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mously nominated, and the Convention ad- and ample protection of persons and property from domestic violence and foreign aggression. journed.

5. That it is the duty of every branch of the Govern ment to enforce and practice the most rigid economy in conducting our public affairs, and that no more revenue

DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION- ought to be raised than is required to defray the neces


This Convention met at Cincinnati on the 2d of June, and chose John E. Ward, of Georgia, to preside, and nominated James Buchanan on the 17th ballot, as follows:


sary expenses of the government, and gradual but certain extinction of the public debt.

6. That the proceeds of the public lands ought to be Constitution, and that we are opposed to any law for the sacredly applied to the national objects specified in the distribution of such proceeds among the States, as alike inexpedient in policy, and repugnant to the Constitution. 7. That Congress has no power to charter a National Douglas. Cass. Bank; that we believe such an institution one of deadly hostility to the best interests of this country, dangerous to our republican institutions and the liberties of the people, and calculated to place the business of the country within the control of a concentrated money power and above the laws and will of the people; and the results of the Democratic legislation in this and all other financial measures upon which issues have been made between the two political parties of the country, have demonstrated to candid and practical men of all parties their soundness, safety and utility in all business pursuits.

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8. That the separation of the moneys of the Government from banking institutions is indispensable to the safety of the funds of the Government and the rights of the people.

9. That we are decidedly opposed to taking from the President the qualified Veto power, by which he is enabled, under restrictions and responsibilities amply suffi of a bill whose merits cannot secure the approval of twocient to guard the public interests, to suspend the passage pro-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, until the judgment of the people can be obtained thereon, and which has saved the American people from the corrupt and tyrannical dominion of the Bank of the United States, and from a corrupting system of general internal improvements.

Mr. Buchanan having been unanimously nominated for President, the Convention ceeded to ballot for a candidate for Vice-President, the first ballot resulting as follows: J. A. Quitman, Miss 59 J. C. Breckinridge, Ky.,. 55 Linn Boyd, Ky.,... 33 B. Fitzpatrick, Ala.,..... 11 A. V. Brown, Tenn.,... 29 H. V. Johnson, Ga.,.... 81 J. A. Bayard, Del.,.... 81 Trusten Polk, Mo.,... 5 T. J. Rusk, Texas, 2 J. C. Dobbin, N C.,..... 18 On the second ballot, the name of Gen. Quitman was withdrawn, as were also those of other leading candidates, and Mr. Breckinridge was unanimously nominated.


The Convention adopted the following


Resolved, That the American Democracy place their trust in the intelligence, the patriotism, and the discriminating justice of the American people.

Resolved, That we regard this as a distinctive feature of our political creed, which we are proud to maintain before the world as a great moral element in a form of government springing from and upheld by the popular will; and we contrast it with the creed and practice of Federalism, under whatever name or form, which seeks to palsy the will of the Constituent, and which conceives no imposture too monstrous for the popular credulity. Resolved, therefore, That entertaining these views, the Democratic party of this Union, through their delegates, assembled in general Convention, coming together in a spirit of concord, of devotion to the doctrines and faith of a free representative government, and appealing to their fellow-citizens for the rectitude of their intentions, renew and reassert before the American people, the declaratious of principles avowed by them, when, on former occasions, in general Convention, they have presented their candidates for the popular suffrage.

1. That the Federal Government is one of limited power, derived solely from the Constitution, and the grants of power made therein ought to be strictly construed by all the departments and agents of the Government, and that it is inexpedient and dangerous to exercise doubtful constitutional powers.

2. That the Constitution does not confer upon the General Government the power to commence and carry on a general system of internal improvements.

8 That the Constitution does not confer authority upon the Federal Government, directly or indirectly, to assume the debts of the several States, contracted for local and internal improvements, or other State purposes, nor would such assumption be just or expedient.

4. That justice and sound policy forbid the Federal Government to foster one branch of industry to the detriment of another, or to cherish the interests of one portion of our common country; that every citizen and every section of the country has a right to demand and insist upon an equality of rights and privileges, and a complete

10. That the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson In the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the Constitution, which makes ours the land of liberty and the asylum of the oppressed of every nation, have ever been cardinal principles in the Democratic faith; and every attempt to abridge the privilege of becoming citizens and the owners of soil among us ought to be resisted with the same spirit which swept the alien and sedition laws from our statute books.

And whereas, Since the foregoing declaration was uniformly adopted by our predecessors in National Convention, an adverse political and religious test has been se cretly organized by a party claiming to be exclusively American, and it is proper that the Ainerican Democracy should clearly define its relations thereto; and declare its determined opposition to all secret political societies, by whatever name they may be called.

Resolved, That the foundation of this Union of States having been laid in, and its prosperity, expansion, and preeminent example of free government, built upon entire freedom in matters of religious concernment, and no respect of persons in regard to rank, or place of birth, no party can justly be deemed national, constitutional, or in accordance with American principles, which bases its exclusive organization upon religious opinions and accidental birth-place. And hence a political crusade in the nineteenth century, and in the United States of America, against Catholics and foreign-born, is neither justified by the past history nor future prospects of the country, nor in unison with the spirit of toleration, and enlightened freedom which peculiarly distinguishes the American system of popular government.

Resolved, That we reiterate with renewed energy of purpose the well considered declarations of former con Ventions upon the sectional issue of domestic slavery and concerning the reserved rights of the Statesto interfere with or control the domestic institutions of

1. That Congress has no power under the Constitution

the several States, and that all such States are the sole and proper judges of everything appertaining to their own affairs not prohibited by the Constitution; that all efforts of the Abolitionists or others made to induce Con

gress to interfere with questions of Slavery, or to take incipient steps in relation thereto, are calculated to lead to the most alarming and dangerous consequences, and that all such efforts have an inevit .ble tendency to diminish the happiness of the people and endanger the stability and permanency of the Union, and ought not to be countenanced by any friend of our political insti


2. That the foregoing proposition covers and was intended to embrace the whole subject of Slavery agitation in Congress, and therefore the Democratic party of the

Union, standing on this national platform, will abide byopment of our growing power, requires that we should and adhere to a faithful execution of the acts known as the Compromise Measures, settled by the Congress of 1850: "the act for reclaiming fugitives from service or labor" included; which act, being designed to carry out an express provision of the Constitution, cannot, with fidelity thereto, be repealed, or so changed as to destroy or impair its efficiency.

3. That the Democratic Party will resist all attempts at renewing, in Congress or out of it, the agitation of the Slavery question, under whatever shape or color the attempt may be made.

4. That the Democratic Party will faithfully abide by and uphold the principles laid down in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1797 and 1798, and in the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature in 1799 -that it adopts these principles as constituting one of the main foundations of its political creed, and is resolved to carry them out in their obvious meaning and import.

And that we may more distinctly meet the issue on which a sectional party, subsisting exclusively on Slavery agitation, now relies to test the fidelity of the people, North and South, to the Constitution and the Union-

1. Resolved, That claiming fellowship with and desiring the coöperation of all who regard the preservation of the Union under the Constitution as the paramount issue, and repudiating all sectional parties and platforms concerning domestic Slavery, which seek to embroil the States and inc.te to treason and armed resistance to law in the Territories, and whose avowed purpose, if consummated, must end in civil war and disunion, the American Democracy recognize and adopt the principles contained in the organic laws establishing the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas, as embodying the only sound and safe solution of the Slavery question, upon which the great national idea of the people of this whole country can repose in its determined conservation of the Union, and non-interference of Cong ess with Slavery in the Territories or in the District of Columbia.

2. That this was the basis of the compromises of 1850, confirmed by both the Democratic and Whig parties in National Conventions, ratified by the people in the election of 1852, and rightly appl ed to the organization of the Territories in 1854.

3. That by the uniform application of the Democratic principle to the organization of Territories, and the admission of new States with or without domestic Slavery, as they may elect, the equal rights of all the States will be preserved intact, the original compacts of the Constitution maintained inviolate, and the perpetuity and expansion of the Union insured to its utmost capacity of embracing, in peace and harmony, every future American State that may be constituted or annexed with a republican form of government.

Resolved, That we recognize the right of the people of all the Territories including Kansas and Nebraska, acting through the legally and fairly expressed will of the majority of the actual residents, and whenever the number of their inhabitants justifies it, to form a Constitution, with or without domestic Slavery, and be admitted into the Union upon terms of perfect equality with the other States.

Resolved, finally, That in view of the condition of popular institutions in the Old World (and the dangerous tendencies of sectional agitation, combined with the attempt to enforce civil and religious d sabilities against the rights of acquiring and enjoying citizenship in our own land), a high and sacred duty is involved with increased responsibility upon the Democratic Party of this country, as the party of the Union, to uphold and maintain the rights of every State and thereby the Union of the States-and to sustain and advance among us constitutional liberty, by continuing to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the Constitution -which are broad enough and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it was, the Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be-in the full expression of the energies and capacity of this great and progressive people.

1. Resolved, That there are questions connected with the foreign policy of this country which are inferior to no domestic question whatever. The time has come for the people of the United States to declare themselves in favor of free seas, and progressive free trade throughout the world, and, by solemi. manifestations, to place their moral influence at the side of their successful example. 2. Resolved, That our geographical and political position with reference to the other states of this continent, uo less than the interest of our commerce and the devel

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hold sacred the principles involved in the MONROE doctrine. Their bearing and import admit of no misconstruction, and should be applied with unbending rigidity. 8. Resolved, That the great highway, which nature as well as the assent of States most immediately interested in its maintenance has marked out for free communication between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, constitutes one of the most important achievements realized by the spirit of modern times, in the unconquerable energy of our people; and that result would be secured by a timely and efficient exertion of the control which we have the right to claim over it; and no power on earth should be suffered to impede or clog its progress by any interference with relations that it may suit our policy to establish between our Government and the government of the States within whose dominions it lies; we can under no circumstance surrender our preponderance in the adjustment of all questions arising out of it.

4. Resolved, That, in view of so commanding an interest, the people of the United States cannot but sympathize with the efforts which are being made by the people of Central America to regenerate that portion of the continent which covers the passage across the interoceanic isthmus.

5. Resolved, That the Democratic Party will expect of the next Administration that every proper effort be made to insure our ascendency in the Gulf of Mexico, and to maintain permanent protection to the great outlets through which are emptied into its waters the products raised out of the soil and the commodities created by the industry of the people of our western valleys and of the Union at large.

Resolved, That the Administration of FRANKLIN PIERCE has been true to Democratic principles, and therefore true to the great interests of the country; in the face of violent opposition, he has maintained the laws at home, and vindicated the rights of American citizens abroad; and therefore we proclaim our unqualified admiration of his measures and policy.


A Whig National Convention met at Baltimore on the 17th of Sept., 1856-Edward Bates, of Missouri, presidig. The nominations of Millard Fillmore for President, and Andrew J. Donelson for Vice-President, were unanimously concurred in. The Convention adopted the following


Resolved, That the Whigs of the United States, now here assembled, hereby declare their reverence for the Constitution of the United States, their unalterable attachment to the National Union, and a fixed determination to do all in their power to preserve them for themselves and their posterity. They have no new principles to announce; no new platform to establish; but are content to broadly rest-where their fathers restedupon the Constitution of the United States, wishing no safer guide, no higher law.

Resolved, That we regard with the deepest interest and anxiety the present disordered condition of our national affairs-a portion of the country ravaged by civil war, large sections of our population embittered by mutual recriminations; and we distinctly trace these calamities to the culpable neglect of duty by the present national administration.

Resolved, That the Government of the United States was formed by the conjunction in political unity of wide spread geographical sections materially differing, not only in climate and products, but in social and domestic institutions; and that any cause that shall permanently array the different sections of the Union in political hostility and organized parties founded only on geographical distinctions must inevitably prove fatal to a continuance of the National Union.

Resolved, That the Whigs of the United States declare, as a fundamental article of political faith, an absolute necessity for avoiding geographical parties. The danger, so clearly discerned by the Father of his Country, has now become fearfully apparent in the agitation now convulsing the nation, and must be arrested at once if we would preserve our Constitution and our Union from dismemberment, and the name of America from being blotted out the family of civilized nations.

Resolved, That all who revere the Constitution and those present and voting should be required to the Union, must look with alarm at the parties in the nominate candidates. The following Platform field in the present Presidential campaign-one claiming only to represent sixteen Northern States, and the other was adopted, and, without taking a ballot for appealing mainly to the passions and prejudices of the President, the Convention again adjourned. Southern States; that the success of either faction must add fuel to the flame which now threatens to wrap our dearest interests in a common ruin.

Resolved, That the only remedy for an evil so appalling is to support a candidate pledged to neither of the geographical sections now arrayed in political antagonsm, but holding both in a just and equal regard. We congratulate the friends of the Union that such a candidate exists in Millard Fillmore.

Resolved, That, without adopting or referring to the peculiar doctrines of the party which has already selected Mr. Fillmore as a candidate, we look to him as a well-tried and faithful friend of the Constitution and the Union, eminent alike for his wisdom and firmness-for his justice and moderation in our foreign relations-for his calm and pacific temperament, so well becoming the head of a great nation-for his devotion to the Constitution in its true spirit-his inflexibility in executing the laws; but, beyond all these attributes, in possessing the one transcendent merit of being a representative of neither of the two sectional parties now struggling for political supremacy.


Republican electors of the United States, in Convention Resolved, That we, the delegated representatives of the assembled, in discharge of the duty we owe to our constituents and our country, unite in the following decla


1. That the history of the nation, during the last for years, has fully established the propriety and necessit 7 of the organization and perpetuation of the Republican party, and that the causes which called it into existence are permanent in their nature, and now, more than ever before, demand its peaceful and constitutional triumph. in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the 2. That the maintenance of the principles promulgated Federal Constitution, "That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that, to secure these rights, just powers from the consent of the governed," is essengovernments are instituted among men, deriving their and that the Federal Constitution, the Rights of the tial to the preservation of our Republican institutions; States, and the Union of the States, must and shall be preserved.

3. That to the Union of the States this nation owes its

Resolved, That, in the present exigency of political affairs, we are not called upon to discuss the subordinate questions of administration in the exercising of the Constitutional powers of the Government. It is enough to know that civil war is raging, and that the Union is in unprecedented increase in population, its surprising deperil; and we proclaim the conviction that the restora-velopment of material resources, its rapid augmentation tion of Mr. Fillmore to the Presidency will furnish the best of wealth, its happiness at home and its honor abroad; if not the only means of restoring peace. and we hold in abhorrence all schemes for Disunion, come from whatever source they may: And we congratulate uttered or countenanced the threats of Disunion so often the country that no Republican member of Congress has made by Democratic members, without rebuke and with applause from their political associates; and we denounce those threats of disunion, in case of a popular overthrow of their ascendency, as denying the vital principles of a free government, and as an avowal of contemplated treason, which it is the imperative duty of an indignant People sternly to rebuke and forever silence.

In the election which ensued, Mr. Fillmore received the vote of Maryland only, while Mr. Buchanan obtained those of the 14 other Slave States, and of New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois and California, making 172 in all. Col. Fremont received the votes of the eleven other Free States, making 114 in all. Pennsylvania and Illinois, had they voted for Col. Fremont, would have given him the election.

4. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of powers on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends; and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, ne matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.

REPUBLICAN CONVENTION-1860. A Republican National Convention assembled at Chicago, Illinois, on Wednesday, May 16th, 1860, delegates being in attendance from all the 5. That the present Democratic Administration has far Free States, as also from Delaware, Maryland, serviency to the exactions of a sectional interest, as esexceeded our worst apprehensions, in its measureless subVirginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Texas, the Ter-pecially evinced in its desperate exertions to force the ritories of Kansas and Nebraska, and the District of Columbia.


Gov. Morgan, of New-York, as Chairman of the National Executive Committee, nominated David Wilmot as temporary Chairman, and he was chosen. The usual Committees on permanent organization, credentials, etc., were appointed, and the Convention was permanently organized by the selection of George Ashmun, of Massachusetts, as President, with a VicePresident and a Secretary from each State and Territory represented. A Committee, of one from each State and Territory, was appointed to draft suitable resolutions, or in other words a Platform, and the Convention adjourned.

On the following day, an interesting debate arose on a proposition to require a vote equal to a majority of full delegations from all the States to nominate candidates for President and Vice-President; which, with the delegates actually in attendance, would have been about equivalent to a two-third rule. This proposition was voted down, and the Convention decided, by a vote of 331 to 130, that only a majority of

* The delegation from Texas has since been proved fraudulent, having berz got up in Michigan to effect a personal end.

infamous Lecompton Constitution upon the protesting people of Kansas; in construing the personal relation between master and servant to involve an unqualified property in persons; in its attempted entorcement, every where, on land and sea, through the intervention of Congress and of the Federal Courts of the extreme presensions of a purely local interest; and in its general and unvarying abuse of the power intrusted to it by a confiding people.

extravagance which pervades every department of the 6. That the people justly view with alarm the reckless Federal Government; that a return to rigid economy and accountability is indispensable to arrest the syste matic plunder of the public treasury by favored parti and corruptions at the Federal metropolis, show that an sans; while the recent startling developments of frauds entire change of administration is imperatively demanded.

7. That the new dogma that the Constitution, of its own force, carries Slavery into any or all of the Territories of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy, at variance with the explicit provisions of that instrument itself, with cotemporaneous exposition, and with legislative and judicial precedent; is revolutionary in its tendency, and subversive of the peace and harmony of the country.

United States is that of freedom: That as our Republican 8. That the normal condition of all the territory of the fathers, when they had abolished Slavery in all our na tional territory, ordained that "no person should be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law," it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever such legislation is necessary, to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it; and Iwe deny the authority of Co gress, of a territorial legis

lature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to Slavery in any Territory of the United States.

9. That we brand the recent re-opening of the African slave-trade, under the cover of our national flag, aided hy perversions of judicial power, as a crime against humanity and a burning shame to our country and age; and we call upon Congress to take prompt and efficient me sures for the total and final suppression of that execrab e traffic.

10. That in the recent vetoes, by their Federal Governors. of the acts of the Legislatures of Kansas and Neorska, prohibiting Slavery in those Territories, we find a practical illustration of the beasted Democratic principie of Non Intervention and Popular Sovereignty embodied in the Kansas Nebraska bill, and a demonstration of the deception and fraud involved therein.

11. That Kansas should, of right, be immediately admitted as a State under the Constitution recently formed and adopted by her people, and accepted by the House of Representatives.

12. That, while providing revenue for the support of the General Government by duties upon imports, sound policy requires such an adjustment of these imposts as to encourage the development of the industrial interests of the whole country and we commend that policy of national exchanges which secures to the working men liberal wages, to agriculture remunerating prices, to mechanics and manufacturers an adequate reward for their skill, labor, and enterprise, and to the nation commercial prosperity and independence.

13. That we protest against any sale or alienation to others of the Public Lands held by actual settlers, and against any view of the Homestead policy which regards the settlers as paupers or suppliants for public bounty; and we demand the passage by Congress of the complete and satisfactory Homestead measure which has already passed the House.

14. That the Republican Party is opposed to any change in our Naturalization Laws or any State legislation by which the rights of citizenship hitherto accorded to immigrants from foreign lands shall be abridged or impaired ; and in favor of giving a full and efficient protection to the rights of all classes of citizens, whether native or naturalized, both at home and abroad.

15. That appropriations by Congress for River and Harbor improvements of a National character, required for the accommodation and security of an existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution, and justified by the obligations of Government to protect the lives and property of its citizens.

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16. That a Railroad to the Pacific Ocean is imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country; that the Federal Government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction; and that, as preliminary thereto, a daily Overland Mail should be promptly New-Jersey.


17. Finally, having thus set forth our distinctive principles and views, we invite the coöperation of all citiLens, however differing on other questions, who substantially agree with us in their affirmance and support.



On the following day, Friday, May 18th, the
Chair having announced that the naming of
candidates for President was in order, Wm. Michigan.
M. Evarts, of New-York, named William H. Illinois..


Mr. Judd, of Illinois, named Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Dudley, of New-Jersey, nominated California Wm. L. Dayton. Gov. Reeder, of Pennsylvavania, nominated Simon Cameron. Mr. Cartter, of Ohio, nominated Salmon P. Chase. Francis P. Blair, of Maryland, nominated Edward Bates, of Missouri.

Indiana seconded the nomination of Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Austin Blair, of Michigan, seconded the nomination of Mr. Seward; so also did Carl Schurz, of Wisconsin, Mr. Worth, of Minnesota, and Mr. Wilder, of Kansas.

Mr. Corwin, of Ohio, nominated Judge McLean.

Mr. Delano, of Ohio, seconded the nomination of Mr. Lincoln, as did also one of the delegates from Iowa.

The balloting then proceeded, with the following result:



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McLean. | Chase.


C. M. Clay'


8 14





District of Columbia... 2





Total...... .184 181 35 2 8 42 10 2 The third ballot was taken amid excitement, and cries for "the ballot.' Intense feeling existed during the voting, each vote being awaited in breathless silence and expectancy.

The progress of the ballot was watched with most intense interest, especially toward the last, the crowd becoming silent as the contest narrowed down. The States, as called, voted as follows:

*Previously withdrawn.

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Before the result was announced, Mr. Cartter, of Ohio, said-I rise, Mr. Chairman, to announce the change of four votes from Ohio, from Mr. Chase to Abraham Lincoln.

This announcement, giving Mr. Lincoln a majority, was greeted by the audience with the most enthusiastic and thundering applause. Mr. McCrillis, of Maine, making himself heard, said that the young giant of the West is now of age. Maine casts for him her 16 votes. Mr. Andrew, of Massachusetts, changed the vote of that State, giving 18 to Mr. Lincoln and 8 to Mr. Seward. Mr. B. Gratz Brown, of Missouri, desired to change the 18 votes of Missouri to the gallant son of the West, Abraham Lincoln. Iowa, Connecticut, Kentucky, and Minnesota also changed their votes. The result of the third ballot was announced:



Whole number of votes cast Necessary to a choice.... Abraham Lincoln had received 354, and was declared duly nominated.

On motion of Wm. M. Evarts, of New-York, seconded by Mr. Andrew, of Massachusetts, the nomination was then made unanimous.

On motion of Mr. Evarts, of New-York, the Convention now took a recess till 5 o'clock, to afford time for consultation as to Vice-President

At 5 o'clock the Convention reassembled, listened to nominations, and then proceeded to ballot.

The following is a record of the ballotings for Vice-President:

[NOTE.-Col. Fremont had sent a letter by one of the delegates from California, withdrawing his name from the list of candidates for President. This letter was published before the meeting of the Convention.]

Total.... ..101 38 51 58 194 1 Total 461. Necessary to a choice, 232.



Rhode Island

Texas. Wisconsin



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Ohio Indiana. Missouri.




Michigan. Illinois

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District of Columbia.


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Massachusetts withdrew the name of Mr. Banks, and cast 26 votes for Mr. Hamlin. Pennsylvania withdrew the name of Gov. Reeder, and cast 54 votes for Mr. Hamlin. On motion of Mr. Blakey, of Kentucky, the nomination was made unanimous.

Mr. J. R. Giddings, of Ohio, offered and the Convention adopted the following:

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with those men who have been driven, some from their native States and exiled from their homes on account of their opinions; others from the States of their adoption, and are now and we hold the Democratic party responsible for the gross violations of that clause of the Constitution which declares that citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens of the several States.

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