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King, of Ohio, presided, and James G. Birney, of Florida, or on the high seas, are unconstitutional, and all Michigan, was unanimously nominated for Pre- attempts to hold men as property within the limits of ex

clusive national jurisdiction, ought to be prohibited by law. sident, with Thomas Morris, of Ohio, for Vice

Resolved, That the provision of the Constitution of the President. Among the resolves adopted were United States, which confers extraordinary political the following:

powers on the owners of slaves, and thereby constitut

ing the two hundred and fifty thousand slaveholders in Resowod, That human brotherhood is a cardinal prin- the Slave States a privileged aristocracy; and the prociple of true Democracy, as well as of pure Christianity, vision for the reclamation of fugitive slaves from service, which spurns all inconsistent limitations; and neither are Anti-Republican in their character, dangerous to the the political party which repudiates it, nor the political liberties of the people, and ought to be abrogated. ystem which is not based upon it, can be truly Demo- Resolved, That the practical operation of the second ratic or permanent.

of these provisions, is seen in the enactment of the act Resolved, that the Liberty Party, placing itself upon of Congress respecting persons escaping from their mashis broad principle, will demand the absolute and un- ters, which act, if the construction given to it by the qualified divorce of the General Government from Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Prigs Mavery, and also the restoration of equality of rights, v8. Pennsylvania be correct, nullities the habeas corpus among men, in every State where the party exists, or acts of all the States, takes away the whole legal security may exist.

of personal freedom, and ought therefore to be immediResolved, that the Liberty Party has not been organ. ately repealed. ized for any temporary purpose by interested politicians, Resolved, that the peculiar patronage and support but has arisen from among the people in consequence of hitherto extended to Slavery and Slaveholding, by the a conviction, hourly gaining ground, that no other party General Government, ought to be immediately with. in the country represents the true principles of American drawn, and the example and influence of National liberty, or the true spirit of the Constitution of the authority ought to be arrayed on the side of Liberty and United States.

Free Labor. Resolved, that the Liberty Party has not been organ- Resolved, that the practice of the General Governized merely for the overthrow of slavery; its first de ment, which prevails in the Slave States, of employing cided effort must, indeed, be directed against slavehold. Slaves upon the public works, instead of free laborers, ing as the grossest and most revolting manifestation of and paying aristocratic masters, with a view to secure of despotism, but it will also carry out the principle of reward political services, is utterly indefensible and equal rights into all its practical consequences and ap- ought to be abandoned. plications, and support every just measure conducive to Resolved, That freedom of speech, and of the press, individual and social freedom.

and the right of petition, and the right of trial by jury, Resolved, that the Liberty Party is not a sectional are sacred and inviolable; and that all rules, regula. party but a national party; was not originated in a de- tions and laws, in derogation of either are oppressive, unsire to accomplish a single object, but in a comprehen- constitutional, and not to be endured by free people. sive regard to the great interests of the whole country; Resolved, That we regard voting in an eminent deis not a new party, nor a third party, but is the party gree, as a moral and religious duty, which, when exerof 1776, reviving the principles of that memorable era, cised, should be by voting for those who will do all in and striving to carry them into practical application. their power for Immediate Emancipation.

Resolved, That it was understood in the times of the Resowed, That this Convention recommend to the Declaration and the Constitution, that the existence of friends of Liberty in all those Free States where any in. slavery in some of the States, was in derogation of the equality of rights and privileges exists on account of principles of American Liberty, and a deep stain upon color, to employ their utmost energies to remove all such the character of the country, and the implied faith of the remnants and effects of the Slave system. States and the Nation was pledged, that slavery should Whereas, The Constitution of these United States is pever be extended beyond its then existing liinits, but a series of agreements, covenants, or contracts between should be gradually, and yet, at no distant day, wholly the people of the United States, each with all and all abolished by State authority.

with each; and Resowed, That the faith of the States and the Nation Whereas, It is a principle of universal morality, that hus pledged, was most nobly redeemed by the voluntary the moral laws of the Creator are paramount to all Abolition of Slavery in several of the States, and by the human laws; or, in the language of an Apostle, that doption of the Ordinance of 1787, for the government we ought to obey God rather than men;" and, f the Territory northwest of the river Ohio, then the only Whereas, The principle of common law-that any Cerritory in the United States, and consequently the only contract, covenant, or agreement, to do an act derogaerritory subject in this respect to the control of Congress tory to natural right, is vitiaied and annulled by its inby which Ordinance Slavery was forever excluded from herent immorality-has been recognized by one of the he vast regions which now compose the States of Ohio, justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, who Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and the Territory of Wiscon- in a recent case expressly holds that " any contract sin, and an incapacity to bear up any other than freemen, that rests upon such a basis is void ;” and, was impressed on the soil itself.

Whereas, The third clause of the second section of Resolved, That the faith of the States and Nation the fourth article of the Constitution of the United thus pledged, has been shamefully violated by the omis- States, when construed as providing for the surrender of sion on the part of many of the States, to take any a Fugitive Slave, does "rest upon such a basis,” in that measures whatever for the Abolition of slavery within it is a contract to rob a man of a natural right-namely, their respective limits; by the continuance of Slavery his natural right to his own liberty; and is, therefore, in the District of Columbia, and in the Territories of absolutely void. Therefore, Louisiana and Florida ; by the Legislation of Congress ; Resolved, That we hereby give it to be distinctly by the protection afforded by national legislation and understood by this nation and the world, that, as abolinegotiation to slaveholding in American vessels, on the tionists, considering that the strength of our cause lies aigh seas, employed in the coastwise Slave Traffic; and in its righteousness, and our hope for it in our conformity by the extension of slavery far beyond its original to the laws of God, and our respect for the RIGHTS OP limits, by acts of Congress, admitting new Slave States Man, we owe it to the Sovereign Ruler of the universe, as into the Union.

a proof of our allegiance to Him, in all our civil relations Resolved, That the fundamental truths of the Declara- and offices, whether as private citizens or as public tion of Independence, that all men are endowed by their functionaries sworn to support the Constitution of the Creator with certain inalienable rights, among which are United States, to regard and to treat the third clause of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, was made the the urth rticle of that instrument, whenever applied fundamental law of our National Government, by that to the case of a fugitive slave, as utterly null and void, amendment of the Constitution which declares that no and consequently as forming no part of the Constitution person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, of the United States, whenever we are called upon ou without due process of law.

sworn to support it. Resolved, That we recognize as sound, the doctrine Resowed, That the power given to Congress by the maintained by slaveholding jurists, that slavery is constitution, to provide for calling out the militia to against natural rights, and strictly local, and that its ex. suppress insurrection, does not make it the duty of the istence and continuance rests on no other support than Government to maintain Slavery by military force, much State Legislation, and not on any authority of Congress. less does it make it the duty of the citizens to forın a

Resolved, that the General Government has, under part of such military force. When freemen unsheath the the Constitution, no power to establish or continue sword it should be to strike for Liberty, not for Despot Slavery anywhere, and therefore that all treaties and ism. acts of Congress establishing, continuing or favoring Resoloed, That to preserve the peace of the citizens, apa Slavery in the District of Columbia, in the Territory of secure the blessings of freedom, the Legislature of each of



Ist, 2d. .111 118 97

86 43


22 4

4 2


3d. 133 74 54


32 63 13






the Free States ought to keep in force suitable statutes proposition. This appeal was also laid on the rendering it penal for any of its inhabitants to transport, table. or aid in transporting from such State, any person sought, to be thus transported, merely because subject

After Gen. Taylor had been nominated, Mr. to the slave laws of any other state; this remnant of in- Charles Allen, of Massachusetts, offered the dependence being accorded to the Free States, by the following: decision of the Supreme Court, in the case of Prigg vs. the State of Pennsyivania.

Resoloed, That the Whig Party, through its represeatatives here, agrees to abide by the nomination of Gen.

Zachary Taylor, on condition that he will accept the WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION, 1848. nomination as the candidate of the Whig Party, and

adhere to its great fundamental principles-no extenA Whiy National Convention met at Phila- sion of slave territory--no acquisition of foreign terri delphia, on the 7th of June, 1848, over which tory by conquest-protection to American industry, and

opposition to Executive usurpation. John M. Morehead, of North Carolina, presided. After a rather stormy session of three days, lution out of order, and no further notice will

The president immediately decided the reso. Gen. Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana, was nomi

taken of it nated for President, and Millard Fillmore, of New-York, for Vice-President.

After the nomination for Vice-President had

Gen. Taylor was nominated on the fourth ballot, as follows: been made, Mr. McCullough, of New-Jersey,

offered the following:

Resolved, That Gen. Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana,

and Millard Fillmore, of New York, be, and they are Taylor

171 hereby unanimously riominated as the Whig candidates Clay

for President and Vice-President of the United States.

Mr. D. R. Tilden, of Ohio, proposed the fol22

17 Clayton..

lowing, expressing the opinion that some such McLean..

declaration by the Convention would be neces

sary, in order to secure the vote of Ohio for Total,..

280 279 279

the nominee : Mr. Fillmore was nominated for Vice-Presi.

Resolved, That while all power is denied to Congress, dent on the second ballot, by the following under the Constitution, to control, or in any way intervote :

fere with the institution of Slavery within the several States of this Union, it nevertheless has the power and it is the duty of Congress to prohibit the introduction or

existence of Slavery in any territory now possessed, or M. Fillmore..



which may hereafter be acquired by the United States. Abbott Lawrence

.109 Scattering.


This resolution, like all others affirming Whig

or Anti-Slavery principles, was ruled out of 274


order, and laid on the table. A motion was Of the scattering vote cast on the first ballot, made to divide Mr. McCullough's resolve, so George Evans, of Maine, received 6; T. M. T. that the vote could be taken separately on McKennen, of Pa., 13; Andrew Stewart, of Pa., President and on Vice-President, when, after 14; and John Sergeant, of Pa.. 6.

discussion, the resolve was withdrawn. The Convention adopted 110 Platform of Mr. Hilliard, of 'Alabama, offered a resolve Principles. After it had been organized, and a indorsing Gen. Taylor's letter to Captain Alliresolution offered to go into a ballot for candi- son, which, meeting opposition, was withdrawn; dates for President and Vice-President, Mr. so the Convention adjourned without passing Lewis D. Campbell, of Ohio, moved to amend any resolves having reference to Whig prinas follows:

ciples, the issues before the country, or of con. Resolved, That no candidate shall be entitled to re

currence in the nominations. ceive the nomination of this Convention for President or Vice-President, unless he has given assurances that he will abide by and support the nomination; that if nominated he will accept the nomination; that he will

RATIFICATION MEETING AT PUILAconsider himself the candidate of the Whigs, and use

DELPHIA. all proper influence to bring into practical operation the principles and measures of the Whig Party.

On the evening of the last day of the session This resolution met with decided opposition, (9th June), a ratification meeting was held at and the president ruled it out of order, from Philadelphia, at which Gov. Wm. F. Johnston, which decision Mr. Campbell appealed, and in a delivered by Governor Morehead, Gen. Leslie

of Pa., presided, and at which speeches were speech contended that it was strictly in order to define what sort of candidate should be voted Coombs, of Ky., and several others, and at for, and to declare that none but sound Whigs Price, of Pennsylvania, were adopted :

which the following resolves, reported by W. S. should receive important nominations at the hands of a Whig National Convention. The 1. Resoloed, That the Whigs of the United States,

here assembled by their Representatives, heartily ratify appeal was tabled.

the nominations of Gen. Zachary Taylor as President, Mr. Fuller, of New York, offered the follow- and Millard Fillmore as Vice-President of the United ing:

States, and pledge themselves to their support.

2. Resolved, That in the choice of Gen. Taylor as the Resoloed, That as the first duty of the representatives of the Whig Party is to preserve the principles and in whig Candidate for President, we are glad to discover tegrity of the party, the claims of no candidate can be sympathy with a great popular sentiment throughout the considered by this Convention unless such candidate tion of great military success, has been strengthened by

nation-a sentiment which, having its origin in admirastands pledged to support, in good faith, the nominees and to be the exponent of Whig Principles.

the development, in every action and every word, of

sound conservative opinions, and of true fidelity to the The president ruled this resolution out of great example of former days, and to the principles of order, and Mr. Fuller appealed, insisting that the Constitution, as adıninistered by its founders.

3. Resowed, That Gen. Taylor, in saying that, had he no true Whig could reasonably object to his voted in 1344, te would have voted the Whig ticket,

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gives us the assurance-and no better is needed from a May. Andrew Steveuson of Va., presided. consistent and truth-speaking man -- that his heart was New-York had sent a double delegation: (“Barn. with us at the crisis of our political destiny, when Henry Clay was our candidate and when not only Whig prin- burners” for Van Buren and Hunkers for Dick. oples were well defined and clearly asserted, but Whig inson). The Convention decided to admit both measures depended on success.

was with us then is with us now, and we have a soldiers word delegations, which satisfied neither, and both of honor, and a life of public and private virtue, as the declined to take part in the proceedings. The security.

two-third rule was adopted, and Gen. Lewis Cass 4. Resolved, that we look on Gen. Taylor's administration of the Government as one conducive of Peace, was nominated for President on the 4th ballot Prosperity and Union Of Peace-because no one bet- as follows: [170 votes necessary to a choice.] ter knows, or has greater i eason to deplore, what he has

. 4th. seen sadly on the field of victory, the horrors of war, Cass..

125 133 156 179 and especially of a foreign and aggressive war. or Woodbury of N, H... 53 Prosperity-now more than ever needed to relieve the Buchanan.

55 54 nation from a burden of debt, and estore industry- Calhoun.. agricultural, manufacturing and commercial – to its Dallas.. accustomed and peaceful functions and influences. of Worth. Union--because we have a candidate whose very posi- Butler of Ky. tion as a Southwestern man, reared on the banks of the great stream whose tributaries, natural and artificial,

The first ballot for Vice-President resulted as embrace the whole Union, renders the protection of the follows: interests of the whole country his first trust, and whose William 0. Butler.. varied duties in past life have been rendered, not on the John A. Quitman...

114 William R. King... 29

74 James J. McKay...... 18 soil, o under the flag of any State or section, but over

John Y. Mason

24 Jefferson Davis........ 1 the wide f.ontier, and under the broad banner of the Nation.

No choice. Gen. Butler was unanimously nomi5. Resolced, That standing, as the Whig Party does, nated on the third ballot. on the broad and firm platform of the Constitution,

The Convention adopted the following platbraced up by all its inviolable and sacred guarantees and compromises, and cherished in the affections form : because p. otective of the interests of the people, we are 1. Resolved, That the American Democracy place p oud to have, as the exponent of our opinions, one who their trust in the intelligence, the patriotism, and the is pledged to construe it by the wise and generous rules discriminating justice of the American people. which Washington applied to it, and who has said, (and

2. Resowed, That we regard this as a distinctive feano Whig desires any other assurance) that he will make ture of our political creed, which we are proud to mainWashington's Administration the model of his own. 6. Resolved, That as Whigs and Americans, we are form of government 'springing from and upheld by the

tain before the world, as the great moral element in a proud to acknowledge our gratitude for the great mili- popular will: and we contrast it with the creed and ia y services which, beginning at Palo Alto, and ending practice of federalism, under whatever name or form, at Buena Vista, first awakened the American people to

which seeks to palsy the will of the constituent, and a just estimate of him who is now our Whig Candidate. which conceives no imposture too monstrous for the In the discharge of a painful duty-for his march into

popular credulity. the enemy's country was a reluctant one; in the com

3. mand of regulars at one time, and volunteers at another, the Democratic party of this Union, through the delegates

esolved, Therefore, that, entertaining these views and of both combined; in the decisive though punctual assembled in general convention of the States, coming discipline of his camp, where all respected and beloved together in a spirit of concord, of devotion to the dochim; in the negotiation of terms for a dejected and trines and faith of a free representative government and desperate enemy; in the exigency of actual conflict, appealing to their fellow-citizens for the rectitude of when the balance was perilously doubtful-we have found him the same - brave, distinguished and conside- people, the declaration of principles avowed by them,

their intentions, renew and reassert before the American rate, no heartless spectator of bloodshed, no trifler with

on a former occasion, when in general convention, they human life o: human happiness; and we do not know presented their candidates for the popular sutf.age. which to admire most, his heroism in withstanding the assaults of the enemy in the most hopeless fields of Then follow resolutions 1, 2, 3, 4, of Platforms Buena Vista-mourning in generous sorrow over the of 1840 and '44. The 5th resolution is that of graves of Ringgold, of Clay, or of Hardin-or in giving 1840 with an addition about providing for war in the heat of battle terms of merciful capitulation to a vanquished foe at Monterey, and not being ashamed to debts, and as amended, reads as follows: avow that he did it to spare women and children, help- Resobed, That it is the duty of every branch of the less infancy, and more helpless age, against whom no

government to enforce and practice the most rigid econAmerican soldier ever wars. Such a military man, omy in conducting our public atfairs, and that no more whose triumphis are neither remote nor doubtful, whose

revenue ought to be raised than is required to defray virtues these trials have tested, we are proud to make the necessary expenses of the government, and for the our Candidate,

gradual but certain extinction of the debt created by 7. Resolved, That in support of such a nomination we

the prosecution of a just and necessary war, after peaceask our Whig friends throughout the nation to unite, ful relations shall have been restored. to co-operate zealously, resolutely, with earnestness in behalf of our Candidate, whom calumny cannot reach,

The next (Anti-National Bank and pro. Suband with respectful demeanor to our adversaries, whose Treasury) was amended by the addition of the Candidates have yet to prove their claims on the gratis following: tude of the nation.

And that the results of Democratic Legislation, in this This election resulted in the choice of the and all other financial measures upon which issues have Whig Candidates, as follows:

been made between the two political parties of the counTaylor and Fillmore-Vermont, 6; Massachusetts, 12; all parties, their soundness, safety and utility in all

have demonstrated to candid and practical men of

try, Rhode Island, 4; Connecticut, 6; New-York, 36; New business pursuits. Jersey, 7 ; Pennsylvania, 26; Delaware, 3; Maryland, 8; North Carolina, 11 ; Georgia, 10; Lousiana, 6; Ten- Here follow resolutions 7, 9, of the platnessee, 13; Kentucky, 12; Fiorida, 3–163.

form of 1840, which we omit. Cass and Butler--Maine, 9; New-Hampshire, 6; Virginia. 17 ; South Carolina, 9; Alabama, 9; Mississippi,

Resolved, That the proceeds of the Public Lands ought 6; Ohio, 23; Indiana, 12; Illinois, 9; Missouri, 7; Ar to be sacredly applied to the National objects specified kansas, 8; Michigan, 3; 'Texas, 4 ; Iowa, 4: Wisconsin, in the Constitution; and that we are opposed to any 4–127.

law for the distribution of such proceeds among the States as alike inexpedient in policy and repuguant to

the Constitution, DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, 1848.

Resoloed, That we are decidedly opposed to taking

from the President the qualified veto power, by which he The Democratic National Convention for sufficient to guard the public interests, to suspend the

is enabled, under restrictions and responsibilities amply 1848, assembled in Baltimore on the 22d of passage of a bill whose merits cannot secure the ep.

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proval of two-thirds of the Senate and House of Repre- mnay solicit our surrender of that vigilance which is the sentatives until the judgment of the people can be only safeguard of liberty. obta.ned thereon, and which has saved the American Resolved, that the confidence of the Democracy of people from ihe corrupt and tyrannical dom nation of the Union, in the principles, capacity, firmness and inile bank of the United States, and from a co.rupting tegrity of James K. Polk, manifested by his nomination system of general inte nal improvements.

and election in 1844, has been signally justified by tho Resoined that the war with Mexico, provoked on her strictness of his adherence to sound Democratic docpa t, by years of insult and injury, was commenced by criues, by the purity of purpose, the and ability her a my c:ossing the Rio Grande, attacking the Ameri- which have characterized bis administration in all our can troops and invading our sister State of Texits, and 'affairs at home and abroad; that we tender to him our inst upou all the principles of patriotisin and the cordial congratul upon the b.illiant success which Laws of Nations, it is a just and necessary war on our has hitherto crowned his patriotic efforts, and assure him part in which every Ameican citizen should have shown in advance, that at the expiration of his Presidential himself on the side of hs Country, and neither morally term he will carry with him to his retirement, the esteem, nor physically, by word or by deell, have given “ and respect, and admiration of a grateful country. and comfort to the enemy."

Resolved, That this Conventiou hereby present to the Resoloed, That we would be rejo ced at the assurance people of the United States, Lewis Cass, of Michigan, as of a peace with Mexico, founded on the just principles ine candidate of the Democratic party for the ortice of of indemnity for the past and security for the future; but | President, and William V. Bauler of Ky, for Vice-Presithat while the ratification of the liberal treaty offered to dent of the U. S. Mexico remains in doubt, it is the duty of the country to

The following resolution was offered by Mr. sustain the administration and to sustain the country in every measure necessary to provide for the vigorous Yancy, of Ala. piosecution of the war, should that treaty be rejected. Resolver, That the doctrine of non-interference with

Resvloed, That the officers and soldiers who have the rights of property of any portion of the people of this carried the arms of their country into Mexico, bave Confederacy, be it in the states or Territories thereof, crowned it with imperishable glory. Theis unconquer- by any other than the parties interested in them, is the able courage, their daring enterprise, their unfalte. ing true Republican doctrine recognized by this body. perseverance and fortitude when assailed on all sides by

This resolution was rejected : Yeas, 36 ; naye, innumerable foes and that more formidable enemy-the diseases of the climate-exalt their devoted patriotism 216--the yeas being: Georgia, 9; South Carointo the highest heroism, and give them a right to the lina, 9; Alabama, 5; Arkansas, 3 ; Florida, 3; profound gratitude of their country, and the adiniration of the world.

Maryland, 1; Kentucky, 1. Resoloed, That the Democratic National Convention of 30 States composing the American Republic tender their fraternal congratulations to the National Conventon of the Republic of France, now assembled as the

FREE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, 1848. free-suffrage Representatives of the Sovereignty of thirty- The Barnburners of New York, who were tive millions of Republ.cans to establish government on those eternal principles of equal rights for which their disgusted with the proceedings of the National Lafayette and our Washington fought side by side in Convention which had nominated Cass and Butthe struggle for our National Independence; and we ler for President and Vice-President, met in would especially convey to them and to the whole peo- Convention at Utica, ou the 22d of June, 1848. ple of France, our earnest wishes for the consolidation of their liberties, through the wisdom that shall guide their Delegates were also present from Ohio, Wisconcouncils

, on the basis of a Democratic Constitution, not sin and Massachusetts. Col. Samuel Young prederived from the grants or concessions of kings or sided over the deliberations of this Convention; dynasties, but originating from the only true source of political power recognized in the States of this Union;

and Martin Van Buren was nominated for Presithe inherent and inalienable right of the people, in their dent, with Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin, for sovereign capacity, to make and to amend their forms Vice-President. Gen. Dodge subsequently deof government in such manner as the welfare of the

clined. comununity may require.

Resoloed, That the recent development of this grand On the 9th of August following, a Conved political truth, of the sovereignty of the people and tion was held at Buffalo, which was attended by their capacity and power for self-government, which is prost: ating thrones and erecting Republics on the ruins delegates from the States of Maine, New-Hamp. of despotism in the old world, we feel that a high and shire, Vermout, Massachusetts, Connecticut, sacred duty is devolved, with increased respons.bility, Rhode Island, New York, New-Jersey, Pennsyl upon the Democratic party of this country, as the party vania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, Illinois, of the people, to sustain and advance among us Constitutional Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, by continuing Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Iowa, and thó to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the District of Columbia.' Charles Francis Adams, benefit of the few at the expense of the inany, and by a of Massachusetts, presided, and the Conventiou vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the Constitution which are broad enough nominated Messrs. Van Buren and Adams as and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as candidates for President and Vice-President, it was the Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be in and adopted the following Resolves, sinco the full expansion of the energies and capacity of this great and progressive people.

known as Rorolved, That a copy of these resolutions be for.

THE BUFFALO PLATFORM warded through the American Minister at Paris, to the National Convention of the Republic of France.

Whereas, We have assembled in Convention, as a Resoloed, That the fruits of the great political triumph union of freeinen, for the sake of freedom, forgetting of 1814, which elected James K. Polk and George M. all past political differences in a cominon resolve to Dallas President and Vice-President of the United States, maintain the rights of free labor against the aggressions bave fulfilled the hopes of the Democracy of the Union of the Slave Power, and to secure free soil to a free in defeating the declared purposes of their opponents in people, creati ga National Bank, in preventiug the corrupt and And Whereas, The political Conventions recently aus. unconstitutional distribution of the Land Proceeds from sembled at Baltimore and Puiladelphia, the one stiilng the common treasury of the Union for local purposes, in the voice of a great constituency, entitled to be heard lo protecting the Currency and Labor of the country from its deliberatious, and the other abandoning its distinctive ruinous fluctuations; and guarding the money of the principles for mere availability, have dissolved the Na country for the use of the people by the establishment Lional party organizations heretofore existing, by nomt of the Constitutional treasury; in the noble impulse nating for the Chief Magistracy of the United States, ungiven to the cause of Free Trade by the repeal of the der the slavebolding dictation, candidates, neither of tar.ff of 42, and the creation of the inore equal, honest, whom can be supported by the opponents of Slavery Exand productive tariff of 1846 ; and that, in our op.nion, tension without a sacrifice of consistency, duty and selfit would be a fatal error to weaken the bands of a politi- respect; cal organ.zation by which these great reforms have And whersas, These nominations so made, furnish tho been achieved, and risk them in the hands of their occasion and demonstrate the necessity of the union of kaown adversaries, with whatever delusive appeals they the people under the banner of Free Democracy, in a sok


A CON Ballots.

einn and formal declaration of their independence of the / with foreign nations, or among the several States, are slave power, and of their fixed determination to rescue objects or uational concern, and that it is the duty of the Federal Government froin its control;

Congress, in the exercise of its coustitutional powers, io Resolved, therefore, That we, the people here assem- provide therefor. bled, remembering the example of our fathers, in the days Resowed, That the free grant to actual settlers, in con of the first Declaration of Independence, putting our trust sideration of the expenses they incur in making settlein God for the triumph of our cause, and invoking his weuts in the wilderness, which are usually fully equal to guidance in our endeavors to advance it, do now plant tveir aclual cost, , and of the public benefits resulting onrselves upon the National platform of Freedom in oppo- therefrom, of reasonable portions of the public lands, yition to the sectional platforun of Slavery.

under suitable limitations, is a wise and just measure of Resolved, That Slavery in the several States of this public policy, which will promote in various ways the inInion which recognize its existence, depends upon State terests of all the states of this Union; and we therefore laws alone, which cannot be repealed or modified by the recommend it to the favorable consideration of the AmeriFederal Governmeni, and for which laws that govern. can people. ment is not responsible. We therefore propose no inter- Resolved, That the obligations of honor and patriotference by Congress with Slavery within the limits of any ism require the earliest practicable payment of the da. State.

tional debt, and we are therefore in favor of such a tariff Resolved, that the Proviso of Jefferson, to prohibit the of duties as will raise revenue adequate to defray the ne. existence of Slavery after 1800, in all theTerritories of the cessary expenses of the Federal Government, and to pay United States, Southern and Northern; the votes of six annual instalments of our debt, and the interest thereon States and sixteen delegates, in the Congress of 1784, for Resolved, That we inscribe on our own banner, "Free the Proviso, to three States and seven delegates against Soil, Free Speech, Free Labur, and Free Men," and under it; the actual exclusion of Slavery from the Nortnwest- it we will fight on, and fight ever, until a triuinphant vicern Territory, by the Ordinance of 1737, unanimously story shall reward our exertions. adopted by the States in Congress; and the entire history of that period, clearly show that it was the settled policy of the Nation not to extend, nationalize or encourage, but to limit, localize and discourage Slavery; and to this polo

WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION, 1852. icy, which should never have been departed from, the Government ought to return.

This body assembled at Baltimore on the 16th Resolved, That our fathers ordained the Constitution of June, and chose Gen. John G. Chapman, of of the United States, in order, among other great national Md., as presiding officer, and, after an exciting objects, to establish justice, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty; but expressly denied session of six days, nominated Gen. Winfield to the Federal Government, which they created, all con- Scott as President, on the 53d ballot, as follows: stitutional power to deprive any person of life, liberty, 07 property, without due legal process.

Resowed, That in the judginent of this Convention, Corgielas no more power to make a Slave than to make a King; 10 laore power to institute or establish Slavery than to institute or establish a Monarchy: no such power 1. 181 133 29

18-1 123 cau be fuund among those specifically conferred by the 2.

183 181

131 128 Constitution, or derived by just implication from them. 8. 133 131 29

13+ 123 Resolved, That it is the duty of the Federal Govern- 4. 134 180 29

134 123 ment to relieve itself from all responsibility for the existe 5. 130 133 30

134 128 ence or continuance of slavery wherever the governinent 6. 183 131 29


134 123 possesses constitutional authority to legislate un tuat 7. 181 133

84. 134 126 subject, and it is thus responsible for its existence.

8. 133 131 28 35. 134 125 Resowed, That the true, and in the judgment of this 9. 133 133

36. 136 127 Couvention, the only safe means of preventing the ex- 10. 135 130 29 37. 133 128 tension of Slavery into Territory now Free, is to prohibit 11. 134


186 127 its extension in all such Territory by an act of Congress. 12. 134


30 Resoloed, That we accept the issue which the slave 13. 134 180 23 40.

129 power has forced upon us; and to their demand for more 14. 133 130 29 41. 132 129 Slave States, and more Slave Territory, our calm but final 15. 133 130 29

134 128 30 answer is, no inore Slave states and no more slave Ter- 16. 135 129


134 123 ritory. Let the soil of our extensive domains be kept 17. 132 131 29 44. 133 129 89) free for the hardy pioneers of our own land, and the op- 18. 132 131 23 45. 133 127 pressed and banished of other lands, seeking homes of (19.

132 131 29 46. 134

127 31 confort and fields of enterprise in the new world.

20. 132 131

47. 135 129 29 Resolved, That the bill lately reported by the committee 21.


28 48. 187 124 30 of eight in the Senate of the United States, was no com- 22. 132 130 30 49. 139 122 30) promise, but an absolute surrender of the rights of the 23. 132 130 30 50. 142 122 28 Non-Slavenohters of all the State: ; and while we rejoice 24. 133 129 30 51.

142 120 29 to know that a measure which, while opening the door for 25. 133

128 31 52. 146


27 the introduction of Slavery into Territories now free, 26.

134 128 30 53. 159 112 21 would also have opened the door to litigation and strife 27. 131 128 30 INecessary to choose-147. ainong the future inhabitants thereof, to the ruin of their peace and prosperity, was defeated in the House of Repre

William A. Graham, of North Carolina, was sentatives, its passage, in hoi. haste, by a ulajority, embrac- nominated for Vice-President on the second ing several senators who voted in open violation of the ballot. kuowu will of their constituents, should warn the people to see to it, that their representatives be not sutfered to

The Convention adopted the following betray them. There must be no more Comprowises with Slavery; if made they must be repealed.

PLATFORM: Resowed, That we demand freedom and established

The Whigs of the United States, in Convention asseninstitutions for our brethren in Oregon, now exposed to bled, adhering to the great conservative principles by hamiships, poril and massacre by the reckless hostility of which they are controled and governed, and now as ever the Slave power to the establishinent of Free Government relying upon the intelligence of the Ainerican people, for Free Territories; and not only for them, but for our with an abiding confidence in their capacity for self-gov. new brethren in California and New Mexico.

ernment, and their devotion to the Constitution and the Resowed, It is due uot only to this occasion, but to the Union, do proclaim the following as the political sentiwole people of the United States, that we should also

ments aud deterinination for the establishment and declare ourselves on certain other questiuns of National maintenance of which their national organization as a Policy: therefore,

party was effected. Resowod, That we demand Cheap Postage for the Peo

First. The government of the United States is of a ple; a retrenchment of the expenses and patronage of limited character, and it is confined to the exercise of the Federal Government; the abolition of all unneces- powers expressly granted by the Constitution, and such Bary offices and salaries; and the election by the people as may be necessary and proper for carrying the granted of all civil officers in the service of the government, so powers into full execution, and that powers not granted far as the same may he practicable. Rosowed, That River and Harbor improvements, when tively and to the people.

or necessarily implied are reserved to the States respeceuauued by the safety and convenience of commerce Second, The State Governments should be held securo

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