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animated appearance. The galleries were crowded to repletion; the ladies' gallery resembling, from the gay dresses of the fair ones there congregated, some gorgeous parterre of flowers; and the gentlemen's gallery seemed one dense black mass of surging, hearing masculines, pushing, struggling and almost clambering over each others' backs in order to get a good look at the proceedings.
The morning broke clear and beautiful, and the hearts of thousands upon thousands of freemen, far and near, beat in rapid succession, and throbbed wildly at the thought of what that day might bring forth, and many, many, with the gray dawn of the morning, wished that day well and peacefully over. On the floor of the Senate Messrs. Crittenden, Trumbull, Wigfall, Wade, Douglas, and others, kept up a rolling fire of debate, while those not engaged in the discussion betook themselves to the sofas for a comfortable nap during the session, which, it was known, would last all night. As the morning advanced, the galleries and floor became gradually cleared out, and at eight o'clock only a few remained. The public buildings, schools, and most places of business, were closed throughout the day; the stars and stripes floated from the City Hall, Capitol, War Department and other public buildings, while not a few of the citizens flung out flags from their houses or across the principal avenues. From early dawn the drum and fife could be heard in every quarter of the city, and the streets were thronged with the volunteer soldiery, hastening to their respective rendezvous. Three or four hours elapsed before there was the least chance of entering the Capitol. Pennsylvania Avenue was thronged with people wending their way to the famous east front. For four hours the crowd poured on, in one continuous stream of old and young, male and female; staid old Quakers, from Pennsylvania, going to see Friend Abraham; and lengthy Suckers,
Hoosiers and Wolverines, desirous of a peep at Mr. Lincoln; Buckeyes and Yankees, men from California and Oregon, from the north-east and the north-west, and a few from the border States; the large majority, however, were Northern men, there being, apparently, but few Southerners. Previous to the arrival of the procession, the Senate chamber did not present a very animated appearance. The many ladies waiting to see the display did not arrive until late; and the officers, whose gay uniforms and flashing epaulettes relieved so well the sombreness of the national black, were with the Presidential cortege, during the passing of the procession to Willard's Hotel and the march thence to the Capitol.
At five minutes to twelve o'clock, Vice-President Breckenridge and Senator Foote, of the committee of arrangements, entered the Senate chamber escorting the Vice-President elect, Hon. Hannibal Hamlin, whom they conducted to a seat immediately to the left of the chair of the President of the Senate. As the hands of the clock pointed to the hour of twelve the hammer fell, and the second session of the thirty-sixth Congress came to an end. Mr. Breckenridge announced the Senate adjourned without day, and left the chair, to which he immediately conducted Vice-President Hamlin. The foreign diplomatic corps also entered the chamber at the same moment, occupying seats to the right of the chair. It was a subject of general remark that the foreign corps never were so fully represented as on this occasion. The ministers, attachés and others, numbered, in all, above fifty; and their brilliancy of dress, the number of their decorations, crapes, &c., added much to the imposing nature of the scene. Some of the court uniforms were particularly gorgeous, and attracted much attention. The attendance of senators was unusually full, the only absences noticed being those of Messrs. Mason and Hunter of Virginia. At fifteen minutes to one o'clock the judges of the Supreme
Court of the United States were announced by the doorkeeper of the Senate. On their entrance all on the floor arose, and the venerable judges, headed by Chief Justice Taney, moved slowly across to the seats assigned them, immediately to the right of the Vice-President, each exchanging salutes with that officer in passing the chair. At ten minutes after one o'clock an unusual stir occurred in the chamber, and the rumor spread like wildfire that the President elect was in the building. At fifteen minutes past one o'clock the marshal and chief, Major B. B. French, entered the chamber, ushering in the President and President elect. They had entered together from the street through a private covered passage-way, on the north side of the Capitol, police officers being in attendance to prevent outsiders from crowding after them. The line of procession was then formed, as follows:- Marshal of the District of Columbia, judges of the Supreme Court and sergeant-at-arms, Senate commitee of arrangements, President of the United States and President elect, Vice-President, Secretary of the Senate, senators, diplomatic corps, heads of the departments, governors and others in the chambers. When the word. was given for members of the House to fall into the line of procession a violent rush was made for the door, accompanied by loud outcries, violent pushing and great disturbance. After the procession had reached the platform, Senator Baker, of Oregon, introduced Mr. Lincoln to the assembly. On Mr. Lincoln's advancing to the stand he was cheered, but not very loudly. Unfolding his manuscript, in a loud, clear voice he read his message. During the delivery of the inaugural, which began at half-past one o'clock, Mr. Lincoln was much cheered, especially at any allusion to the Union.
President Buchanan and Chief Justice Taney listened with the utmost attention to every word of the address, and, at its conclusion, the latter administered the usual
oath, in answering to which Mr. Lincoln was vociferously cheered. The present inauguration is the eighth ceremony of the kind at which Chief Justice Taney has officiated, having administered the oath of office, successively, to Presidents Van Buren, Tyler, Polk, Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan and Lincoln. The ceremony was exceedingly impressive. The Chief Justice seemed to be very much agitated, and his hands shook very perceptibly with emotion. At the conclusion of the ceremonies the President was escorted to the Senate chamber, thence to his carriage, and the military, forming as in the procession of the morning, accompanied him, with the committee of arrangements, to the White House. On reaching the executive mansion the troops formed in double line, on Maine Avenue, and the barouche containing the Presidential party passed through to the White House. Mr. Buchanan accompanied Mr. Lincoln to the main hall, and there took a farewell leave of him, expressing a hope, in cordial terms, that his administration might prove a happy and a prosperous one. The ex-President then retired. On the arrival of the procession at the White House the marshals were successively introduced to Mr. Lincoln, and then, the line being formed, the rush of people to congratulate the new President was exceedingly great. Thus ended, for the day-time, the inaugural ceremonies.
Though the enthusiasm did not equal that manifested on former occasions, everything passed off quietly. The most ample civil and military preparations were made, by the municipal authorities and General Scott, to provide for any emergency that might arise. The various bodies of United States troops at Washington were stationed in different parts of the city, the sappers and miners alone being in the procession. General Scott, it is said, was near the Capitol, with Capt. Barry's company of artillery and Major Harkin's command, acting as infantry. Offi
cers reported continually, passing to and fro, and it is said the General was heard to exclaim,-"Everything is going on peaceably; thank God Almighty for it!" During the day military patrols were on duty all over the city, and the greatest vigilance was enjoined upon and observed by the regulars.
The display of soldiery in the procession was very fine, but not equal to the 22d of February. The companies were quite numerous, but of small size. As a rule the Republican associations were placed in the order of march immediately after the ex-President. These organizations had with them a kind of triumphal car, drawn by four white horses, each of which was covered with white cloth on which was the word "Union" in large letters on one side, and the word "Constitution" on the other. The car was decorated with miniature flags, and white, red and blue drapery, and contained thirty-four little girls, representing the States, and two young ladies, respectively representing the North and the South. The whole affair was under the charge of ten Wide-Awakes, in full uniform. Five hundred delegates from New York marched in the procession, four abreast. Several other large delegations also joined the line.
The scene from the east front was very fine. The avenue in front of the portico was thronged with people, the crowd extending a great distance on either side, and reaching far into the Capitol grounds. Every available spot was black with human beings; boys and men clinging to rails, and mounting on fences, and climbing trees, until they bent beneath their weight. On the outer edge of the concourse, the volunteer soldiery stood at rest during the delivery of the inaugural. A great number of flags were flying, and as the sun shone brightly on the gay dresses of the ladies, and the uniforms and glittering weapons of the soldiery, the scene was exceedingly animated.