Student's Guide to Landmark Congressional Laws on Civil Rights

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Greenwood Publishing Group, Oct 30, 2002 - Political Science - 284 pages
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The Declaration of Independence stated that all men are created equal, yet the long and continuing struggle for civil rights in the United States seems to indicate otherwise. This reference guide details the most critical civil rights laws in U.S. history, moving from the period of slavery, to the Civil War, to the Reconstruction, to the civil rights era of the mid- to late-20th century. An overview essay introduces each period, and 36 individual laws are examined in essays placing the bills in their historical contexts. Each law is then presented in an edited and, when appropriate, annotated form, so students can read and understand the actual words of the law.

Many of the notable and notorious laws in U.S. legislative history have come in the area of civil rights. Among these are the Fugitive Slave Act, the Missouri Compromise, the Emancipation Proclamation, the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Acts of 1965. This uncommonly helpful guide to U.S. civil rights legislation also includes timelines, a bibliography, and an index.

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The Slavery Period
Articles of Confederation 1776
Declaration of Independence 1776
Northwest Ordinance 1787
United States Constitution 1787
Fugitive Slave Act 1793
Slave Importation Act 1807
Missouri Compromise 1820
Klan Act 1871
Civil Rights Act 1875
Civil Rights Era
Executive Order 8802 1941
Executive Order 9808 1946
Executive Order 9980 1948
Executive Order 9981 1948
Executive Order 10730 1957

Compromise of 1850 1850
KansasNebraska Act 1854
Constitution of the Confederate States of America 1861
Confiscation Acts 1861 and 1862
12 Emancipation Proclamation 1863
Postwar Reconstruction
Freedmens Bureau 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1865
Civil Rights Act 1866
Reconstruction Act 1867
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1868
Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1870
Enforcement Act 1870
Civil Rights Act 1957
Civil Rights Act 1960
Executive Order 10925 1961
Executive Order 11053 1962
Executive Order 11063 1962
TwentyFourth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1964
Civil Rights Act 1964
Voting Rights Act 1965
Executive Order 11246 1965
Fair Housing Act 1968

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Page 6 - Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, (paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted,) shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States ; and the people of each State shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions and restrictions, as the inhabitants thereof respectively...
Page 255 - Such action shall include, but not be limited to the following: employment, upgrading, demotion, or transfer; recruitment or recruitment advertising; layoff or termination; rates of pay or other forms of compensation; and selection for training, including apprenticeship. The contractor agrees to post in conspicuous places, available to employees and applicants for employment, notices to be provided by the contracting officer setting forth the provisions of this nondiscrimination clause.
Page 9 - ... and that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people upon whom he also obtruded them; thus paying off former crimes committed against the liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.
Page 15 - There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted; Provided, always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid.
Page 127 - That all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water...
Page 62 - My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it ; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it ; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.
Page 67 - And I further declare and make known, that such persons, of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.
Page 9 - Determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce.
Page 6 - Every State shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual...
Page 6 - The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, (paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted,) shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States...

About the author (2002)

MARCUS D.POHLMANN is currently the chairman of the Department of Political Science at Rhodes College. He has published widely in the field of African-American Politics, including Black Politics in Conservative America and Racial Politics at the Crossroads.

LINDA VALLAR WHISENHUNT is Legal Fellow in the Richard W. Riley Institute of Government Politics and Public Leadership at Furman University where she instructs students in trial advocacy. She is also of counsel to the law frim of Douglas A. Churdar, P.C., and has practiced in the area of labor and employment law.

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