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fications, Fort Morgan on the main land to the east, and Fort Gaines on Dauphin Island to the west. The deep channel runs near the main land at this point. Farragut moves up on that side. His four monitors pass within two hundred yards of Fort Morgan. The wooden ships, lashed two by two abreast, are arranged outside of the line of monitors, and are thus protected from the guns of Fort Morgan. Fort Gaines, on the island, is four miles away. The flag-ship is the Hartford. She is a wooden vessel, and the heroic Admiral, in order to be in a situation to view the whole scene to advantage, lashes himself to the maintop.

When the fleet comes abreast of the fort, it is assailed with great fury by the powerful casemated work; but so rapid is the reply from the monitors with their heavier ordnance, that the artillerists in the fortifications are driven from their guns. The fleet passes up with comparatively trifling damage, except the loss of one of the monitors, which runs upon a torpedo. But having passed this ordeal, the Union fleet encounters the iron-plated fleet of the enemy, including a ram called the Tennessee, 209 feet in length and 48 feet in breadth of beam. This powerful engine of destruction is more than a match, single-handed, for any vessel belonging to Farragut's fleet. But the huge ironclad is at once assailed on all sides by the monitors and the wooden ships, and finally succumbs after a desperate struggle. The other Confederate vessels are then either run down or taken,-a few only escaping down the bay. General Granger arrives on the 4th with a competent military force. He lays siege to Fort Gaines. The Confederate commander, Colonel Anderson, being cut off from the hope of re-enforcement, surrenders. The commander of Fort Morgan promptly follows his example. The Union forces thus gain complete command of Mobile Bay and harbor.

During the year 1864 the navy-which never failed to do its part under the honest administration of Gideon Welles-rendered invaluable service to the country, and especially to its commerce, by the destruction of the Anglo-Confederate privateers, the Alabama, the Florida, and the Georgia. The sinking of the Alabama under the command of Captain Semmes, off Cherbourg, on the coast of France, by the Kearsarge under Capt. John A. Winslow, was a naval achievement which thrilled the Nation. It reflected great honor upon the officers and men of the victorious ship. The Alabama was the larger vessel of the two, and she was more heavily armed.

Notwithstanding the vigilance of the Atlantic fleet, Wilmington, North Carolina, afforded great facilities for blockade-running. It became an object of importance to the government to close that port effectually against the entrance of the enemy's vessels, as well as against all intercourse with the outer world. This could not be done without the co-operation of the army. But the constant demands for troops at all points inland, caused this pressing matter to be neglected until December, 1864. Then a powerful fleet of ironclads, under Admiral Porter, accompanied by transports,

with 6,500 troops, under Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, sailed from Hampton Roads for New Inlet, one of the entrances to the Cape Fear River. The troops were landed on December 15th, at a point where the Confederates had constructed a strong fortification, known as Fort Fisher.

General Butler devised the plan of breaking down the walls of Fort Fisher by loading a vessel with powder and exploding it within a few hundred yards of that formidable structure. To this end, two hundred and fifteen tons of powder were put into the gunboat Louisiana, which had been disguised as a Confederate blockade-runner. She was towed as near as practicable to the shore. The explosion was terrific, of course, but the noise had less effect upon the sand-protected walls of Fort Fisher than the sound of the rams' horns had upon the stone walls of Jericho. Indeed, nothing was effected by this original but costly device. This futile attempt was made on the 24th of December. It was followed up by a bombardment by the fleet. This is said to have surpassed everything of the kind recorded, up to that time, in naval annals. Admiral Porter states that in one hour and fifteen minutes the fort was completely silenced. The next day, three brigades of General Butler's force were landed two and a half miles above the fort, but they were repulsed by the enemy. They retreated to the transports; and the General thereupon gave up the assault as impracticable, except by entering upon a regular siege. Admiral Porter was strongly opposed to abandoning the attack. His opinion was shared by the government and the country. The result was the supersedure of General Butler by General Terry, who, in command of 8,000 men, sailed from Fortress Monroe early in January. On the 15th of that month, Fort Fisher was captured, with 2,500 men and seventy-two guns. This result was effected by another tremendous bombardment by the fleet, and a brilliant assault of Ames' brigade, after a desperate conflict within the works.

General Sherman crossed the Savannah River on the 6th of January. He commenced his march through the Carolinas. In South Carolina he was followed by the Confederate General Hardee, who had retreated before him through Georgia. Charleston was evacuated and Columbia was occupied after some resistance. The latter city was burned, in spite of all efforts to save it, burned perhaps, as is stated, by accident. After a short rest at that point, General Sherman continues on his march into North Carolina. About forty miles east by south of Raleigh, the capital of that state, at Bentonville, he encounters the Confederates under Gen. J. E. Johnston. At this place, on March 2d, a severe battle is fought. It is one of the last of the war. It results in the repulse of the Confederates, with the loss of nearly 2,000 on each side, in killed and wounded. Sherman then advances to Raleigh. He takes possession of it, with slight resistance. Johnston retreats up the country, and at Durham opens negotiations for a surrender. Near there, on the 18th of April, the conditions are agreed to. Liberal



terms are conceded to the Confederates. They are disapproved by the government, and the same terms granted to Lee are accepted.

Meantime, while Sherman is pushing north from Savannah, and as the spring approaches, the forces in Virginia under the immediate eye of General Grant are gradually closing in upon his great antagonist, General Lee. The railroads leading to Richmond are cut. The Confederate detachments and foraging parties are captured. Stronghold after stronghold is surrendered until, in sheer desperation, the Confederate Congress, forgetting the original object of the war,-which was to uphold slavery,- resolves in favor of arming the slaves, and giving freedom to all who may thus serve the Confederacy. The Confederates now see the Union lines slowly but surely tightening around them, and that an effort to break them must be made immediately, or all will be lost. Accordingly, General Gordon, in command of a strong force, sallies forth and attacks Fort Stedman, near Petersburg. It is a strong place, but the garrison is small, and this key of the Union works falls into his hands. This was on the 25th of March. Elated with his success, he assails Fort Hascall, but is repulsed by Hartranft with great slaughter, and retreats within his lines, leaving 3,000 of his men hors de combat, and 1,800 prisoners.

General Grant, seeing a possible union of the forces of Lee and Johnston, determines to attack the enemy all along his lines in front of Petersburg. Sheridan is Grant's right arm in all the subsequent operations.

31st of March, a collision occurs at Hatcher's Run. It is at first disastrous to the Unionists, but re-enforcements coming up, the partial defeat is turned into a victory. It happened that the writer was at this time a guest of his constituent, General Griffin, of Ohio, and had then his first and only observation of the results of battle.-In this encounter Lee, seeing the purpose of the Union general, becomes the assailant. In like manner he attacks Sheridan at Five Forks. A similar result to that of Hatcher's Run follows. The Union cavalry forces are driven for some distance, but they rally and, in turn, repulse the assailants. During the night, re-enforcements of infantry come up, and the next day, April 1st, the Confederates are routed and driven into their lines by Sheridan. On April 2d, General Grant assaults the Confederate works along the whole line, with great fury. He carries them, and, at last! at last! Petersburg and Richmond are in his hands! That day General Lee dispatches a messenger to Mr. Davis, announcing the terrible disaster he has suffered, and informing him that Richmond is no longer tenable. Mr. Davis is in church when the messenger arrives. The note is conveyed to him as he sits in his pew. He quietly withdraws, with feelings which can be imagined. Richmond is evacuated that night, or before the day dawns on the 3d. The archives of the Confederacy have been packed up for some time; and now the first and last Confederate President, with his Cabinet, and the whole body of auditors, clerks,

and attendants, take a final leave of their capital. They go off by the Richmond and Danville Railroad to Greensborough, North Carolina, and thence, after a short pause, they go to Charlotte, in the same state, where they disperse. General Lee holds out a few days longer, but on the 9th, he makes a final surrender of the Confederate cause; and, as already stated, nine days after, Gen. J. E. Johnston follows his example. Thus died Secession.

If one would know what immense sacrifices were caused by the war, let him read the Quartermaster-General's reports for that period, up to and including Nov. 8, 1865. No figures of speech can give an idea of the stupendous nature of this great conflict, like the figures of arithmetic and the details of the material used in its prosecution upon merely one side of the contest. In the last of the series of annual reports of the operations of the Quartermaster's Department of the army, for the year ended June 30, 1865, there is a total of nearly five hundred millions, — $459,630,905.16,- appropriated for that branch of the service. All of this amount was spent up to the 30th of June, 1865, except twenty-seven millions. This money was expended to provide means of transportation by land and water for the troops and their material of war. It furnished the horses for artillery and cavalry, the horses and mules of the wagon trains, provided and supplied tents, camp and garrison equipage, forage, lumber, and all materials. for camps and for the shelter of the troops. It built barracks, hospitals, and storehouses, provided wagons and ambulances, harness, except for cavalry and artillery horses, built or chartered transport ships and steamers, docks and wharves, constructed roads, railroad and other bridges, bought clothes for the army, and was charged generally with the payment of all expenses attending military operations, not assigned by law or regulation to some other army department. That department transported the stores of all other departments from the depots to the camps, upon the march and to the battle-field, until they were finally issued to the troops. By adding to the vast expenditure of the Quartermaster's Department, that of the pay, ordnance, subsistence, and medical departments, the reader may have some adequate idea of the resources which were drawn upon for the restoration of the Union. These expenditures were necessary to the comfort, health, and efficiency of the troops. The success of the army in the end, after four years or gigantic struggle, indicates what had been done in that behalf by the accomplished Quartermaster-General, Montgomery C. Meigs.

As an example of the scientific and mechanical energy of the North, take Atlanta as the key of the Confederate defenses in the last year of the war. It is secured after a campaign involving a line of operations three hundred miles in length, which is maintained for months, through a hostile country, so effectually as to enable an army of 90,000 men with over 40,000 animals, to subsist not only while advancing, but, what is much more difficult, while lay



ing siege for weeks to that advanced position, with a long line of communication to be guarded. In no other country were railroads brought to perform so important a part in the operations of war. Never were performed such rapid feats of construction as those which illustrated the campaigns in America. Not merely in the reconstruction of bridges which were duplicated, in the production of locomotives, the laying of telegraphs, the building of steamers, the making of guns, and in furthering and consummating the blockade, but in a thousand other ways, did the North give evidence of that strength against which the Southern legions surged in vain.

It does not detract from the chivalric courage of the Confederate soldier, however humble his station or high his rank, that he succumbed before the vast mechanical forces of the North. The South was not distinguished for inventive mechanical genius. It was only in a few localities that she had the facilities to construct what was indispensable to war. Her mechanical instrumentalities were few and far between, for the South was a country of planters. Her ways, one would have supposed, would have been the ways of pleasantness and all her paths - - of peace. But there was a sentiment of chivalry about the nature of her sons which led them inconsiderately to dash, Quixotically, against the locomotive, which is the emblem and the proof of the chemical and mechanical forces of our time. If the South at last lost her cause, it was because she had never gained that skill in invention which has no parallel in the world, and which has had its home in the North, and principally in the New England States.

What can surpass 1,769 miles of military railways repaired, maintained, stocked, and operated by the agents of but one of the many army departments? What quantities of iron were needed in the repair of so many miles of track; and what great quantities of iron had been burned and twisted by the contending forces. Even rolling-mills were established by the Union troops in such cities as Chattanooga,— mills capable of re-rolling the rails which had been seemingly destroyed, at the rate of fifty tons of railroad iron per day. Three hundred and sixty-five locomotive engines and 4,203 railway cars, at an expenditure of twenty-two millions of dollars, were operated by General McCallum, in the last year of the war. The number of army railway men employed in April, 1865, when the war was closing, was 23,533. The military telegraph lines were kept up at an expense of $75,000 a month. The number of miles in operation during the last year of the war was 8,201 on land, and 121 submarine. During the whole time of the war 15,000 miles of military telegraph were constructed and operated. In the year 1863, the telegraphic expense averaged as high as $38,500 per month. The total expenditure of the telegraphic business from the 1st of May, 1861, to the 30th of June, 1865, was $2,655,500. The quantity of forage, fuel, and regular supplies consumed is simply incalculable and stupendous in amount. Years must intervene before the claims growing out of this enormous consumption, and for the labor

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