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Slavery? But it is supposed by some that this principle | States. It is a firm and stable ground, on which we can let
ter stand in opposition lo fanaticism than on the shifting sands is less important in regard to Kansas and Nebraska than
of compromise. Let us be done with compromises. Let us as a general one-a general principle applicable to all
go back and stand upon the Constitution." other present and future Territories of the United States. Do honorable Senators then indeed suppose they are
I stood upon this ground in 1850, defending Freedom establishing a principle at all ? If so, I think they upon it as Mr. Calhoun did in defending Slavery. I was
overruled then, and I have waited since without proposegregiously err, whether the principle is either good or bad, right or wrong. They are not establishing it, and ing to abrogate any compromises.
It has been no proposition of mine to abrogate them cannot establish it in this way. You subvert one law capriciously, by making another law in its place. That now; but the proposition has come from another quar
It is about to prevail. The is all.
Will your law have any more weight, authority, ter-from an adverse one. solemnity, or binding force on future Congresses, than shifting sands of compromise are passing from under my the first had? You abrogate the law of your predeces- feet, and they are now, without agency of my own, taksors—others will have equal power and equal liberty to ing hold again on the rock of the Constitution. It shall abrogate yours. You allow no barriers around the old i be no fault of mine if they do not remain firm. This law, to protect it from abrogation. You erect none
seems to me auspicious of better days and wiser legislaaround your new law, to stay the hand of future innova- tion. Through all the darkness and gloom of the pre
sent hour, bright stars are breaking, that inspire me with tors.
Sir, in saying that your new principle will not be hope, and excite me to perseverance. They show that established by this bill, I reason from obvious, clear, well
the day of compromises has past forever, and that hence settled principles of human nature. Slavery and Freedom forward all great questions between Freedom and are antagonistical elements in this country.
The Slavery legitimately coming here--and none other can founders of the Constitution framed it with a knowledge come-shail be decided, as they ought to be, upon their of that antagonism, and suffered it to continue, that it merits, by a fair exerc se of legislative power, and not by might work out its own ends. There is a commercial, bargains of equivocal prudence, if not of doubtful antagonism, an irreconcilable one, between the systems
morality. of free labor and slave labor. They have been at war · Mr. Douglas closed the debate, reiterating with each other ever since the Government was estab: and enforcing the views set forth in his Report Ished, and that war is to continue forever. The context: already referred to; and at last the vote was is to be settled somewhere ; it is to be settled in the seat taken, and the bill passed: Yeas, 37; Naye, of central power, in the Federal Legislature. The Con- 14; as follows: stitution makes it the duty of the central Government to determine questions, as often as they shall arise, in favor Yeas-For the Kansas-Nebraska bill : of one or the other party, and refers the decision of Messrs. Adams,
Hunter, them to the majority of the votes in the two Houses of
Johnson, Congress. It will come back here, then, in spite of all
Jones, of Iowa, the efforts to escape from it.
Jones, of Tenn., This antagonism must end either in a separation of the
Mason, antagonistic parties-the Slaveholding States and the
Morton, Free States-or, secondly, in the complete establishment
Norris, of the influence of the Slave power over the Free-or
Pettit, else, on the other hand, in the establishment of the
Pratt, superior influence of Freedam over the interests of
Clay, of Ala.,
Rusk, Slavery. It will not be terminated by a voluntary seces
Sebastian, Bion of either party. Commercial interests bind the
Shields, Slave States and the Free States together in links of gold
Dodge, of Iowa, Slidell, that are riveted with iron, and they cannot be brokeu by
Stuart, passion or by ambition. Either party will subinit to the
Thompson, of Ky. ascendency of the other, rather than yield the commer
Thomson, of N. J., cial advantages of this Union. Political ties bind the
Toucey, Union together-a common necessity, and not merely
Weller, common necessity, but the common interests of
Williams-37. empire-of such cinpire as the world has never before The control of the national power is the control
Nays-Against the said bill: of the great Western Continent; and the control of this Messrs. Bell,
Houston, continent is to be, in a very few years, the controlling in
James, thuence in the world. Who is there, North, that hates
Dodge, of Wisc., Seward, Slavery so much, or who, South, that hates emancipa
Smith, tion so intensely, that he can attempt, with any hope of
Sumner, success, to break a Union thus forged and welded to
Wade, gether? I have always heard, with equal pity and dis
Walker--14 gust, threats of disunion in the Free States, and similar threats in the Slaveholding States. I know that men
So the bill was passed, and its title declared may rave in the heat of passion, and under great politi- to be "An act to organize the Territories of cal excitement; but I know that when it comes to a ques. Nebraska and Kansas," and the Senate ador with Slavery, the masses will uphold it, and it will jourued over to the Tuesday following. 'tand until some inherent vice in its Constitution, not yet In the House, a bill to organize the Territory lisclosed, shall cause its dissolution. Now, entertaining of Nebraska bad been noticed on the first day hese opinions, there are for me only two alternatives, of the session, by Mr. John G. Miller, of Mo., viz. : either to let Slavery gain unlimited sway, or so to exert what little power and influence I may have, as to
who introduced it December 22d. secure, if I can, the ultimate predominance of Free- Jan. 24th.—Mr. Giddings gave notice of a doin, Sir, i have always said that I should not despond,
bill to organize said Territory. even if tbis fearful measure should be effected: nor do I Jan. 30.--Mr. Pringle, of N. Y., endeavored now despond. Although, reasoning from my present to have the bill passed at the last session (leavof 1820, I have labored, in the very spirit of those who ing the Missouri
Restriction intact), reported by established it, to save the landmark of Freedom which it the Committee on Territories; but debate arose, assigned. I have not spoken irreverently even of the and his resolution lay over. compromise of 1850, which, as all men know, I opposed
Jan. 31.—Mr. Richardson, of Ill., chairman earnestly and with diligence. Nevertheless, I have always preferred the compromises of the Constitution, and of the Committee on Territories, reported a bave wanted no others. I feared all others. This was a bill “ To organize the Territories of Nebraska leading principle of the great statesman of the South, and Kansas,” which was read twice and com(Mr. Calhoun). Said he:
mitted. “I see my way in the Constitution; I cannot in a compromise. A compromise is but an act of Congress. It may be
Mr. Richardson's bill was substantially Mr. overruled at any time. It gives us no security. But the Consul: Douglas's last bill, and was accompanied by no which we can meet our friends from tho non-slaveholding report. Mr. English, of Ind., submitted the
views of a minority of said Committee on Ter. Finaily, at 111 o'clock, P.M., of Friday, 12th, ritories, proposing, without argument, the two after a continuous sitting of thirty-six hours, following amendments :
the House, on motion of Mr. Richardson, ad1. Amend the section defining the boundary journed. of Kansas, so as to make " the summit of the May 13th.- The House sat but two hours, Rocky Mountains” the western boundary of and effected nothing. said Territory.
May 15th.-Mr. Richardson withdrew his de2. Strike out of the 14th and 34th sections of mand for the Previous Question on closing the said bill all after the words “ United States," debate, and moved instead that the debate and insert in each instance (the one relating to close at noon on Friday the 19th instant. This Kansas, and the other to Nebraska) as fol- he finally modified by substituting Saturday the lows:
20th ; and in this shape his motion prevailed by Provided, That nothing in this act shall be so con- a two-thirds majority-Yeas, 137 ; Nays, 66strued as to prevent the people of said Territory, through the following opponents of the bill voting for the properly constituted legislative authority, from pass- the motion, namely: ing such laws, in relation to the institution of Slavery, as they may deem best adapted to their locality, and most conducive to their happiness and welfare ; and so much
MAINF.-Thomas J. D. Fuller, Samuel Mayall--2. of any existing act of Congress as may conflict with the
New-HAMPSHIRE.—Geo. W. Kittredge, Geo. W. Mor
rison-2. above right of the people to regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, be, and the same is here
MASSACHUSETTS.-Nathaniel P. Banks, jr.-1. by, repealed.
CONNECTICUT.--Origen 8. Seymour-1.
New-York.-Gilbert Dean, Charles Hughes-2. This appears to have been an attempt to give PENNSYLVANIA.-Michael C. Tiout-1. practical effect to the doctrine of Squatter Ohio - Alfred P. Edgerton, Harvey H. Johnson, AnSovereignty; but it was not successful.
drew Ellison, William D. Lindsley, Thomas Richey-5,
INDIANA. - Andrew J. Harlan, Daniel Mace-2. May 8 h.-On motion of Mr. Richardson, the ILLINOIS. - John Wentworth-1. House-Yeas, 109; Nays, 88—resolved itself Michigan - David A. Noble, Hestor L. Stevens-2. into a Committee of the Whole, and took up
WISCONSIN.-John B. Macy--1
VIRGINIA.-John S. Millson-1. the bill (House No. 236) to organize the Terri
Total-21. tories of Nebraska and Kansas, and discussed it -Mr. Olds, of Ohio, in the chair.
Mr. Richardson, having thus got in his reso. On coming out of Committee, Mr. George W. lution to close the debate, put on the previous Jones, of Tenn., moved that the rules be sus- question again, and the House-Yeas, 113; pended so as to enable him to move the print. Nays, 59-agreed to close the debate on the ing of Senate bill (No. 22, passed the Senate as 20th. a foresaid) and the amendment now pending to
Debate having been closed, the opponents of the House bill. No quorum voted—adjourned. the measure expected to defeat or cripple it by
May 9th. -- This motion prevailed. After de moving and taking a vote in Comumittee on bate in Cornmittee on the Kansas-Nebraska bill, various propositions of amendment, kindred to the Committee found itself without a quorum, those moved and rejected in the Senate; some and thereupon rose and reported the fact to the of which it was believed a niajority of the House-only 106 Members were found to be House would not choose or dare) to vote present. After several fruitless attempts to ad- down; and, though the names of those voting journ, a call was ordered and a quorum ob. on one side or the other in Committee of the tained, at 9 P.M. At 10, an adjournment pre- Whole are not recorded, yet any proposition railed.
moved and rejected there, may be renewed in. May 10th.-Debate in Committee continued. the House after taking the bill out of commit
May 11th. - Mr. Richardson moved that all tee, and is no longer cut off by the Previous debate in Committee close to-morrow at noon. Question, as it formerly was. But, when the
Mr. English moved a call of the House: Re-hour for closing debate in Committee had fused ; Yeas, 88; Nays, 97.
arrived, Mr. Alex. H. Stephens moved that the Mr. Mace moved that Mr. Richardson's mo- enacting clause of the bill be stricken out ; which tion be laid on the table : Defeated. Yeas, 95; was carried by a rally of the friends of the Nays 100.
bill, and of course cut off all amendments. The Mr. Edgerton, of Ohio, moved a call of the bill was thus reported to the House with its House. Refused: Yeas, 45 ; Nays, 80. head off; when, after a long struggle, the
The day was spent in what has come to be House refused to agree to the report of the Comcalled "
Filibustering "—that is, the minority mittee of the Whole Yeas, (for agreeing) 97 ; moving adjournments, calls of the House, ask. Nays, 117-bringing the House to a direct vote ing to be excused from voting, taking appeals, on the engrossment of the bill. etc., etc. In the midst of this, Mr. Richardson Mr. Richardson now moved an amendment, withdrew his original motion, and moved in which was a substitute for the whole bill, being stead that the debate in Committee be closed substantially the Senate's bill, with the clause in five minutes after the House shall have re- admitting aliens, who have declared iheir insumed it.
tention to become citizens, to the right of sufThe bour of noon of the 12th having arrived, frage. He thereupon called the Previous QuesMessrs. Dean and Banks raised points of order tion, which the House sustained-Yeas, 116; as to the termination of the legislative day. Nays, 90—when the House adopted his amendThe Speaker decided that the legislative day ment-Yeas, 115; Nay8, 95—and proceeded to could only be terminated by the adjournment engross the bill — Yeas, 112; Nays, 99—when of the House, except by constitutional conclu- he put on the Previous Question again, and sion of the session. Mr. Banks appealed, but passed the bill finally-Yeas, 113; Naye, 100at length withdrew his appeal.
B. Morgan, William Murray, Andrew Oliver, Jared v.
Peck, Rufus W. Peckham, Bishop Perkins, Benjamin FROM THE FREE STATES.
Pringle, Russell Sage, George A. Simmons, GERRIT
Smith, Johu Wheeler--22. MAINE.-Moses McDonald-1.
NEW-JERSEY.-Alex. C. M. Pennington, Charles Skel. New-HAMPSHIRE-Harry Hibbard-1.
ton, Nathan T, Stratton-3. CONNECTICUT.-Colin M. Ingersoll-1.
PENNSYLVANIA.-Josrph R. Chandler, Carlton B. CurVERMONT.-None. MASSACHUSETTS.--None.
tis, John Dick, Augustus Drum, William_Everhart, RHODE ISLAND.-None.
James Gamble, Galusha A. Grow, Isaac E. Hiester, New-YORK. - Thomas W. Cumming, Francis B. Cut. Thomas M. Horoe, John McOulloch Nor Middleswurth, ting, Peter Rowe, John J. Taylor, William M. Tweed, David Ritchie, Samuel L. Russell, Michael C. TroutHiram Wall dge, William a Walker, Mike Walsh, Theo.
14. R. Westbrook-9. PENNSYLVANIA.-Samuel A. Bridges, John L. Dawson, Edgerton, Andrew Ellison, Joshua R. GIDDINGS, Aaron
Oh10.--Edward Ball, Lewis D. Campbell, Alfred P. Thomas B. Florence, J. Clancy Jones, William H. Kurtz, Harlan, John Scott Harrison, 11. H. Johnson, Williaru John McNair, Asa Vacker, John Robbins, jr., Christian D. Lindsey, M. H. Nicho's, Thomas Richey, William R. M. Straub, William H. Witte, Hendrick B. Wright-11.
Sapp, Audrew Stuart, John L. Taylor, EDWARD Wade New-JERSEY-Samuel Lilly, George Vail--2.
-15. 0910.-David T. Disney, Frederick W. Green, Edson
INDIANA.–Andrew J. Harlan, Daniel Mace, Samuel B. Olds, Wilson Shannon-4.
W. Parker-3. INDIANA.-John G. Davis, Cyrus L. Dunham, Norman Eddy, William H. English, Thomas A. Hendricks, James Washburne, John Wentworth, Richard Yates-5.
ILLINOIS.-James Knoco, Jesse 0. Norton, Elihu B. H. Lane, Smith Miller-7.
MICHIGAN.-David A. Noble, Hestor L. Stevens-2. ILLINOIS.-James C. Allen, Willis Allen, Wm. A. Rich
WISCONSIN. -Benjamin C. Eastman, Daniel Wells, jr.ardson-3.
2. MICHIGAN.-Samuel Clark, David Stuart-2.
Iowa.- None. IOWA.-Bernhart Henn-1.
CALIFORNIA.- None. Total-91.
VIRGINIA.-John S. Millson-1.
NORTH CAROLINA.-Richard C. Puryear, Sion H.
Rogers-2. DELAWARE.-George R. Riddle-1.
TENNESSEE.- Robert M. Bugg, William Cullom Emer. MARYLAND.-William T. Hamilton, Henry May, Jacob
80n Etheridge, Nathaniel G. Taylor-4. Shower, Joshua Vansant-4.
LOUISIANA.-Theodore G. Hunt-1. VIRGINIA.-Thomas H. Bayly, Thomas S. Bocock, John
MISSOURI.-Thomas H. Benton-1.
OTHER SOUTHERN STATES.- None. Total-9.
NORTH CAROLINA.-William S. Ashe, Burton Craige,
Absent, or not voting-21. M. Shaw-6.
N. ENGLAND STATES.-- William Appleton, of Mass.-1. SOUTH CAROLINA.-William W. Boyce, President S. New-YORK. --Geo. W. Chase, Janies Maurice-2. Brooks, James L. Orr-3.
PENNSYLVANIA, - None.
ILLINOIS. --Win. H. Bissell-1.
WISCONSIN.—John B. Macy-1. LOUISIANA.-William Dunbar, Roland Jones, John Per
Total from Free States-9. kins, jr.-3
KENTUCKY.—John C. Breckinridge, James S. Chris- MARYLAND.—John R. Franklin, Augustus R. Sollerg man, Leander M. Coco, Clement S. Hill, John M. Elliot, 1-2, Benj. E. Grey, William Preston, Richard H. Stanton VIRGINIA.-Fayette McMullen-1. -8.
NORTH CAROLINA.- None. TENNESSEE.-William M. Churchwell, George W. Jones,
DELAWARE.- None. Charles Ready, Samuel A. Smith, Frederick P. Stanton,
SOUTCAROLINA.-Wm. Aiken, Lawrence M. Keitt, Folia Zollicoffer-6.
KENTUCKY.-Linn Boyd, (Speaker,) Presley Ewing-2. FLORIDA.-Augustus E. Maxwell-1.
MISSOURI.-Samuel Caruthery 1. Texas.-Peter H. Bell, Geo. W. Smyth—2. Total—69. ARKANSAS.-- None. FLORIDA,-- None.
Texas. -None. TENNESSEE -None.
Total from Slave States-12.
Whigs in Italics. Abolitionists in SMALL CAPITALS.
Democrats in Roman. MAINE.-Samuel P. Benson, E. Wilder Farley, Thomas J. D. Fuller, Samuel Mayall, Israel Washburn, jr.
May 23d.—The bill being thus sent to the
Senate (not as a Senate but as a House bill), NEW HAMPSHIRE.-George W. Kittredge, George W. was sent at once to the Committee of the Whole, Morrison-2.
MASSACHUSETTS.---Nathaniel P. Banks, jr., Samuel L. and there briefly considered.
tends the right of suffrage to RHODE ISLAND.--Thomas Davis, Benjamin B. Thurston those who shall have declared on oath their intenCONNECTICUT.–Nathan Belcher, James T. Pratt, Origen oath to support the Constitution of the United States, and
tion to become such, [citizens) and shall have taken al 8. Seymour-3 VERMONT.-James Meacham, Alvah Sabin, Andrero
the provisions of this act. Tracy-3.
Negatived-Yeas: Bayard, Bell, Brodhead, New York.-- Henry Bonnett, Davis Carpenter, Gila Brown, Clayton, Pearce, and Thompson of bert Dean, Caleb Lyon, Reuben E. Fenton. Thomas T. Flaglor, George Hastings, Solomon G. Haoon, Charles
Kentucky. Nays, 41. Hugies, Daniel T. Jones, Orsamus B. Matteson, Edroin
The bill was then ordered to be engrossed
for a third reading-Yeas, 35; Nays, 13, as (Dec. 31st) his Annual Message, and next (Jan. follows:
24th) a special message with regard to the conYeas-For Engrossing :
dition of Kansas, in which he thus alludes to essrs. Atchison, Mo..
those who think Slavery not the best institution Budger, N. C., Norton, Fla.,
to make a prosperous and happy State, and to Benjamin, La, Norris, N. H.,
those who opposed the repeal of the Missouri Brouhead, Pa., Peurce, Md.,
This interference, in so far as concerns its primary
causes and its inmediate commencement, was one of the
incidents of that pernicious agitation on the subject of Dawson, Ga., Shields, Ill.,
the condition of the colored persons held to service in Douglas, Ill., Slidell, La.,
some of the States, which has so long disturbed the reFitzpatrick, Ala., Stuart, Mich.,
pose of our country, and excited individuals, otherwise Gwin, Cal.,
Thompson, Ky., patriotic and law-abiding, to toil with misdirected zeal Hunter, Va.,
Thomson, N., J., in the attempt to propagate their social theories by the
perversion and abuse of the powers of Congress,
The persons and parties whom the tenor of the act
to organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas
thwarted in the endeavor to impose, through the agency Wright, N. J., 35.
of Congress, their particular views of social organizaNays--Against Engrossing :
tion on the people of the future new States, now per
ceiving that the policy of leaving the inhabitants of each Messrs. Allen, R. I.,
State to judge for themselves in this respect was ineradi.
cably rooted in the convictions of the people of the
Union, then had recourse, in the pursuit of their general
object, to the extraordinary measure of propagandist
colonization of the Territory of Kansas, to prevent the Foot, Vt., Wade, Ohio,
free and natural action of its inhabitants in its internal Walker, Wis.-13.
organization and thus to anticipate or to force the deterDemocrats in Roman; Whigs in Italics ; Free Demo- mination of that question in this inchoate State. crats in SMALL CAPS.
The President makes the following referThe bill was then passed without further ence to the action of the people of Kansas, division, and, being approved by the President, who, claiming the right “ peaceably to asseinbecame a law. The clause in the 14th section, ble and petition for a redress of grievances,” which repealed the Missouri Compromise, with did so assemble, and sent a petition to Conthe Badger proviso, is as follows:
gress, to permit them to form a State GovernThat the Constitution and all the laws of the United ment, with the Constitution submitted : States which are not locally inapplicable, shall have the same force and effect within the said territory of Ne Following upon this movement was another and braska, as elsewhere within the United States, except the more important one of the same general character. eighth section of the act preparatory to the admission of Persons confessedly not constituting the body politic, or Missouri into the Union, approved March sixth, eighteen all the inhabitants, but merely a party of the inhabitants, hundred and twenty, which being inconsistent with the and without law, have undertaken to summon a conven: principles of non-intervention by Congress with Slavery tion for the purpose of transforming the Territory into a in the States and Territories, as recognized by the legisla. State, and have framed a constitution, adopted it, and tion of eighteen hundred and fifty, commonly called the under it elected a governor and other officers, and a Compromise Measures, is hereby declared inoperative representative to Cougress. and void; it being the true intent and meaning of this March 12.-In Senate, Mr. Douglas, of Illiact not to legislate Slavery into any Territory or State, nor to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people there. nois, from the Committee on Territories, made of perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic in- a report on matters relating to Kansas affairs, stitutions in their own way, subject only to the Constitue in which he says: tion of the United States; Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to revive or put in force The act of Congress for the organization o the Ter. any law or regulation which may have existed prior to ritories of Kansas and Nebraska, was designed to conthe act of sixth of March, eighteen hundred and twenty, form to the spirit and letter of the Federal Constitution, either protecting, establishing, prohibiting or abolishing by preserving and maintaining the fundamental principle Slavery.
of equality among all the States of the Union, notwith
standing the restriction contained in the 8th section of Dec. 3, 1855.—The XXXIV th Congress con- the act of March 6, 1820, (preparatory to the admission vened at the Capitol, in Washington. - Jesse D. of Missouri into the Union, which assumed to deny to Bright, of Ind., holding over as President pro Slavery for themselves, provided they should make their tempore of the Senate, in place of Vice-Presi- hoines and organize states north of thirty-six degrees dent William R. King, of Alabama, deceased. and thirty minutes north latitude. Conforming to the A quorum of either House was found to be cardinal principles of State equality and self-govern
ment, in obedience to the Constitution, the Kansaspresent.
Nebraska act declared, in the precise language of the But the House found itself unable to organize Coinpromise Measures of 1850, that, " when admitted as by the choice of a Speaker, until after an un. a State, the said Territory, or any portion of the same,
shall be received into the Union, with or without Slavery, precedented struggle of nine weeks' duration
as their constitutions may prescribe at the time of their Finally, on Saturday, Feb. 20, 1856, the plu- admission." rality-rule was adopted-Yeas, 113; Nays, 104
He then refers to the formation of the “ Emi-and the House proceeded under it to its one kundred and thirty-third ballot for speaker, ized on the principle of “State equality" by
1* which had been organ.
Aid Company, when Nathaniel P. Banks, jr. (anti-Nebraska) the people of Massachusetts. This proceeding of Massachusetts, was chosen, having 103 he calls a perversion of the plain provisions votes to 100, for William Aiken, of South Caro- of the Kansas-Nebraska Act--that the only lina. Eleven votes scattered on other persons did not count against a choice. It was there
*"The Emigrant Aid Company," with five millions dollars, fore resolved-Yeas, 155; Nays, 40—that Mr.
to which Mr. Douglas alludes, and from the existence of which Banks was duly elected Speaker.
he makes a special plea for the Border Ruflians, was But, during the pendency of this election, the
never organized: See Report of Special Committee of Con. President had transmitted to both Houses, first gross, (page 100.)
kind of lawful emigration was “such as has effort to send at least an equal number, to counteract the filled up our new States and Territories, when apprehended result of the new importation. each individual has gone on his own account,
The report then gives a history of the Legislato improve his condition and that of his ture elected March 30th, 1855, its removal from family.” The report then states that the peo- Pawnee City to the Shawnee Mission, its subseple of Missouri were greatly alarmed at the quent quarrel with Gov. Reeder, and continues : rapid filling up of Kansas by people opposed to
A few days after, Governor Reeder dissolved his official Slavery, that this might endanger the exist- of the seat of government, and while that body was still
relations with the legislature, on account of the removal ence of Slavery in Missouri-and that, as the in meeting was called many voters," to aspeople of Missouri had a right to defend their semble at Lawrence, on the 14th or 15th of August, 1855, own institutions, they might properly resist the ritorial Convention, preliminary to the formation of a State formation of an Anti-Slavery State in their Government, and other subjects of public interest." neighborhood. The report continues :
that meeting, the following preamble and resolutions were
adopted with but one dissenting voice: For the successful prosecution of such a scheme, the Mis- “ Wherers, the people of Kansas Territory have been since sourians who lived in the iinmediate vicinity possessed pe- the settlement, and now are, without any law-making power: culiar advantages over their rivals from the more remote therefore portions of the Union. Each family could send one of its
"Be it resolred, That we, the people of Kansas Territory, in members across the line to mark out his claim, erect a Auenced by a common necessity, and greatly desirous of pro,
mass mreing assembled, irrespective of party distinctions, incabin, and put in a small crop, sufficient to give him as moting the common good, do hereby call upon and request all valid a right to be deemed an actual settler and qualified honn fide citizens of Kansas Territory, of whatever political voter as those who were being imported by the Emigrant views and predilections, to consult together in their respective Aid Societies. In an unoccupied Territory, where the lands election districts. and in mass convention or otherwise, elect have not been surveyed, and where there were no marks three delegates for each representative in the legislative asor lines to indicate the boundaries of sections and quarter March, 1965 : said delegates to assembly in convention at the
proclamation of Governor Reeder of date 10th sections, and where no legal title could be had until after town of Top 22, on the 19h day of September, 1855, then and the surveys should be made, disputes, quarrels, violence, there to consider and determine upon all subjects of public in. and bloodshed might have been expected as the natural terest, and particularly upon that having reference to the and inevitable consequences of such extraordinary systems speedy formujon of a State Constitution, with an intention of of emigration, which divided and arrayed the settlers into an immediate application to be admitted as a State into the two great hostile parties, each having an inducement to Union of the United States of America." claim more than was his right, in order to hold it for some
This meeting, so far as your Committee have been able new-comer of his own party, and at the same time prevent to ascertain, was the first step in that series of proceedings persons belonging to the opposite party from settling in the which resulted in the adoption of a Constitution and State neighborhood. As a result of this state of things, the Government, to be put in operation on the 4th of the pregreat mass of emigrants from the northwest and from sent month, in subversion of the Territorial Government other States who went there on their own account, with no established under the authority of Congress. The right to other object, and influenced by no other motives than to set up the State Government in defiance of the constituimprove their condition and secure good homes for their ted authorities of the Territory, is based on the assumption families, were compelled to array themselves under the “ that the people of Kansas Territory have been since its banner of one of these hostile parties, in order to insure pro- in the face of the well-known fact, that the Territorial Le
settlement, and now are, without any law-making power;" tection to themselves and their claims against the aggress- gislature was then in session, in pursuance of the pro ions and violence of the other.
clamation of Governor Recuer, and the organic law of the On the 29th of November, 1854, the first elec. Territory. tion in the Territory was held for a delegate to The report then proceeds to narrate the cir Congress. This was a very short time after the cumstances attending the formation of a State arrival of the Free State emigrants in suffi. Government in Michigan, Arkansas, Florida and cient bodies to protect themselves. At this California, and states that “in every instance election, according to the returns, J. W. Whit. the proceeding has originated with, and been field had received 2,268 votes; other persons, conducted in subordination to, the authority of 575. Whitfield, of course, received the Gover- the local governments established or recognized nor's certificate, but great dissatisfaction was by the Government of the United States.” It expressed by the Free State settlers, charging then refers to the case of the effort to change that many of the votes received by Whitfield the organic law, made in Rhode Island some were given by men living in Missouri; and it years ago, from which it says the “insurgents” afterward appeared that at the time of the first (as the Free-State party in Kansas is called) election there were but 1,114 legal voters in the cau derive 110 aid or comfort." Territory. Nevertheless, the report continues : The following concludes the Report; the Certain it is, that there could not have been a system of sense the people of a Territory are perfectly free
words in Italics below perhaps explain in what fraud and violence such as has been charged by the and supporters of the emigrant aid societies, unless the to form their own institutions, in their own way:" Governor and judges of election were parties to it; and Without deeming it necessary to express any opinion on your committee are not prepared to assume & fact so dis- this occasion, in reference to the merits of that controreputable to them, and so improbable upon the state of versy, [referring to Rhode Island,] it is evident that the facts presented, without specific charges and direct proof. principles upon which it was conducted are not involved In the absence of all proof and probable truth, the charge in the revolutionary struggle now going on in Kansas; for that the Missourians had invaded the Territory and con- the reason, that the sovereignty of a Territory remains trolled the congressional election by fraud and violence in abeyance, suspended in the United States, in trust was circulated throughout the Free States, and made the for the people, until they shall be admitted into the basis of the most inflammatory appeals to all men opposed 'Union as a State. In the meantime, they are entitled to the principles of the Kansas-Nebraska act to emigrate to enjoy and exercise all the privileges and rights of or send emigrants to Kansas, for the purpose of repelling self-government, in mubordination to the Constitution the invaders, and assisting their friends who were then in of the United States, and in obedience to their organic the Territory in putting down the slave-power, and prohi- inzo passed by Congress in pursuance of that instru biting Slavery in Kansas, with the view of making it a ment. These rights and privileges are all derived from Free State. Exaggerated accounts of the large number the Constitution, through the act of Congress, and must be of emigrants on their way under the auspices of the emi. exercised and enjoyed in subjection to all the limitations grant aid companies, with the view of controlling the elec- and restrictions which that Constitution imposes. Hence, tion for members of the Territorial Legislature, which was it is clear that the people of the Territory have no inherent to take place on the 30th of March, 1855, were published sovereign right, under the Constitution of the United States, and circulated. These accounts, being republished and be to annul the laws and resist the authority of the Territorial lieved in Missouri, where the excitement had already been government which Congress has established in obedience fraflamed to a fearful intensity, induced a corresponding to the Constitution.