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Congress :-to the maintenance of which Much commotion had been excited, [May independence, we solemnly pledge to each 4th,] by a threat of the Captain of the other our mutual co-operation, our lives, our Fowey, that if the party of marines detachfortunes and our sacred honor. Resolved, ed from his ship for the Governor's protec4th, That as we acknowledge the existence tion should be molested, he would fire the and control of no law, nor legal office, civil town. The excitement, however, blew over or military within this county, we do hereby and upon the reception of Lord North's ordain and adopt as a rule of life, all, each conciliatory proposition, commonly called and every of our former laws; wherein nev-" the Olive Branch,” Dunmore, by the adertheless the crown of Great Britain never vice of the council, convened the house of can be considered as holding rights, privi- burgesses, and in token of renewed harmoleges, immunities or authority therein. Re- ny, the amiable Lady Dunmore and her famsolved, 5th, That it is further decreed that ily returned from the Fowey, where they had all, each and every officer in this county is taken refuge during these disturbances, to hereby retained in his former command and the palace. The assembly met on Thursday, authority, he acting conformably to these the 1st of June. The Governor, in his adregulations. And that every member pres- dress, presented Lord North's proposition. ent of this delegation shall henceforth be a The council's answer was satisfactory to civil officer, viz: a Justice of the Peace in Dunmore, but before the burgesses could rethe character of a Committee-man to issue ply, a new explosion occurred. Upon Henprocess, hear and determine all matters of ry's approach towards Williamsburg, some controversy according to said adopted laws of the inhabitants, to the great offence of and to preserve peace, union and harmony the graver citizens, had taken possession of in said county; and to use every exertion to some of the few guns remaining in the mag. spread the love of country and fire of free- azine. On the night of Monday, June 5th, dom throughout America, until a general or- a number of persons having assembled at ganized Government be established in this the magazine to furnish themselves with province."' *

arms, two or three upon entering the door

were wounded by spring-guns, placed there * There are between the Mecklenbury Declaration and that by order of the governor. Several barrels draughted by Mr. Jefferson, several coincidences of phrase. of powder were also found buried in the olupy, that seern quite sufficient to prove that Mr. Jefferson borrowed several expressions from that document. It is true, magazine to be used, it was suspected,) as that after a long interval he made a disclaimer of all know a mine when occasion should offer. Early ledge of the Mecklenburg Declaration. It is, however, easy on the next morning, June 6th, Lord Dunenough to believe that he may have borrowell those phrases in that period of excitement and after the lapse of many more with his family escaped from Williamsyears mity have entirely forgotten the document to which he was indebied. The following expressions occurring in the Mecklenburg Declaration, are found likewise in the Decla- Mr. Lee's Resolution, by the Committee. Mr. Jefferson's ration of Independence, adopted by Congress, July 4th, 1776 own original draught has it, “ renounce all allegiance to the 1. " Unalienable rights.” The words in the Mecklenburg kings of Great Britain.” &c. 5. “Are and of right ought Declaration are, " inherent and unalieoable rights.” So too to be." These being customary words in parliamentary in Mr. Jefferson's own original draught, the words used are, declaratory acts, are hardly subjects of plagiarism. They “ inherent and inalienable rights, the words “inherent and" appear however to have been adopted from Mr. Lee's Res. having been stricken out by the Committee. Mr. Jeffer-olution, by the Committee. 6. " Ahjure all political conson's MS. shows that he employed the word inalienable. nection.” The Declaration of July 4th expresses it, “ that but it is corninonly printed “unalienable. 2. “ Dissolved all political connexion between them and the State of Great the political bonds that have connected.” The only differ. Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." Mr. Jefference as to these words is, that Mr. Jefferson has it " bands," son's own original draught has it, “ we utterly dissolve all instead of " bonds.” 3. “ Free and independent.” These political connexion.” 7. “We solemnly pledge to each words, hardly subjects of plagiarism, were apparently adopl- other, our mutual co-operation, our lives, our fortunes and ed by Mr. Jefferson and by the Committee, from the Reso- our sacred honor.” The Declaration of July 4th employs Jution declaring the Colonies independent, offered by Rich. the expression, "We mutually pledge to each other our ard Henry Lee, June 7th, 1776. Mr. Lee appears to have lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor." See 1 Maradopted the words from the Resolutions of instruction of shall's Washington, note 6. 1 Jefferson's Writings pp. 15 the Convention of Virginia, passed May 15th, 1776. 4. and 21, and fac simile of the MS. Declaration of IndepenThe Mecklenburg Declaration says, “absolve ourselves dence appended to vol. 4. Jones' Defence of North Caro. from all allegiance to the British Crown." The Declara. lina. Jone's Memorials of North Carolina. Foote's Sketch. tion of July 4th says, "are absolved from all allegiance to es of North Carolina, pp. 37 and 38. Hening, vol. I, pp. the British Crown." This expression was borrowed by 8-32-36. Sou. Lit. Mess., vol. 4, pp. 209-210-212-213. Mare Mr. Lee in his Resolution of June 7th, and adopted from 'rin's Hist. of North Carolina, vol. 2, pp. 372.376.

burg to return no more and took shelter on an account of his expenses, which he should board the Fowey. A correspondence that rely on congress to discharge. He took comnow ensued between him and the assembly mand of the army, near Boston, July 3rd. * resulted in no agreement, and the house On Monday, the 24th of July, 1775, the after declaring that there was reason to ap- convention met at Richmond. Measures prehend a dangerous attack upon the peo- were taken for raising two regiments of regple of the colony and that preparations for ular troops for one year, and to enlist part of resistance ought to be made and still ex- the militia as minute-men. A committee of pressing an anxious desire for harmony with safety was organized to take charge of the the mother country, at length adjourned. executive duties of the colony. The comThe delegates were summoned at the same mittee consisted of eleven gentlemen, Edtime to meet in convention at Richmond, mund Pendleton, George Mason, John Page, [17th of June, 1775.) On the occasion of Richard Bland, Thomas Ludwell Lee, Paul this adjournment, Richard Henry Lee, stand- Carrington, Dudley Digges, William Cabell, ing with two other burgesses in the portico Carter Braxton, James Mercer and John of the capitol, wrote with his pencil on a Tabb. Patrick Henry was elected Colonel pillar these lines :

of the first regiment and commander of all

the forces raised and to be raised for the de• When shall we three meet again,

fence of the colony. William Woodford, who In thunder, lightning and in rain ? When the hurly-burly's done,

had served meritoriously in the French and When the battle's lost and won.”

Indian war, was appointed to the command

of the second regiment. Troops were rapidly [June 25th.] Shortly after Dunmore's recruited. (20th of September.] Col. Henry flight, a party of twenty-four persons remo- selected an encampment in the rear of the ved a quantity of arms from the palace to the College of William & Mary. magazine. † The governor had been requested to authorize the removal and had refused. an apoplexy, at Philadelphia, Peyton Ran

[October 22nd, 1775.] Died suddenly of Nightly watches were now established in

dolph, t aged 52 years. Descended from an Williamsburg, and measures were taken to protect the place against surprise. The

* [June 26th, 1775 ) Mr. Jefferson was added to a com. neighboring counties contributed men for mittee of congress, appointed to draw up a declaration of

June 29th, the Magdalen the causes of taking op arms. He prepared a declaration, schooner sailed from York, with lady Duin- but it proving too strong for Mr. Dickinson, of Pennsylva. more and the rest of the governor's family, which was however accepled by Congress.

nia, he was indulged in preparing a far tainer statement,

The disgnist for England. The Magdalen was convoyed against its humility was general, and Mr. Dickinson's de to the capes by the Fowey. This ship was light at its passage, was the only circumstance which re. soon after relieved by the Mercury, of 24ther observation on it was out of order, he could not refrain

conciled them to it. The vote being passed, although sur. guns. The governor's domestics now aban- from rising and expressing his satisfaction, and concluded doned the palace and removed to Porto-Bel- by saying, there is but one word. Mr. President, in the lo, the governor's seat, about six miles from paper, which I disapprove, and that is the word Congress.'

On which Ben. Harrison rose and said, “There is but one Williamsburg. Dunmore took up his station word in the paper, Mr. President, of which I approve, and at Portsmouth.

that is the word Congress.'" 1. Writings of Jefferson, p. 9. [14th of June, 1775.) George Washing. William of Yorkshire, England, who settled at Turkey

The ton was unanimously elected by congress, Island, on the James river. He was u nephew of Thomas commander-in-chief of the armies of the Randolph, the Poet. William married Mary Isham, of United Colonies. Impressed with a profound Bermuda Hundred. Several of their sons were inen of

distinction: William was a member of the Council and sense of the responsibility of the trust, he

Treasurer of the Colony. Isham was a meinber of ibe accepted it, declining all compensation for House of Burgesses, from Goochland, 1740, and Adjutant his services and avowing an intention to keep General of the Colony. Richard was a member of the

House of Burgesses, 1740, for Henrico, and succeeded his

brother as 1'reasurer. Sir John was Speaker of the House + Wirt's Life of Henry, p. 157.

of Burgesses and Attorney General. † Bland Papers, vol. 1, p. xxiii, where the names of the Peter, son of the 2nd William Randolph, was Clerk of party may be found; among them were Theodorick Bland, the House of Burgesses and Aitorney General. Peyton, Jr.. Richard Kidder Meade, Benjamin Harrison. Jr., of brother of John, was Speaker of the House of Burgesses Berkley, and James Monroe. John Carter Littlepage was and President of the first Congress held at Philadelphia. active among the patriots at Williamsburg.

Thomas Mann Randolph, great grandson of Williain, of

this purpose.

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ancient, wealthy and influential family, he destroyed by the inhabitants. Dunmore was the second son of Sir John Randolph, threatened to burn the town in retaliation. knight, and Susan Beverley, his wife. Pey- Notice of his design being sent to Williamston Randolph being bred to the law was, burg, a party despatched to their assistance, (1756,) appointed King's Attorney for the under Colonel Woodford, obliged the assailcolony of Virginia, and held that office for ants to retreat to their vessels with some loss. many years. [1766.) He was elected speak- Dunmore, [November 7th, 1775,) proclaimed er of the House of Burgesses, and [1773) a martial law, summoned all persons capable member of the committee of correspondence. of bearing arms to his standard, on penalty [March 20th, 1774.] He was unanimously of being proclaimed traitors, and offered parchosen President of the first Convention of don to all servants and slaves who should Virginia, which met at Williamsburg. August join him. His lordship had now the ascen11th of the same year, he was appointed by dency in the country around Norfolk. The the Convention one of the delegates to the committee of safety despatched Woodford Congress, which assembled at Philadelphia, with his regiment, and two hundred minute(Sept. 4, 1774,) and was unanimously elected men, amounting in all to eight hundred men, President of that august body.

to cross the James, at Sandy point, and go in Dunmore in the mean time, joined by a pursuit of Dunmore. Col. Henry had been motley band of loyalists, negroes and recruits desirous to be employed in this service and from St. Augustine, in Florida, collected a it was said, solicited it, but the committee of naval force and carried on a predatory war- safety refused. Henry's chagrin was aggra

At length a sloop, in the king's ser- vated by Woodford's declining, while detachvice, commanded by a Captain Squires, hap- ed, to acknowledge his superiority in compening to be wrecked near Hampton, was mand. The committee sustained Woodford

in this insubordination and thus reversed the Turkey Island, was a member of the Virginia Convention, 1775, from Goochland. Beverley Randolph was member convention's ordinance and in effect degraof Assembly, from Cumberland, during the revolution, and ded Henry, the officer of their first choice. member of the Convention that framed the Federal Con- Envy was at the bottom of these proceedstitution and of the Virginia Convention that ratified it

, ings. New mortifications awaited the man Governor of the State of Virginia and Secretary of State of the United States. Robert Randolph, son of Peter; of the people. Woodford approached the Richard Randolph, grandson of Peter, and David Meade earl of Dunmore and found that he had enRandolph, sons of the 2nd Richard, were cavalry officers trenched himself on the north side of the in the war of the Revolution. David Meade Randolph was Marshal of Virginia. John Randolph, of Roanoke, was

Elizabeth river, at the Great Bridge. Here yrandson of the Ist Richard. Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr. he had erected a small fort, on an oasis surwas member of Congress, of the Virginia Legislature and rounded by a morass, accessible on either Governor of the State. Richard Bland, Thomas Jefferson

side only by a long causeway.

Woodford Theodorick Bland, Jr., Richard Henry, Arthur and Francis Lightfoot Lee, William Stith the Historian, and Thomas encamped within cannon-shot of this post, Marshall, father of the Chief Justice, were all descended in a village at the south end of the causeway, from Randolph of Turkey Island. Jane Bolling, great-grand-daughter of Pocahontas, mar

across which he threw up a breast-work. But ried Richard Randolph, of Curles. John Randolph, Sr., being destitute of artillery, he was unable to of Roanoke, 7th child of that marriage, married Frances attack the fort. After a few days, Dunmore, Bland, and John Randolph, of Roanoke, was one of the hearing by a servant lad who had deserted children of this union.

The members of the numerous family of the Randolphs, from Woodford's camp, that his force did not in several instances, adopted the naines of their seats for exceed three hundred men, mustered his the purpose of olistinction, as Thomas, of Tuckahoe; Isham, whole strength and despatched them in the of Dungeness ; Richard, of Curles; John, of Roanoke. The following were seals of the Randolphis on the James night to the fort, with orders to force the river: Tuckahoe, Chatsworth, Wilton, Varina, Curles, breast-works early next morning, or die in Bremo, Turkey Island. The crest of the arras of the Vir- the attempt. ginia Randolphs is an antelope's head.





THE STUDENT OF PROVIDENCE. Child of the storm ! how beautiful thou art ! Spanning th’ ethereal concave with a zone Of many-tinted rays. Circling the sky With one vast wreath of glory! whilst a shroud He is the true student who makes Providence Of tempest-woven clouds surrounds thy form. his study. The mind takes shape and quality from

Art thou a habitant of heaven's high dome? the objects of its contemplation : "as a man thinkOr dost thou float up the viewless winds, eth, so is he.” He will continually arrive at truths Like foam apon the waters ; catching light new, sublime and satisfying, who studies the conFrom vagrant sunbeams, with whose molten gold stitution and arrangement of things, believing that Thy sky-born hues are beautifully blent?

he and his myriad fellows are building up the purThou, radiant Iris ! when the submerged earth poses of God, as silenily, and often as unconsciousLay cradled in the waters, didst come forth ly, as the swarming insects of the South seas A messenger of Hope, to the wo-worn

build the coral structures which are to bear up a And sorrow stricken remoant of a world. bustling continent; and these truths will impart Through weary days and nights of sullen gloom their own freshness and vigor to his mind. And They watched the whelming flood, whose turbid though he must feel that his path often winds into

obscure defiles, where the overhanging crags and Did sport with swollen corses. They had seen matted foliage fling down their mysterious shadows Cities o’erthrown, and the proud works of man upon him, still the light comes flashing through Cast forth, like chaff, upon the rushing surge. many a broad fissure to gladden him into perseDeath brooded on the waters, while the air

To such a student the Bible must be the Seemed struggling for its own vitality.

Great Teacher, for none other can lead him back It was as if the breath of drowning men, through primeval times, when history had not yet (The myriads from whom life had newly pass’d.) learned to prautle in its babyhood, and when even Had clogged with fetid damps the airs of Heav'n. its foster-mother Tradition uttered no voice. With

In the dark bosom of the wave-borne ark, ibis guide he loves to walk among the Sepulchres Two females sat, and lent attentive ear

of Time and commune with the Spectral Past, To the quick rush of the continuous rain, and read on the great tombstone of History the Which, like a fever-throbbing pulse, did beat ; sad inscriptions which tell him the mournful story And oft its tramp upon the booming surge, of misguided mind, and he loves to compare these Seem'd to their startled sense, as if the Lord ! inscriptions with his Bible and learn “ The ways Th' avenging God, sirode o'er the liquid waste. of God to man.” Strange and sublime to him is

Words had been mockery in that dark hour, the study of God's Providence over a revolied But silent pray’r, and tears, born of the heart, world. The scroll seems dark and its letters mysIn its strong agony, were offer'd there.

tical because of the dimness of his spiritual eyeThey rose, those tearfulones, and trembling sought sight, and he needs a reachable spirit and a diligent The Ark's broad deck, then timidly uprear'd mind to decypher its sayings ; but when quieted Their drooping heads, and shuddering look’dfabroad. with Humility, he can look fixedly out, he sees

The leaden clouds hung, like a funeral pall, God's purposes mysteriously gathering to their is. Above the wave-wrapped earth. The moaning wind sues, he traces the landmarks and the limits of that Sank and oprose again, with firful sweep, wide, but changeless circle, within whose sweep Across the billowy waste. And hark! the voice though men play pranks and sin with stout hearts Of supplication rises on the air.

and Hell stations its vast enginery, he can see that How solemn is the sound, the Patriarch

all things tend to the accomplishment of a glorious Calls on a God of Mercy and of Love.

end. * Father of Goodness! stay thy chastening rod, But it is while he is toiling through the specific And spare this feeble remnant of our race!" and minute intricacies of his subject, that these

And now the South wind, like a spirit, stirs general truths and large glimpses open sublimely Among the lesseniny rain-drops, scattering, upon him; and then he often rises higher, and feels With buoyant wing, the relics of the storm. ihat his study of God's dealings with a single The heavy clouds rise slowly, and o'erspread world, though inexhaustible, having depths his line With universal blot the face of heaven.

may never fathom, and hazy seas where he can Scarce had the Patriarch closed his pray'r, when lo! find no mooring, is still limited and scanty comWith sudden flash, a lustrous bow upsprang, pared with that universal Providence which holds Spanning the cloud-wreathed sky and stamping there in its half open book the story of all worlds. Such Jehovah's seal of pardon and of Peace!

a time is the still night to the thoughtful student, C... when he walks out to look upon

"the stars of heaven,

The Bible is to him as the Lydian stone to the The deep blae noon of night, lit by an orb,

Alchymist; it is a test, by which he estimates the Which seems a spirit, or a spirit's world ;"

value of things and their tendencies. The student

of Providence should not be an idle man- When And while his eye fixes tremblingly npon the mys- every power of his mind is tasked to its utmost lic curtain which Astronomy tells him is but the energy, yet forever a new and unoccupied vastness glimmering light of congregated spheres, and he stretches out its inviting arms toward him. He thinks that their countless numbers form perhaps should be a great Fact-gatherer, le should learn only the Threshold of the Universe that lies float- how things have gone in the past, and he should ing in sinless joy far on in those measureless spa- infer how they will go in the future. By classifices under the Providence of One Being, his soul cation of events past and present, he should gain a is bowed with the stupendous and dreadful truth, basis upon which Reason may build many a solid and he feels like a little child— Then has he the edifice, whose numerous apartments shall be decolemper of a true student, the subject is unfolded rated and peopled with the cheerful images of a with unwonted nearness to his very spirit. Self quickened fancy. and sense are forgotten in this close communing, I must, even though it be at the expense of unity and with awe and quiet simplicity he receives its in my plan, ask you to go and look upon the chart teachings. He cannot and would not speak- which contains past and present Providences, and Thoughts that would be soiled and marred by phy- selecting one from the number, inquire the reasons sical utierance gush over his soul with unutierable for its being there, and regard its probable issues. joy. Then he feels, though he might not be able I speak of that providential arrangement whereby to tell, why the “Sons of inspiration" will bend | Progress in scientific discovery, is made to corresover the pages of Providence enraptured forever; pond exactly to the right Progress of man's moral why Gabriel pants to search out its untold myste. nature. ries.

Who will doubt that there is such an arrange. What a lofty position does the student of Provi- ment? Look at the Evangelized World! Scidence hold! He stands on the mount of God, ence has beautified it with her discoveries. Look with the Bible as his telescope, and tracing back at the Pagan World! The perpetuity of old and the stream of time to its upspringing in Eden, he dragoing customs is unbroken. No new insenfollows it down through the Wane of Ages, into lions lighten their labors or unbind a single burden the Future, till he sees its last surge heave jtself that their forefathers bore. Innovation is not in npon the shoreless ocean of Eternity—Yes! The their vocabulary, because Progress is not in their Bible! Its simple story opens to him the Early souls. They know nothing of the onward march Past, when Time was young, and girded himself of scientific discovery, because their moral natures for his earthly march, and its Prophecies open to know no sanctified movement. There is a symp3. him the Latest Future, when Time is old and thizing darkness of the outer and the inner nature, shakes his hoary locks over his grave, and he sees and it is because Gospel light and Science's light and studies throughout the constitution of things are only different sunbeams from one sun. and knows that all is for good--And thus he is The hastiest survey of the world must establish taught to study fitly the busy Present, which is us in the belief that God has permited discoveever ringing its ceaseless changes in his ear, and ries in science, just in proportion to the right de. amid all its discords, he hears sweet melodies, velopment of man's moral nature. The uncouth and among its sickening hues he finds colors that craft that floated in the Elder days, on the inland will make a rainbow. He perceives and is con- rivers of the Celestial Empire, seem to have betent with the doings of Providence.

gotten children literally after their own image, to But though the Bible be his teacher, the mate- haunt the same unchanged streams, while in the rials of his study are elsewhere, thickly strewn all new world, through rivers that yet run by the un. around him. He goes out to gather and the Bible tamed wilderness, the steamer dashes from its track tear-hes him to classify and store up that which he the hindering wave and speeds to some colony it has gathered. All science, philosophy and history the Far, West. The rising sun looks down npon the are his gleaning fields, and they are more precious cow-cart of the Hindoo, dragging wearily through to him than to any other man. Others value them the heavy sand, and the same sun, as he hides himbecause their possession and discreet application self behind the western hills, sees the steam car, afford present profit or fame. He values them as which girding its loins with iron bands, climbs a medium through which he reaches a higher mountains and runs in the valleys, scaring with its knowledge—a knowledge not earthly, but spiritual shrill voice the untutored child of the woodland. and satisfying—the knowledge of “God's ways 10 Why the difference? Vice has quenched out the man;" and while the time servers around him are intellectual fire that once burned in the land of the dazzled into destruction by every false light, he wise-men. Vice has secured the scepire to Igno. walks "through maze and sinuous path secure. rance by the wrong development of moral nature.

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