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thing which, as a military man, he was com- | rapidly relieved of their heavy cargoes. The pelled to do, and which he could not avoid doing without inflicting a stain upon his military reputation. He left the weaker for the stronger position. As a military act its propriety admits of not the slightest question among military men. As a political question, or an act of policy, in reference to the difficulties between South Carolina and the United States, Major Anderson had nothing to do with either, and acted with no reference to either. He simply discharged his duty as a wise and gallant soldier."
small-boats pulled away after everything needful, which it was possible to transport, had been recovered. By daylight the entire force was within the walls of the great water fortress, excepting Capt. Foster and eight men, left to dismantle the big guns bearing on Sumter, by burning their carriages. This duty Capt. Foster proceeded to perform. At an early hour, Thursday morning, the smoke from the burning carriages gave the Charlestonians their first intimation of an extraordinary occurrence. The alarm immediately spread, and the people thronged the wharves and battery looking out upon the harbor. The military were ordered under arms. Everything betokened a crisis in the affairs of the "sovereign" State. It was at first supposed that a reinforcement had arrived-then it was reported that the garrison had evacua
This statement presents a correct view of the circumstances, and justly gives to the commander the entire credit of the movement, so applauded by friends, so execrated by foes. If merely a military act it nevertheless was potent with political results. The little vessels which, in their night duty between Moultrie and Sumter, bore to the fast-ted the harbor, after destroying the fort. ness the men and munitions that were to hold it for their country against conspirators, held the fate of a Republic on their slender decks; and the soldier who ordered the transfer became an instrument in the hand of
destiny, of leading the Crusade against the Goths who sought to sack the citadel of the Republic, and scatter its glories to the four winds of Heaven. He proved a worthy leader.
When informed by Capt. Foster of the readiness of Sumter for occupancy, the Major secured three vessels as transports. It was given out that the service required was to remove the families, furniture, &c., of the garrison to a place of safety at Fort Johnson. Besides the vessels, several row-boats were brought into requisition, to be manned by the soldiers. At an early hour Wednesday (Dec. 26th, the order was given for the evacuation. Not a soldier of the garrison knew the destination, but all were zealous for duty. The vessels were rapidly loaded from the landing-place with all the personal effects of the officers and men, with munitions, provisions, and with the women and children of the post. They then stood out toward Fort Johnson, on James Island, but brought up at Sumter, where, by the aid of the workmen in the fort, the vessels were
Some laborers, however, arrived at the wharves, direct from Sullivan's Island, and communicated the truth to the thoroughly exasperated people and the anxious authorities.
The Convention immediately came together, in secret session, scarcely waiting for the formality of a breakfast. It gave orders for the military disposition necessary in a moment of danger. Governor Pickens was out on duty, gathering the masses of men into soldierly consistency. The battery was filled with troops, ready for any service. When news arrived of the course pursued by Anderson, Governor Pickens sent off a note to inquire by what authority the evacuation was made, and what was the object of the movement. Anderson replied, stating that it was a military step for which he alone was responsible-that it was an act of defence only. While these messages were on their way, Captain Foster appeared in the streets of Charleston to repeat the facts of the case to all inquirers. Intense indignation was expressed at the coup de main, but no violence was offered to the officer. Having imparted the information as authorized by Major Anderson, he returned to Fort Moultrie to retain its possession and await the action of the authorities. It was thus retained to throw upon the State the responsibility of its seiz ure from a United States garrison.
Condition of Moultrie after the Act.
CONDITION OF FORT MOULTRIE.
"The entire place was, to all appearances, littered up with the odds, ends, and fragments of war's desolation. Confusion could not have been more complete had the late occupants retired in the face of a besieging foc. Fragments of gun carriages, &c., broken to picces, bestrewed the ramparts. Sandbags and barrels filled with earth, crowned the walls, and were firmly imbedded in their bombproof surface, as an additional safeguard—and, notwithstanding the heterogeneous scattering of materials and implements, the walls of the fort evinced a vague degree of energy in preparing for an attack. A ditch some fifteen feet wide and about the same in depth surrounds the entire wall on three sides. On the south side, or front, a
The Charleston Courier's | small arms, clothing, provisions, accoutrespecial reporter, visiting ments, and other munitions of war had been the partially evacuated fort removed off and deposited - nothing but to observe its condition, gave an interesting heavy balls and useless cannon remained. statement of his observations. He wrote:"In order to ascertain truthful statements of the actual damage done to the forts, of the causes of the movement, and of the state of affairs generally, reporters were dispatched to the scene during the forenoon. On the way across the harbor, the hoisting of the American flag from the staff of Fort Sumter, at precisely 12 o'clock, gave certain indication that the stronghold was occupied by the troops of the United States. On a nearer approach the fortress was discovered to be occupied, the guns appeared to be mounted, and sentinels were discovered on duty, and the place to give every sign of occupancy and military discipline. The grim fortress frowned defiance on every side; the busy notes of preparation resounded through its unforbid-glacis has been commenced and prosecuted ding recesses, and everything seemed to indi- nearly to completion, with a rampart of sandcate the utmost alacrity in the work on hand. bags, barrels, &c. "Turning towards Fort Moultrie, a dense cloud of smoke was seen to pour from the end facing the sea. The flagstaff was down, and the whole place had an air of desolation and abandonment quite the reverse of its busy look one week ago, when scores of laborers were engaged in adding to its strength all the works skill and experience could suggest.
"In the immediate vicinity of the rear or landside entrance, however, greater activity was noticeable. At the time of our visit, a large force of hands had been summoned to deliver up their implements for transportation to Fort Sumter. Around on every side were the evidences of labor in the fortification of the work. In many places, a portion of the defences were strengthened by every appliance that art could suggest or ingenuity devise; while, in others, the uncompleted works gave evidences of the utmost confusion. On all hands the process of removing goods, furniture, and munitions was yet going on. The heavy guns upon the ramparts of the fort were thrown down from their carriages and spiked. Every ounce of powder and every cartridge had been removed from the magazines; and, in fact, everything like
"On one side of the fort a palisade of Palmetto logs is extended around the ramparts as a complete defense against an escalading party. New embrasures have been cut in the walls so as to command the faces of the bas tion and ditch. These new defenses are all incomplete, and are evidence of the haste with which they were erected. Considering the inferior force, in point of numbers, under his command, Major Anderson had paid particular attention to strengthening only a small part of the fort.
"A greater portion of the labor expended was spent upon the citadel or centre of the west point of the position. This he had caused to be strengthened in every way; loop-holes were cut, and everything was so arranged that in case a well-concerted attack was made, he would have retired from the outer bastions to the citadel, and afterwards blow up the other portions of the fort. For this purpose mines had already been sprung, and trains had been laid ready for the application of the match. The barrack-rooms and every other part of the fort that was indefensible would have gone at a touch.
"On the ramparts of the fort fronting Fort Sumter were nine eight-inch columbiads,
mounted on wooden carriages. As soon as the evacuation of the fort was complete, the carriages of these guns were fired, and at the time of visiting the fort yesterday, were nearly consumed, and the guns thereby dismounted. These guns, as well as those constituting the entire armament of the fortress, were spiked before it was abandoned. This is the only damage done the fortification, further than cutting down the flagstaff, and the breaking up of ammunition wagons to form ramparts on the walls of the fort."
This movement of the commander was construed by the Convention as threat of coercion, and every means were taken to prepare for resistance. A communication was dispatched to the Commissioners at Washington, authorizing them to demand of the President the unconditional evacuation of the forts in the harbor in event of his refusal to order Anderson back to Moultrie, and thus restore the status ante quo bellum. The telegraph offices were placed under State control. The post-office was considered to be under surveillance. The custom-house already had become part of the machinery of State. Orders were issued, during the day, for the occupation of Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie by the State troops. The arsenal, already in possession of State troops under Major Humphreys, gave freely of its plentiful stores to equip the troops, and to furnish munitions and artillery as they were required. Mr. Floyd had, during his four years' administration, succeeded in placing ten years' ordinary supplies in that arsenal, and thus had, indeed, befriended "the cause."
Seizures by the State
took possession of Moultrie. Captain Foster, seeing the approach of the troops, retired up the beach to a small boat with his eight men, and was suffered to pull over to Sumter. The work of restoration immediately commenced. Anderson could have shelled the fort, had he dared to assume the offensive; but, as his orders were imperative, to stand only on the defensive, he soon had to see one thousand troops and negroes swarming on Sullivan's and Morris' islands, throwing up fortifications and mounting guns for his own destruction. Had he been empowered to forbid this hostile work, the shot and shell of his tremendous Columbiads would have rendered it simply impossible for the revolutionists to erect their batteries. One of Mr. Buchanan's most unfortunate mistakes was to resist reinforcements of the forts in the harbor, when they could have been thrown in early in November. His next great error was to hamper Anderson with orders which forbade him to assume the responsibility of destroying forti fications expressly designed for the subjugation of the beseiged garrison. The patriotism and courage which afterwards controlled the Cabinet, in the persons of Joseph Holt, Judge Black and General Dix, gave the country good cause to regret their introduction at so late an hour.
Honor to Major Anderson.
The movement into Sumter was received with remarkable unanimity of approval in all sections of the country, save in the disaffected States. Even there many were found who saw in the act the attitude best calculated to force matters to a speedy settlement. It would seem to prove that, if it had "precipitated" matters politically, it During the afternoon of had also precipitated the unsettled patriotism Thursday (December 27th), of the people to glisten like a ruby on the the two forts were occu- 'Ethiop breast" of the rising storm. The pied. Castle Pinckney was taken by Colonel press, the pulpit, the platform, the poets-all J. J. Pettigrew, with a force of two hundred chaunted pæans for the loyal AndersonThat fort had not a soul in it, and was more loyal and true, indeed, than his supeso barricaded that scaling ladders had to be riors. His name became the theme of dis used to secure an entrance. The guns were course, for many a day, in public and private, found spiked, the ammunition and stores throughout all the States still faithful to the removed, and the flagstaff down. When it Constitution and the Laws. Such spontahad been stripped no one knew. Lieutenant-neous, heartfelt congratulation never before Colonel De Saussure, with two hundred men, was offered to a servant of the United States.
HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF EVENTS,--No 2.
FROM DECEMBER 27th, 1860, TO MARCH 4th, 1861.
Dec. 27.-Occupation of Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, by Major Anderson. Fort Moultrie is dismantled.
-The United States Revenue Cutter Aiken betray ed by its commander, Capt. N. L. Coste, into the hands of the South Carolina authorities.
Dec. 28.-South Carolina authorities seize the Custom-house and Post-office. Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie occupied by State troops. The Arsenal at Charleston is held by orders of Governor Pickens. Large numbers of troops pouring into Charleston. One body of eighty men received from Georgia. The Palmetto flag flying from the forts, public buildings, &c. The Stars and Stripes only flying from Fort Sumter. A dispatch to a member of the Cabinet, from Charleston, says troops are pouring in from all directions.
-Mr. Holt, the Postmaster-General, sends orders to the Sub-treasury at Charleston, to remit all the balance, $35,000, on the Post-office account in his possession, immediately, to the credit of the department. "If this order is not complied with at once, he will demand of the Federal Government to enforce orders. He is also determined, as before suggested, to suppress mail matter to and from South Carolina, if the mails are interfered with in that State."
-The Cabinet broke up to-night, after five hours session, without coming to any conclusion relative to the disposition of troops at Charleston. The impression prevailed that a conflict was inevitable. Secretary Toucey and Mr. Holt, Postmaster-General, urged defense; the others, a further evacuation, if necessary.
Der. 29.-John B. Floyd resigns his appointment in Mr. Buchanan's Cabinet as Secretary of War. In his letter of resignation he charges the President with a purpose to inaugurate civil war by refusing
to withdraw Anderson from Charleston harbor entirely. "I cannot consent to be the agent of such a calamity," (civil war,) and therefore tenders his resignation. It was accepted by the President, Dec. 31st, in a very curt and summary note.
-The South Carolina Commissioners make known their mission, by official communication to the President.
Dec. 30.-The President replies at length to the South Carolina Commissioners, declining to receive
Dec. 31.-Reports from Charleston state that strong fortifications are going up in and around the harbor, to resist any reinforcement of Fort Sumter.
-It is announced from Washington that the report which prevailed throughout the city this afternoon
Jan. 1, 1861.-The New York journals of to-day all regard the capital as in danger of seizure. One says: "It is now well known that military companies have been organized and drilled for months past in Maryland and Virginia-some of them under the eye of an officer of the regular army-and that the distinct object of their organization is to aid in the seizure of Washington city in the interest of the disunionists, or the prevention by force of Lincoln's inauguration. Some of the less prudent of their leaders boast in private circles that they have five thousand well-armed and organized men ready to strike the blow instantly upon the concerted signal being given."
Jan. 2.-In view of the dangers which threaten the city of Washington, General Scott has taken steps to place the militia of the District under arms. Regu lars are also being ordered to the Navy Yard and every precaution is to be taken to avoid a surprise, and to repel any attempt at revolutionary proceedings.
-A dispatch from Georgia states that the election returns indicate that the State has voted, by
a large majority, for immediate secession. The State
troops are also reported to be in possession of the United States arsenal in Augusta, as well as of Forts Pulaski and Jackson.
-Gov. Ellis, of North Carolina, dispatched troops to-day to seize upon Fort Macon at Beaufort, the forts at Wilmington, and the United States arsenal at Fayetteville. It was done to keep the property from seizure by mobs-so Gov. Ellis wrote to the Department of War.
-Private accounts from Charleston state that a thousand negroes are engaged in the erection of fortifications in the harbor, and that the channels leading to Fort Sumter have been obstructed by sunken vessels, and the buoys removed. Also, that Gov. Pickens has received the offer of 10,000 volunteers from without the State, who hold themselves in readiness to march at a minute's warning.
-Senator Baker, of Oregon,concluded his response to Mr. Benjamin's speech, in the United States Senate. It was pronounced a " masterly effort."
ator Mason are both in Richmond, and both urge a policy looking to co-operation with South Carolina.
Jan. 2.-Mr. Baker was followed by Mr. Douglas, | meets. Ex-Secretary Floyd and United States Senwho charged upon the Republican party the present troubles. He declared for compromise, and for giving the South any necessary Constitutional guarantees.
Jan. 3.--The Florida Convention meets at Tallahasse.
-The South Carolina Commissioners return home, having failed of recognition by the Federal government. They wrote insulting letters to the President, prior to their departure.
-The War Department rescinded the order for the shipment of guns from Alleghany Arsenal to the unfinished forts in the South. This news gave great satisfaction to the loyal people of Pittsburg.
Jun. 4. Fast day, by proclamation of the President. It is quite generally observed in the Northern States and in the Border Slave States, but is not regarded in the Gulf States.
-The South Carolina Convention nominated as delegates to the proposed Southern Confederate Congress: Hon. T. J. Wither, L. M. Keitt, W. W.
Boyce, James Chesnut, junior, R. B. Rhett, junior,
-The United States' Arsenal, at Mobile, seized.
Jun. 5.-Enrolment of volunteers going on in several Northern cities, to be offered to the Presi
dent to enforce the laws.
---Great Workingmen's meeting in Cincinnati. Resolutions passed declaring that the Union must be preserved in its integrity by the enforcement of the laws in all parts of the Union by any necessary means. An immense meeting was also held in Philadelphia in honor of Anderson and the Union. Resolutions were passed, demanding the President to enforce the laws. All parties took part in the proceedings.
-A dispatch from Washington says:-"The Alabama and Mississippi delegations held a conference last night, and afterward telegraphed to the Conventions of their respective States advising them to secede immediately, saying there is no prospect of a satisfactory adjustment. They resolved to remain here, awaiting the action of their States."
-The Florida Legislature and Convention assemble.
-The steamer Star of the West sailed secretly from New York with supplies and reinforcements for Fort Sumter. Governor Hicks, of Maryland, publishes his address to the people, stating, at length, his reasons for not convening the Legislature. He reiterated strong Union sentiments.
-It is rumored in Washington that the President is firm in carrying forward his new policy of resist ance to further encroachments, so far as lies in his power. Companies of Federal troops are being quietly concentrated in and around the Capital, for its defense.
Jan. 7.-Alabama Convention meets.
-Tennessee Legislature meets.
-Toombs, of Georgia, made a very violent and treasonable speech in the United States Senate.
Jan. 8.-Salutes very generally fired throughout Orleans, Major Anderson and the Union. the Northern cities in honor of the battle of New
Jan. 8.-The South Carolina Commissioners address the Alabama State Convention.
-The South Carolina and Alabama Commissioners address the Florida Convention.
-The South Carolina and Alabama Commissioners invited to seats in the Mississippi Convention.
-Secretary Thompson resigns his seat in the Cabinet, urging, as the cause, that, against positive promises to the contrary, troops had been sent to Major Anderson.
-Agents for the purchase of arms for the Southern States are busy in New York and Philadelphia. Large orders are being filled by Colonel Colt, for pistols and rifles for the South.
-The President sends a special message to Congress.
Jan. 9-A dispatch from Washington states that the Cabinet is in session, deliberating upon the propriety of arresting Senators Toombs and Wigfall, for high treason.
-The steamer Star of the West, with supplies, and 250 troops for Fort Sumter, is fired into from Fort Moultrie and a battery on Morris' Island. She is struck by a shot and puts to sea again, without communicating with the fort.
-The Virginia House of Delegates, at length, adopts the Convention Bill, and names February 4th, as the day of election of delegates.
-Fort McHenry, at Baltimore, is occupied by a company of United States troops.
-The Mississippi Convention passes the ordinance of secession by a vote of 84 to 15.
Jan. 10.-The Florida Convention passes the Ordinance of Secession by a vote of 62 to 7.
Jan. 11.-The Alabama Convention passes the ordinance of secession by a vote of 61 to 30. -Mr. Thomas, Secretary of the Treasury, resigns.
-The Arsenal at Baton-Rouge, Louisiana, seized by the State authorities. Forts Jackson and St. Philip, at the mouth of the Mississippi river, and Fort Pike at the Lake Ponchartrain entrance, seized by State troops, by order of Governor Moore.
-A detachment of United States troops occupied the Post-office, Custom-house and Sub-Treasury at St. Louis, as a precaution against their seizure by the mob.
-General John A. Dix, of New York, is appointed Secretary of the Treasury, in place of Mr. Thomas, of Maryland, resigned.
Lieutenant Talbot, as bearer of dispatches frem Major Anderson, arrives at Washington. He reports
-Special Session of the Virginia Legislature the Major able to hold out for about two months,