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division of which we have spoken, and urged the propriety was the chamber of our debating societies ; and of entire harmony among all the students on such an occa here have I heard the first essays at eloquence from sion. But he did this without espousing either side, and

men whese voices have since influenced the destionly in view of future results to which such want of una. nimity might lead. Both dinners passed off with great nies of nations, and whose names are famous in animation and decorum, and were enlivened by various the world's history. The cogent reasoning of exhibitions of genius and wil.

Johnson; the fervid eloquence of Leigh; the acuteAmong the closing exercises of William and Mary was ness of Stanard; the logic of Barbour; the sound the usual Valedictory Address from the Faculty to the Stu- good sense of one whom it may not become me to dents,-delivered this year, by Judge Beverley Tucker, on the 3rd of July. At the request of the Students we put name, but who even then united the simplicity of lish it below.-(Ed. Mess.

the boy, which he has never lost, with the wisdom and prudence of age, all these rise up before me

in their accustomed places, as my eye glances JUDGE TUCKER'S ADDRESS.

around the room. Jurists, Statesmen and Warri[Published by request of the Students.]

ors-here was the nursery of ibeir greainess : here

was the arena of their first struggle for fame. Once more, young Gentlemen, it has devolved The most distinguished ornaments of the bar and on me to speak the parting words, which William bench ; the men who have been prominent in the and Mary is accustomed to address to her Sons, councils of the State and of the Union; the chiefwhen, leaving her sheltering walls, they prepare tain whose triumphanı banner now hangs, like a to enter on the bustling scenes of Life. The occa- thunder-cloud, on the brow of the Sierra Madre, sion is always interesting. The thought that so threatening destruction 10 the City of Montezuma, many that we have known in all the intimacy, all were my compeers here. How can the scene chat characterises the intercourse between the Pro- of such recollections be other than a halloned spot fessors and Students of this Institution, are about to me? How can the institutions, around which to leave us forever : that of these not a few may they cluster, ever cease to be an object of deep never again cross our path in life, and that of some and unabating interest ? Why else am I here? I perhaps no tidings for good or ill may ever reach who had made mnyself a home in a distant land, us, impresses the mind with sad and solemn awe. and identified myself with the rising fortunes of a Add to this the great probability that I may not State now great and prosperous—Why am I bere ? live to perform again the task to which I am now It is that I had left behind me here, ihe scene of called--the probability indeed, (for, at my age it is all these reminiscences, and also something yet not at all improbable,) that my voice may be now dearer to my heart than these, and something for heard for the last time within these walls, and that which I looked in vain elsewhere. none of you may ever see my face again, and you What was that ?-Gentlemen there is a pecolimay readily believe that I feel more than common arity common to the character of this Institutios responsibility in now addressing you. There are and to that of the State of Virginia, which has moments and circumstances in every man's life often attracted observation, and provoked the encalculated to give more than common weight to his quiry which of these might be considered as the words; and none so imposing as when, standing cause of the other ? To my mind the answer is to on the verge of time, he gives his last breath in be found in the history of the events which were warning and admonition to those he leaves behind. passing in the mother coontry just 200 years ago. Death is eloquent though dumb; and, when he speaks It was then that the banner of loyalty, which, in through lips already touched by his consecrating, the beginning of the great rebellion, had wared truth-inspiring hand, what ear is not bent 10 hear triumphant over the enemies of the crown, began his words, what heart is not alive to the saint breath. to droop—ere long to be trailed in the dust-fraisings of his eloquence! How solemn the respon- pled down and dishonored. It was then that mul sibility of the father in using that lasi opportunity titudes of gallant men who knew no compromise to speak the words of wisdom to his children of honor, who could not learn how to paller in a How solemn the responsibility of those who hear double sense, to unswear allegiance, and to show them! How solemn is mine at this moment ! their fidelity to their king by warring against his

Gentlemen; of all the associations which have life, were borne down in i he strife, and, driven from connected me with life one only now remains which their native land, sought shelter in the ever loyal has endured so long as my relation 10 this institu- colony of Virginia. More than half the inhabition. No spot on earth can call up so many re- tants came over about that time and they brought collections of the distant past as that where I now with them all the chivalrous gallantry, all the selfstand. The sports and strifes of my boyhood, the renouncing generosity, all the onwavering fidelity emulations of youth, the labors of declining age- 10 plighted faith, to which they had sacrificed every this room is the scene of all. It was my grammar thing at home. They had their faults, but false. school. About the time I passed into the higher hood was not among them. They had their weakclasses it became the lecture room for these. It'resses, but fickleness and fear were not of the pum

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kept alive, even in servitude itself, the spirit of an their instructors by their attainments in Literature exalted freedom"-deeply imbued with that sen- and Science-but when have the Sons of William sibility of honor which felt a stain like a wound, and Mary dishonored her, by dishonoring themwhich inspired courage while it mitigated ferocity, selves ? Which of them has at any time shown which ennobled whatever it touched, and under hinself base, false to his word, treacherous to his which vice itself lost half its evil, by losing all its friend-dishonest in his dealings? The result of grossness."

the experiment has been as brilliant as its concepGentlemen ; it was by these men and for the tion was grand and noble. education of the sons of these men that William But, Gentlenien, I repeat that William and Mary and Mary College was founded. That it might not is not to be accounted the author of this experidisappoint their wishes, it was indispensable that, ment. In making it she did but become the expowhatever else was taught, it should be a school of nent of the character of the People to which she HONOR. Without this it might have wasted its re- owed her existence. She could not do otherwise ; sources in the hopeless attempt to impart the bene. nor while Virginia remains what she was, can she fits of education to the Indian ; but it could re. do otherwise. Some sort of preparation is requiceive no countenance from that class of men whose red to qualify a Student to enter any academic Inconfidence is indispensable to the success and use-stitution. In some it is a smattering of the Clas. fulness of an academic institution. Thus did Wil- sics—or a knowledge of the rudiments of Matheliam and Mary College receive the iinpress of their matics. William and Mary true to her original character, and take the lead in that great experi- vocation, demands only a love of truth, and a sense of ment in the discipline of the youthful mind, which honor. These are all she asks. To him who substitutes candid appeals to the better feelings of comes thus prepared, she holds herself ready to the pupil, and a frank reliance on his honor, for es. afford all the benefits of Education. All not so pionage, severity and the restraints of the cloister. qualified mistake their place, when they enter an inThe experiment has succeeded so well that the stitution founded on such principles. They can get esample has to a certain extent been every where nothing here bur disgrace and ruin of body, mind followed. But William and Mary still kept in ad. and purse. But God be thanked, the spirit of the vance of all the rest. Emboldened by success,

Gentleman reigns, as it ever has reigned, parashe went on steadily, to establish a system allo- mount in the minds of Virginians; and far-far gether her own. You, Genilemen, need not be from us be the day, when fathers shall cease to imtold what that system is. You need not be told of bue the minds of their sons with principles and the reserved confidence reposed in the honor of sentiments which shall make a breach of faith, the Student who is thereby made a co-worker with the forfeiture of the plighted worrl,—an abuse of his preceptors in the moral training and discipline of confidence, or any other form of baseness n 'ssihis mind. While nothing is required of him but ble to the Youth of this proud old Stale. Should attention to his studies, nothing is forbidden but du- that day ever come, the glory of Virginia will have elling, which might be falal to his life, and gam- passed away forever; and William and Mary must bling and drunkenness and tavern-haunting, which then govern herself by those grim maxims which must be pernicious to his health, his intellect and make up the code of all power not standing on his morals. To his own sense of duty and interest, ils own honor and the honor of those subjected to fortified by his plighted word, the enforcement of it." No longer a school of Honor, she must be this scanty but important code is committed, while given over to prying Yankee pedagognes, with academic censures are only resorted 10 in extreme their spies and domiciliary visits, and their petty and rare cases. How faithfully the Professors regulations extending to the down-lying and the fulfil the implied engagement on their part, to rely uprising—the cut of the coat and the color of confidingly on the honor thus pledged, is known to the hat, and all those vexatious minutiæ which are all who have come under their discipline. Were ineant to make the Siudent sensible of his mistake, they so disingenuous as to establish coverily a sys- ir at any time he should fancy himself a gentletem of espionage-did they themselves act, in any man. degree, the part of spies,—did they not even wink Gentlemen ;-William and Mary is what Virbard, lest they might seem to doubt the honor on ginia made her. Virginia continues what she is in which they profess to rely, they would have had no part because the spirit of her ancient chivalry conright to complain it their plan had proved a com- linues to act on her through William and Mary. plete failure. But while they openly and in good Each is at once cause and effect, and each is nefaith acted on the professed conviction, that the cessary to the other. William and Mary is the son of a Virginia Gentleman must be incapable of Palladium of Virginia, to be guarded as the ark of forfeiting his plighted word, they had a right to her safety. Let her distribute 10 others the hoardfeel assured that their reliance on his honor would ed wealth of her literary fund—let her build up not be disappointed. Gentlemen, it has not been other universities and foster other colleges, and disappointed. It is not given to all to do credit to waste her resources in the unprofitable scheme of

VOL. XIII—72

establishing free-schools which none will attend St would have afforded me unaffected pleasure We shall not complain. Let but the Virginia Gen. to have been permitied to occupy the position of tleman, true to the uniarnished honor of his line my own choice on this occasion, that of an unobage, train up his Sons to walk in the footsteps of served, but interested spectator, mingling in the his fathers and emulate their character-courteous kindly greetings which belong to such re-unions, and manly-genile and not fearful—incapable of and adding my own to the common regret for the falsehood or prevarication, and animated by an absence of so many who retain a grateful rememever wakeful vigilance of Honor-let this be so, brance of this classic place;—and most of all for and William and Mary will stand, and Virginia those-ah! of how many is it true of the class of will stand and the principles so long held sacred which I was a member—and you who date from by Virginia will stand-and all will stand together later periods are startled by your own mournful in Prosperity and Honor.

recollections—whom death removed ere yet the Amen-So be it.

world could know and honor them as did their You, young Gentlemen, are our Epistle to Vir- youthful friends. But you have required of me a ginia. Go forth and proclaim to her Sons that in different office; and it would have been an unworthis Temple of Honor, the sacred fire snatched by thy requital of the honor of the appointmeni, and our fathers from the allar on which they had of- shown me less sensible than I am of the benefits fered up their all, is still preserved. Let your lips connected with a dne observance of the occasion, speak it. Let your lives proclaim it; and may to have declined to address you, much as I dread your success in all things be a new illustration of to disappoint your partial expectations. the great truth, “that he who will save his life shall The motives in which the society of alumni has lose it, but he who will lay down his life for the its origin, its preservation through coming years, truth, to him shall be added Honor and Peace and the interest of the public in its anniversary,-311 Happiness, both here and hereafier." Honor is which concern the being and usefulness of the the Shield with which your Alma Mater bucklers Society, unite to give importance to the annual adyou for the strifes of the world, and like the Spar. dress. It is easier far 10 determine what the adlan Mother, her words are “ Return with it or on it." | dress ought to be, than to invest it with the elera

lion adapted to its design. It ought to be neither

trire in its subject, nor common place in iis reflecTHE IMPORTANCE OF A LITERARY CLASS.

tions--with an aim far nobler than to cater to a

momentary indulgence. It should aim to commuBY WM. H. MACFARLAND, ESQ.

nicate a new impulse to moral progress-such as

those who unite graceful elocution with profound, In submission to a resolution of the Society of Alumni of William and Mary, communicated by a committee, Mr. original thought are permitted to aspire to. Ai Macfarland consented to prepare for publication the follow. least, it onght to embody something of the same ing Adilress, delivered at their request, in the College chup- generous spirit of concern for the moral elevation el, on the 3rd of July last.

of our race, in which this venerable College had Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Society :

its being, and which, with earnest labors, through

so many years, it has striven to achieve. The ad. The motives for it are so attractive, that it might dress is the exponent of an association founded be expected the alumni of our venerable College upon academic ties—those enduring ties which would gladly reassemble upon every anniversary. spring up in the members of a literary class, and They might be expected to welcome the returning bind them at once to each other and to their comseason for the refined enjoyment which its proper mon mother, and it should be instinct with the observance would never fail to administer ; as well spirit of academic life. All, however, which my as for its happy tendency to revive and diffuse a occupations have allowed lo atiempt, is briefly taste for literature and the arts. The pleasure of to direct your attention to a subject of deep intermeeting in after years with the companions of their est in itself, and which is not in danger of losing studies; and the impulse which might be commu- its attraction by imperfect discussion. nicated to sound learning by so ineeting, would, it This subject is, the importance of a Literary might be supposed, appeal with allraclive force to Class. all who retained a grateful recollection of their Few are insensible of the importance of literaalma mater. The business and cares of active life ture; but there is not the same general disposition might be dismissed for a short interval, to allow to acknowledge the importance of literary men. its votaries to witness the exercises of a new class Learning is thought of even by the ignorant as about to be ushered into the world, to note the something which confers solid advantages; but changes which had occurred since they stood in men who are known for the extent and variety of the same interesting position, and in manifest the their knowledge, fail to obtain the consideration sincerity of their hornage for moral and intellectual which it is the interest of society to accord to culture.

them. The babits of the present age are to esti.

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mate all things by their exchangeable value ; and, by the impulses which originate in pure, meditathe rules of this commercial arithmetic are applied tive, gifted minds. 1o determine the position of scholars and philoso- It will serve to impress us with a more distinct phers. It is too much the habit, even among class perception of the inestimable importance of a lite es of whom jusier conceptions might be expected, erary class, 10 consider for a moment its utility in to look upon authors of acknowledged eininence as some of its more obvious relations. It is this class persons who might have made a better use of their alone which can furnish unweariable agents in the talenis. It seems to be forgouen, midst the tumul great concern of education, religious and secularand conflicts of jarring interests, that the true dis for it is the only one in which they can be found at tinction of a country is iis moral and intellectual all filted for the high employment. It is to this power, and that institutions are valuable according class communities are indebted for those discoveas their tendency is to nourish “vigorous thoughories and impravements, and for those manifold exand virtuous purpose.” The influence of literary hibitions of thought and taste, which impart strength men is so silent and indirect, and works to its bene- no less than refinement to society. Men of proficent results by such gentle agency, that, like found learning, who “prefer before all other temother benefactors, they are overlooked because ples the upright heart and pure,” stay the vengethey are ont of sight.

ful retributions which heedless ignorance is busy By a literary class I mean an order of men whose in provoking, and render their country “conspicuous concern and aim are to add 10 the slock of human at a distance." Other distinctions are soon forgotknowledge ;- who apply themselves to discover ten-the wealth which made the owner the object and to establish moral and physical truth. That of ignorant or dissembling adulation, is, when broorder of men, who are not satisfied to rest upon ken up and distributed, of greater worth than when past discoveries and achievements, but are fired with hoaded with parsimonious care-power, place, rank, a nobler zeal to dissipate pernicious errors, and to in themselves confer no title to grateful remem. rise to loftier attainments. The men who regard brance, and society is often a gainer by their loss :moral and intellectual culture as the highest aim of but distinctions founded on intellectual power wora rational nature, and who estimate other qualities thily applied, survive the oblivion of all other coand occupations by their bearing upon it. Those temporary diversities, and furure ages, even more who determine the progress of society by its men than their own, honor the glorious names. The tal stature : and as nature and diligent application crusty Lord Treasurer of Queen Elizabeth, as he have fitted them, are engaged in training it to grace is called by Lord Campbell, in his lives of the (and majesty. The learned who are yet learners, Chancellors, who derisively pronounced the Fairie in whatever department of human knowledge they Queen an old song, is thought of, it' remembered at pursue their laborious researches, and who regard all, without respect ; whilst the poem and the poet the power of thought as their highest distinction, live and will live in unfading memory. which neither their own glory nor their social du- Our own history furnishes a beautiful illustration ties will allow them to neglect. In the language of the influence which superior men may exert of a beautiful writer, a literary class is that which upon a whole people. There was nothing in the employs "the whole strength of the mind to its history of the past to encourage a hope, that the own enlargement, and to the manifestation of itself body of citizens could be trusted to construct a in enduring forms."

new system of civil polity, founded on a philoSuch is a literary class in the nobles: form of sophical postulate. In truth, the authors of our its existence. None but itself is capable of esti- institutions, for the earnest faithfulness of their lamating its importance; and yet for that it is of all bors, were unmatched hy any antecedent body of other things least capable, from the modesty insep-reformers. The voluntary submission of the peoarable from true greatness. Ils presence, wherever ple to be instructed by their Madisons and Hamilhappily found, is visible in the impress of its own tons, was a noble instance of popular homage to beautiful resemblance opon the diversified forms the majesty of profound and virtuous minds. The which exhibit and denote the tone and condition of novel spectacle was exhibited of a whole nation in societies. Reversing the great law of gravitation, anxious deliberation,—the passions and prejudices yet scarcely less certain in its operation, it is un- which would disturb the national judgment, rebuked ceasingly employed in elevating the whole body of and chained down by the exertion of moral and inthe coinmunity to its own standards. So true it is tellectual influence. that the taste and habits of society reflect the char. It would be interesting, but my limits will not acter of iis literali. A low degree of attainment permit it, in cile examples of communities awakenin ihese, and a deficiency of perception of the greated to a new sense of their duties and their rights ends of instruction, or of power for careful induc. hy the exertions of thoughtful and original minds. tion, are reproduced with fecund aggravation in the Many such examples there are. Instances in which blind followers of the blind ;-whereas society is it had been the privilege of an individual, to imcarried forward with sure and unremilled progress,' part a new and renovating impulse to his age.

Truth, whether it concerns the moral interests of prosperous and stable though the great body of the society, or as it exists in the line of the exact sci- people are ignorant and grovelling. But it is quite ences, is a prize, not to numbers, but to individual otherwise with a people who acknowledge no remight. And, as it is discoverable only by an earn- straints but such as are voluntary and self-imposed. est, indomitable spirit, so when discovered, the As the governinent is exclusively in their hands, same agency is sufficient to compel the consent of it is the exact counterpart of themselves; and the the world.

country exhibits the fruits of a wise administration, There is one, however, to whom I cannot re- or of an imbecile and corrupt one, according to the frain from briefly alluding. One, of whom we degree of the common intelligence, and as jost and are mournfully reminded on this anniversary oc- sound opinions prevail. In conservanda civium casion, to which his presence for so many years liberlale esse privatun neminem. imparted a peculiar interest and attraction. A Now, the agency of literary men, in creating a? learned and accomplished scholar, who beautifully sound public opinion, is inestimably important. It is illustrated in his own person the dignity and weight not easy to understand how it can exist withont them. of the literary character. One whose life was It is for them to seize on the public attention and eminently useful, and who has left an impression infuse their own spirit into the common mind. To of himself, which will survive to future times ;- spread abroad a luminous atmosphere, benigo lo in many able essays, and in the minds of those the growth of grace and virtue, and malignant whose privilege it was to receive the benefits of only to what is disparaging and false. Let it not his profound instruction. The high rank which be said that this is, however beautiful in theory, he held in the long list of illustrious men, reared visionary and impracticable. There is no limit 10 by our venerable College to adorn and serve the the power of gified minds over the deep springs of State, was his by a true and undisputed title. He the human soul. No restrictions on the mission would have won distinction on any theatre, by the of an earnest reformer in the elevation to which he force of his character and extent and depth of his may carry the race. Strange that it should be knowledge; but his anubition was to be useful, supposed that the power of mind over mind is less rather than conspicuous; and in the faithful per. supreme than over the forms of the material creaformance of the arduous duties of a Professor, be- rion. stowed

apon his country his learning and his ener What would have been the condition of the gies. Short as was his life, and unexpectedly as world, at any former era, but for the light which it closed, President Dew deserved the wide-spread beamed from a few heroic spirits. What is the Jainentation uttered at his untimely death, for there progress of society in any age, but the triumph of was removed a dignified and profound scholar; an individual mind, fashioning it to his own convicaccomplished and able Professor; an enterprising tions. A Bacon and a Millon, a Newton and a and spotless citizen.

Shakspeare, have shown as well that there is no A free commonwealth above all others should limit to the power of intellect to fashion and 10 be distinguished by a sound, enlightened public mould, as that there is none to the progress of dis. opinion. An opinion founded upon definite per-covery. The epochs of the world mark but the ceprions, fixed in the national faith. It may exist accession of a new impulse, from the ascension of without any higher degree of intellectual cul- a master mind. All great reforms have had their lore than is within the reach of the whole commu- beginning in the earnest efforts of an intrepid leader. nity, and which it is the duty of the State 10 sup- Why then should it be doubted, that a reformation ply the means of attaining. It is but another name more pervading and elevated than the world has for the faithful and honest manner in which the yet witnessed, is within the power of mind to efmass of society is accustomed to inquire and to fect-a mind fired by a holy zeal to awaken the decide. To state it in another form, it is the moral race to a true conception of its moral and spiritual habit of society, as exhibited by a reverence for relations; and fitted for the high achierement, as what is true and immutable ; that which leads a alone man can be, by heaven-born illumination. people to approve whatever is safe and beneficent ; It cannot be questioned that the current opinions of and to condemn what is merelricious and a snare an age, the sentiments that prevail, the taste whieh to popular vanity.

distinguishes it, are mainly determined by its litThe importance of such a public opinion can-erary class. It is the influence of this class which not be mistaken. It cannot be otherwise than determines the direction of the common mind; nor in the highest degree important that a free that alone, but the force and strength of the curpeople should be considerate and conscientious. rent. This is a class which finds a market ever In countries where the protection of the State, and ready to admire the fashion of its fabrics. It is the nurture of its multiplied interesis, rest upon influential to purify or to demoralize ; 10 beget a distinct and independent orders, it may not be ab- taste and faculty for what is true, permanent, sound, solutely essential that the citizens generally should or for what is frivolous, effeminale, gross. be virtuous and intelligent. The State may be Nothing is more important than a spirit of popular

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