, unmutilated by the hand of man, wearGeneral Lewis waited several days, but ap- ing the livery of the season and raising aloft prehending that longer delay might be detri- in mid air their venerable trunks and branches mental to the success of the campaign, on as if to defy the lightning of the sky and the the 11th of the month he ordered his troops fury of the whirlwind. This widely extendto strike their tents and commence their ed prospect, though rudely magnificent and march. They amounted to a thousand armed picturesque, wanted, nevertheless, some of men, and were soon joined by Major Field those softer features which might embellish with seventy volunteers from Culpepper. and beautify, or if the expression were per+ Col. Stewart calls this station Fort Savannab.
mitted, might civilize the savage wildness of