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MARCH 30, 1830.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

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intermediate points to either, or to Washington. The man's) scale, and taking thence a part of his gold, had proposed route is about equidistant from the seaboard behaved unjustly, a more apt illustration of the duty and and the Mississippi; they will be auxiliary to each other, the justice of the Government might have been found, in or, if gentlemen prefer it, I have no objection that the likening it to a father, whose sons, having been to differroad be considered ancillary to the river. ent markets, severally brought in their contributions to the I may be asked why I favor the western route. And common stock, which the old gentleman distributed among it may be thought, perhaps with some propriety, that, as the objects of his bounty and affection, (whose industry this matter "does not belong to my parish," I should had furnished the treasure,) not in equal proportions, but not interfere. Having, however, expressed a preference, according to the wants and necessities of each. Is not I will say why. It lies generally through a better country this the every day course of parental duty and affection' -will require less bridging, not much more than half But the gentleman's argument, if admitted, will not save that either of the others demands--will not have more him. I confess I have not sufficient acumen to perceive than two-thirds as much causeway--and, lastly, although its force, but think it proves directly the reverse of that it does not now, will, in my opinion, very soon, and in all for which it was adduced. The road passes over a sectime thereafter, have a larger population. At present its tion of country that has received little or no part of the white inhabitants exceed in number those of the eastern public favor. The sums-the vast sums that have flowed line, with all its advantage of being dotted with towns and into the public coffers since the peace of eighteen huncities, which have given it the name of the metropolitan dred and fifteen, amounting to upwards of three hundred millions of dollars, have been expended chiefly on the seaboard; and the interior never will get any of the country's treasure, if you do not allow them internal improvements. So much for the gentleman's equal distribution, or distribution exactly proportioned to contribution!


What are the objections to this bill? They are very numerous, but, in my mind, not well founded. The honorable gentleman from Virginia [Mr. P. P. BARBOUR] stated, that although the General Government was a great whole, each State, each individual, would feel his own in- England, we are informed from the same respectable dividuality, and pursue his own interest, though willing to source, is at this moment retrenching to the utmost, and do something for the public. I admit it, and hold it to be deafening her King and ministry with applications for rea strong argument for appropriations, such as that con- lief from wretchedness. Why that country was named, templated by the measure under debate. It is, according I know not, unless it was for the inference that her preto the most deliberate judgment I can form, the solemn sent condition might be traced to her manufactories, her duty of statesmen, of gentlemen on this floor, to exert roads and canals. If that was the purpose, I take leave themselves to the uttermost, preserving their principles to deny the justness of the conclusion. So far from her and a rigid regard to duty, to maintain and increase the harmony of the nation. Climate, diversity of habits and pursuits arising out of it, contrariety of interest and difference of sentiment proceeding from these and other causes, open the chasm already too wide. Let it be the pleasing duty of those who are now together, in the enjoyment of the public confidence, to repose upon the integrity and purity of each other, and to make a common effort to smooth the asperities which grow out of our several conditions-to level the inequalities which must be met with on so wide a surface. To contribute, in the smallest degree, to this, the most desirable of all political ends, would give me a pleasure that no other public agency of mine could possibly yield. Is not the bill calculated to aid this consummation? Let us have something in common, and not look with cold and heartless indifference upon this Government, as if we had no interest in it. If we cannot be bound by some cord of regard, let us at least see some evidence that we are connected.

misery being attributed to her occupations and improvements, she must have long since have sunk without them; they alone have sustained her under a pressure that has been borne until the world is amazed. Her national debt, that great source of her pauperism and wretchedness, has been magnifying for a very long time, but was increased seven or eight fold, by the wars that arose out of the French revolution-conflicts that derived their sharpest acrimony from the alleged secret treaty supposed to have been signed at Pilnitz, by which the parties to it were bound to impose the royal family upon France, and which attempt to interfere with their internal government, the French nation nobly and successfully resisted. To this debt, thus incurred, is mainly to be ascribed her present unfortunate situation.

But this measure, if successful, will have a tendency, say several gentlemen, to keep up a large revenue system. My sentiments on this subject are well known. I trust the present policy will be adhered to-that no repeal of the Again, we are informed by the same honorable gentle- laws imposing the tariff will take place, until a full and man, rightly, I think, that the consumers pay the duties fair experiment has been made; which will result, I doubt on imports; and that, as the money in the public treasury not, in establishing the wisdom of the course pursued for is raised equally off the people, it should be equally dis- the last two years-repealed they shall not be, if my vote, tributed, or rather that it should be distributed in the same and any little influence I may possess, fairly exerted, can proportion in which it was contributed. Sir, this looks prevent it. Immense interests have been staked on the well in theory, but it cannot be carried into practice. faith of the Government, and ruin, utter ruin, would inThe Government was constituted for the common benefit, volve a large portion of the middle and eastern States, if and to promote the interest of the whole. Some portions this faith should be broken. Would honorable gentlemen of the empire will require the expenditure of more money themselves desire, if their wishes could effect it, the imthan others, and it will not answer to give one district mediate repeal of all duties? Would they not prostrate more than it needs, because it contributed it, or another in one common desolation the manufacturer and the merless, because it paid not so much as its necessities require. chant, and, through them, a very great proportion of the The harbor of one city may call for an immense expendi- whole community? The duties will, therefore, last long ture-nature has made another perfect; very large fortifi- enough, at all events, for this road. Why is it, if the ta cations may be esteemed necessary at one position, as in the riff operates unequally, if injustice is done to the South, gentleman's own State, at Old Point Comfort, or Fortress that the opposition I am now combating comes from the Monroe, and Castle Calhoun; but who complains of that? complaining quarter? Here is some little atonementNo one, that I am aware of; and no one should. I think, some little boon offered; but it is contemptuously rejecttherefore, instead of supposing that he and another per-ed. We ask what we may be allowed to scatter among son were weighing one hundred pounds of gold in sepa- the very people who, by their representatives, set forth rate scales, designing each to contribute equally, and that as a grievance that money is exacted from them, the iden his partner, by putting his fingers into his (the gentle-tical money so collected, or a part of it, and the permis

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sion is withheld.

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[MARCH 30, 1830. Can we do more unless we destroy our-lo, in the State of New York, passing by the seat of the selves to gratify others? General Government, in the District of Columbia, to the city of New Orleans, in the State of Louisiana, whose duty it shall be, or a majority of them, to examine the ground, and lay out said road," &c. It is provided in the second section "that the said road shall be laid out four rods in width, and designated on each side by a distinguishable mark on a tree, or by the erection of a stake or monu ment, sufficiently conspicuous, at every quarter of a mile of the distance, where the road pursues a straight course, and on each side where an angle occurs in its course."

The honorable gentleman from Tennessee [Mr. POLK] is of opinion that this bill combines many local interests, which he deprecates as a great evil. Pray, is not all legislation of local operation, and the more extensive the more comprehensive? but, then, this produces delusion, the delusion of whole masses of men, and entire sections of country. I wonder if, by possibility, there might not be some delusion on the other side. The gentleman reminds me of the juryman who differed with his fellows, and, upon being brought into court, said they were the most obstinate eleven men he had ever met with; he could not bring them over to his view of the case.

The third section is as follows: "That the said commissioners, after they have laid out the said road, shall present to the President an accurate plan of the same, with He speaks of the number of routes that have been sur- its several courses and distances in each State, accompa veyed, which is argument against him, as it goes to prove nied by a written report of their proceedings, describing the great anxiety of the public mind on the subject-the the marks and monuments by which the road is designatgreat interest that is taken in this road, which we have led, and the face of the country through which it passes, heard represented as likely to be of no utility if made; and the roads, or parts of roads, if any, in the course of not so think those who live near its projected course, and the road so laid out by this act, which, in their opinion, appreciate its value. But the people are deluded--they shall need no alteration, which said roads, or parts thereare blinded and lost to reason, by the offer to spend of, so finished, shall reman unaffected by this act." their own money among them. Where, I would ask, It is made the duty of the commissioners, by the fourth should it be expended, if not among those who own it? section, to "report to the President an estimate of the If it be a delusion, I fancy it will, unlike most other er- expenses of the said road, which, in their opinion, will rors, abide with the people, and continue to close their be necessary for its formation, graduation, and final comeyes to what gentlemen are pleased to call their true in-pletion, on the most approved plan, without the applicaterest. When you finally select one line, it is said you tion of stone or gravel, except where they shall be found offend all those who live upon the others, and this is press-indispensably necessary to its use; and if the same does ed as a good reason for not moving further; does it not not on an average exceed the sum of fifteen hundred doloccur to gentlemen that the remark, if of force, would lars, including necessary bridges and causeways, per mile, put an end to all improvement whatever? Of the many the President is hereby authorized to take prompt and surveys made, or to be made, I would choose the best, and effectual measures to cause said road to be made throughI would say they should be few. I would not, nor will I, out the whole distance." vote for all the projects on foot, or which have been re- It is believed that the preparatory steps by the com ported to this House; nor do I think the public treasury missioners, of surveying, laying out, and marking the should be burdened with annual appropriations for sup-road, and making a detailed report of their proceedings, porting and keeping in repair any great channel of com- cannot be taken in less than two, perhaps three years; and munication that has been, or hereafter may be, con- that during this period an expense will not be incurred structed. But this road must be turnpiked, say gentle- that shall exceed ten thousand dollars per annum; and that men; I do not know what others intend, but I do not look afterwards, if the contingency happens that shall make it beyond the present bill, nor think of a turnpike. Lest how- the duty of the President to commence the construction ever the estimate, mentioned by the honorable member of the road, not more than four, or perhaps five hundred from Tennessee, [Mr. POLK] of twenty-one millions of thousand dollars will be required annually. dollars should alarm, I will say that I understand the road in Ohio, equal to any in the world, to be now constructing for between five and six thousand dollars per mile; and, taking this as our datum, the whole distance from Buffalo to New Orleans would not, even if turnpiked, cost nine millions. The honorable gentleman speaks pleasantly of tapping the treasury, if it be plethoric; admonishes us that it is a dangerous operation, and that it requires a consultation of the seniors-not the bachelors of medicine, but the M. D.'s in politics. I am content to be regarded as a junior, at least for the present; but what if the seniors are timid, or mayhap unskilled, or, with a rare exception or two, adhere to the old practice, rejecting modern improvements as the innovations of heedless and incautious men; insisting that no other guide shall be followed but lectures heard or written, some twenty, or thirty, or forty years ago? Under these circumstances, the office must be assumed by those who may be estimated lightly; nothing else is left for it, they must use the knife, or the patient will die.

The last argument I shall notice, and it is one which all the honorable gentlemen who have spoken against the bill have urged, is, that they wish the public debt paid before we embark in the project. This bill, sir, interferes not with its discharge; if it did, I should be the last man to advocate it. What does the bill provide? The first sections enacts "that the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, three disinterested citizens of the United States, to lay out a road from Buffa

Let us now ascertain the state of the public debt, its exact amount, and the probable time of its extinguishment.

Debt on 1st January, 1830,
Interest to the 1st January, 1831,

Deduct sum then applicable to its ex-
tinction, according to the estimate
of the Secretary of the Treasury,

Interest to 1st January, 1832,

Deduct sum then applicable to debt,
by Secretary's estimate,

From which deduct two years' interest,
at three per centum, on thirteen
millions two hundred and ninety-six
thousand two hundred and forty-
nine dollars and forty-five cents,
(that sum having, in above calcula-
tion, been put at six per centum,
while it only carries three,)


$48,565,406 50 2,913,924 39 51,479,330 89

11,500,000 00 39,979,330 89

2,398,759 85

42,378,090 74 12,000,000 00 30,378,090 74

797,774 96 29,580,315 78

MARCH 30, 1830.]

Interest to 1st January, 1833,

Deduct, according to Secretary's estimate,

Add for interest on sum, beyond three per cent. stock, (on which no interest should be charged for this year, it having been added at six per cent. for the year 1832 to 1833,) say on six millions fifty-eight thousand eight hundred and eighty-five dollars and twenty-seven cents, to January, 1834,

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

12,000,000 00
19,355,134 72

[H. of R.

29,580,315 78 stand well at home. Take from any gentleman his State 1,774,818 94 support, and will he have influence in this House? I think not. What inducement can there be to strengthen the 31,355,134 72 hands of the General Government? None that I can perceive; and these seats change occupants too often to allow even a corrupt man to hope for any personal advantage from so doing. Each Government, General and State, can only perform its functions within its designated sphere. There may they each long happily move, nourishing and cherishing, and fostering and securing, by their light and influence, the free institutions of our country! I am, indeed, with the honorable gentleman from Tennessee, [Mr. POLK] for the Union, and, as its devoted friend, opposed to all doctrines which have the slightest tendency to make the most deplorable of all events familiar to us. I cannot bring my mind to adopt the idea that a State has a right 363,533 11 to abrogate a law of this Government. It is an opinion fraught with the worst consequences, and leading to the 19,718,667 83 most lamentable issue. Are not, I ask gentlemen, our fortunes freighted in the same vessel? The tempest which overwhelms one, will assuredly involve others; and, when this gallant barque shall be stranded, if stranded it must be, he who will have the fortune to seize a plank, by which he can reach the land, will find himself on a shore not worth inhabiting.

Deduct as above, according to estimate, 12,000,000 00
Leaving a balance of

7,718,667 83 of the public debt on the first day of January, 1834, at which time there will be in the treasury between three and four millions of dollars, beyond all ineffective funds that are there, which may be placed at one million, about Mr. STANDIFER said, he hoped the committee would which sum they are; and the United States will be unin- not think he was trespassing on its patience, whilst he atdebted, except as above, owner of seven millions of United tempted, in his own way, to give his views on the importStates' Bank stock; nor will the balance be so great as I ant subject before the committee. But, sir, [said Mr. S.} have made it, for all the debt (except the three per cent. you will readily account for the embarrassment under stock) is supposed, for convenience sake, to be at six per which I labor, when I inform you that I was raised to the cent. interest, when, in reality, twelve million seven hun-plough, at a time, and under circumstances, which preventdred and three thousand ninety-eight dollars and sixty ed my getting any but the most limited education. My cents carry but five per cent. and thirteen million seven embarrassment is increased, also, from the unfortunate hundred and sixty-six thousand seven hundred dollars and difference of opinion which prevails in the delegation from fourteen cents draw only four and one-half per cent. In- my own State, with all of whom my intercourse has been deed, the debt may be regarded as fully discharged when friendly. But, whatever may be the difficulties with which we shall have reached within seven millions of its apparent I have to meet, I am determined, when I see a subject unamount; for to that extent it was incurred by subscription der discussion which involves the best interests of my confor United States' Bank stock, which the Government still stituents, and the nation at large, to represent the views holds. Not more than twenty thousand dollars can be of that generous and enlightened people who sent me wanted for surveys and laying out the road before the here, and with whom, when at home, every thing dear to spring of 1832, nor perhaps more than thirty thousand me is to be found. I mean to give my full support to this dollars until 1833, for it cannot be begun to be opened bill, and wish to allow my colleagues and all others the until it is all laid out, so that it may be seen what the same privilege of acting freely that I take myself. I know average cost will be; which, if it shall exceed fifteen hun- this is not the course of all the members of this House; dred dollars per mile, will prevent the President from pro- but I hope I may be allowed to say that my two worthy ceeding. This sum will not beggar the treasury. At colleagues, (BLAIR and ISACKS) who spoke on the same side either of the above times, the reduction of the debt will of this question with me, and myself, live in the mountain be such, that the sum heretofore paid for interest will go region, where we breathe liberal air. We do not set oura considerable way to bear the expenses of the road. And, selves up for little captains to lead others on; we aim at no in January, 1834, it will be paid off, with the exception of such unenviable distinction. We are perfectly willing a fraction. Any thing to be apprehended from the al- that they should think and act for themselves, and we will leged interference with the payment of the public debt is leave it to the proper tribunal to decide between us. fanciful. This bill, if it shall become a law, will not have Neither of us will hold up the constitution to shelter ourthat effect. selves from responsibility, and save us from the people at the ballot boxes.

The honorable gentleman from Tennessee [Mr. POLK] tells us that the State Governments were made for inter- I will say for the worthy gentleman from Virginia, [Mr. nal and municipal purposes, and the General Government BARBOUR] that he has, in opposing this bill, which is my for external purposes. Not so exactly. But I do not re- favorite one, acted with his usual fairness and candor. He cur to this matter to quarrel with him about his division of has argued upon the ground of expediency alone, and I powers, but to say, with the gentleman from Virginia, give him credit for it: for who, that would be thought sin[Mr. P. P. BARBOUR] that I would not take from this Go- cere, could oppose this bill on constitutional grounds, vernment one, even the smallest and most inconsiderable when it is pretty well understood here that two-thirds of of its powers. I will add, for myself, I would not bestow this House are satisfied of the existence of the power of upon it one jot of authority beyond what rightfully belongs Congress to make internal improvements? I know that to it. But it does seem to me that the fashionable doc-some of my colleagues will bear me out in saying, that, trine of jealousy of the General Government, and the danger on my way to Congress in 1823, I expressed myself in suggested that it will swallow up State power, is chimeri- favor of the 'system of internal improvements, and, after cal. Who compose this Government? We are ourselves taking my seat, voted under the influence of that belief; its most efficient branch. Where are all our strongest and I tell my worthy colleague [Mr. POLK] who last spoke, political attachments? In the several States, and I honor that that opinion remains unchanged by any thing that I the sentiment. What sustains us here? The belief that we heard from him in the course of his remarks.

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Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[MARCH 30, 1830.

This road is one of the first importance to the Govern- would his children; he gave his own horses to the sick solment in three points of view: military purposes, mail trans-diers, and took to the mud and water with the rest; but portation, and last, though not least, commercial. those who were inclined to be disobedient he forced into Speaking of it as a military road, I must call in to my obedience. Who, sir, were these soldiers that endured all aid plain common sense, as I am not possessed of much this suffering? They were neither enlisted nor hired men; book information. My view of the United States in its they were the respectable freemen of Tennessee, many warlike preparations is, that it may be compared to the from my own district, who volunteered, and left their encampment of an army in an enemy's country, when wives and children as widows and orphans, to defend the commanded by a skilful general. That encampment is in liberties of the country. But you starved them in war a hollow square, keeping in the centre a portion of his for the want of a road to carry them provisions; you disbest troops, in order, if attacked on any side, to throw eased them by subjecting them to trudge through mud, this reserved force to the place of attack. Now, the Unit- and wade waters, for the want of a road; and now your ed States has frontiers around all the States except Ken- country's flag is floating in peace, and you are willing, if tucky and Tennessee: they are in the centre of this great you reject this bill, to let them again endure the like afflic encampment, and ready to be thrown to the defence of tions. Let me tell you, this road is more needed than the line attacked. Will you, then, refuse to give them a many of your other preparations for defence. road to go upon to fight, not for their own personal safe- It has been my happy lot to live among the mountain ty, but that of their country? They are safe if you leave boys, as they are sometimes called. I have been with them them to defend themselves, for their frontier and seaboard in the field of battle in one war, and I can assure you, if neighbors must be cut down to reach them: but they do the servants of the people will do their duty, and give to not wait for danger to themselves--they volunteer, and us roads so that we can travel to the points of danger, you bare their bosoms to the bayonet of the enemy for their never will again see the smoke of an enemy's fire upon the exposed neighbors, and surely it must be important to make walls of this capitol. The people to be benefited by this them good roads. road are in a situation to ask little from the Government, The mouth of the Mississippi is very important, and but they ask you to prepare the means of defence before may be said to be the key of the whole Western country. another war may overtake you, and they, for the want of Suppose that a foreign foe should take possession of it, them, be again exposed to suffer sickness and famine. and lock up its mouth, it would strike at the interest of The utility of this road for mail purposes does not seem nine of our States and one Territory. Mobile is still more very clear to some of its opponents. The gentleman from indefensible than New Orleans, and depends upon East North Carolina [Mr. CARSON] says, that upon this road to Tennessee for succor. Georgia will have to look to her Nashville we now have six mails a week, and on his but own frontier, and will not be able to assist. It is, there- one, therefore there is no need for this road for mail purfore, all-important to make this road, which runs three poses. If the gentleman means that going and returning hundred miles through Tennessee, and crosses the Tom- should each be counted, then we have six mails to that bigbee, in Alabama, below the mouth of the Black War- place; but, counting in the same way, I could make twice rior river, where steamboats run, and troops and provi- a week upon his route. The growing importance of all sions could be carried on this road to that point, and then that new-and advancing country, and its increase of popusent down to Mobile. Sir, the people of the lower country lation, renders it probable that the time is close at hand, do not raise provisions to support an army--hardly for them when the necessity for a daily mail on that route will arise. selves; for, like all others, they raise that from which they The gentleman from Virginia [Mr. BARBOUR] admitted, can make most, and it so happens that that is cotton and as I thought all would, the importance of this road in that sugar. East Tennessee, through which this road is to run, point of view. When the cost of mail transportation is is the place from whence their supply must come, as well now looked at upon that route, can it be possible that of provisions as men; and I have tilled the lands of that there is any one who would not agree to the benefits to valley long enough to know, experimentally, that if you flow from making this road as a mere post road, and the give us the channel upon which to send the provisions, we advantages to the citizens who live upon it? But I will now can raise them. pass to the benefit which can be felt, and properly weighThis road, if made, passes through the country which ed, by the farmers of our country. I mean that of aiding was the scene of suffering during the late war. Perhaps, trade and intercourse. Take a view of this road and the from my participation in those times, I feel more on the country through which it passes: It falls into the valley of subject than I otherwise would. I cannot, whatever others Virginia, west of the mountains, and traverses that valley may do, forget the difficulties and troubles of that day, until it intersects the ridges at the head of the Roanoke, and much of it arose from the want of such a road as the thence to the head of Holston, through one of the best bill now proposes to make. I saw, on the line of this road, grazing countries in the Union, and passing through the your sick and diseased soldiers, who were fighting for whole extent of East Tennessee. For several hundred your country, wading through mud and water, whilst the miles on that way the lands are rich, and present the most measles and other diseases were fastened upon them. On inviting prospects to the farmer and grazier, but unfortuour return from the Horse-shoe to Fort Williams, we had nately must depend upon land transportation for the means to carry our sick and wounded, some on horseback, and of interchange of their products with other more favored others on biers, by their brother soldiers.. From Fort quarters. I said that I was a farmer, yes, a practical farJackson to Fort Williams it fell to my lot to be one of the mer, and I know how to sympathize with that class. officers of the rear guard; our duty was to keep the men know what it is to labor throughout the summer in the before us, and leave none behind. From hunger, sickness, burning sun, and have on hand throughout the fall and and fatigue, they kept falling back, until they far exceed- winter the product of your labor, if not spoiling on your ed the number of the guard; some had eat nothing for hand, lying uncalled for, for the want of outlets to marfour or five days, and they literally gave up to die, and ket. The farmer is the class for whom your legislation sought every opportunity to dodge the guard and hide be- should mainly provide; they till the earth and feed the hind logs and brush, and risk the savages in preference to country; yes, we who are now the great men of the nathe fatigue of travel, under the prospect of starvation. Ition, legislating in this splendid hall, were sent here by am confident in the opinion that no man living, save the them, and they are now feeding us by the sweat of their very distinguished general who had the command, could brows. They have been oppressed and borne down in the have kept in subjection men in their condition. He was country from which I come, on account of the channel in kind and tender to them, and treated them as a parent which their money has heretofore been appropriated by


MARCH 30, 1830.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[H. of R.

this body. I do not understand gentlemen when they talk can be blinded by reasoning which tends to license the exabout the revenue being raised in the great cities or sea-penditure of their moneys for all the sea-coast projects, ports; my experience teaches me that the consumer pays and nothing for defensive means amongst them, I shall conthis revenue, and my constituents pay their proportion; fess that my colleague [Mr. POLK] is representing their and how has it gone since the establishment of the Govern- wishes, though I never shall believe it to be their interests. ment? Upon tide water. Has any thing gone to the I have but little knowledge of the constitutional law, quarter through which this road is asked to be made? No, but I can understand plain English, and the constitution not the first dollar. reads thus: Congress shall have power "to regulate comMy colleague [Mr. POLK] cautions us against this sys-merce with foreign nations, among the several States, and tem of internal improvements, because it is unequal and with the Indian tribes." This means commerce carried unjust. I tell him that which has been pursued is the un- on between different States, just like commerce with foequal and unjust system; and this is the only one that our reign nations, and the same can be done for both, unless people, who live off tide water, can ever expect to be be- the modern notion shall prevail, that there is no commerce nefited from. I tell my colleague that the farmers of off the tide water to regulate. Tennessee will inquire more strictly into the correctness of our votes, than our fine speeches; they will rise in their majesty, and put down those politicians who will not represent their interests truly; and whilst he is giving cautions, he must pardon me for taking the liberty of giving him mine, take care that he represents the class of which I have just spoken.

On the plan which I have adopted, the neglected portions of our country would be improved, and life and spirit given to the husbandman. The farmer could find a ready market for the products of his industry, life and energy would take the place of indolence and sloth; the farmer would then whistle after his plough, and the benefits would be felt throughout society; the cheerful wife, with her prattling infants, the pride and ornament of our country, would join their husbands and fathers, and would pronounce a blessing upon the politicians who were instrumental in conferring this good.

I know that most of the people in the section of country from whence I come, are aware of the importance to them of connecting, by canal or railroad, the waters of the Tennessee with the Coosa, and in that manner gain an important outlet for their produce, and, in my opinion, I have heard the sufferings and sorrows of our revoluthat would be of more local benefit than this road; but, sir, tionary worthies pathetically described by gentlemen on the interest of the country requires that both should be this floor, with which I have been edified and charmed; done-make good roads, open your rivers; then your far- but, sir, when I am about to get the information on that mers will be stimulated to industry; all men need some- subject from the most impressive source, I will go to the thing to stimulate them, even the members on this floor--actor himself. I have heard the tale of their sufferings I do not mean, to try for places on this floor, that is already from themselves; how they marked with their bloody feet sufficiently strong; I mean to do their duty when they get the frozen earth, and endured all that could be imposed here. I confess that I have sometimes thought that some upon them to purchase for us this Government, which is of the people's servants forgot that they had masters; in- certainly the best upon the earth. They enriched it for deed, I very much fear that the result of this vote will tend us with their own blood; and shall we, like drones, misimto confirm that belief. I have this measure much at heart. prove the means which have been put in our power to beSir, it comes home in its benefits to the poor and needy; nefit ourselves and posterity? Shall we skim the surface the very day-laborer is to find a place to reap the reward of this delightful country, and render it barren and waste? of his industry. I am, therefore, the more importunate. I never could see the reason why improvements could be constitutionally made on tide water; and the moment you left it, the constitution was too narrow to cover such work. This seems to be the modern doctrine, and though it suits some learned and wise men, it will neither suit me nor the people I represent; and I think some other gentlemen of this House will find, also, that those who swing the mall and axe will not be so well pleased with speeches filled with constitutional law as common sense voting, bringing home to them benefits and blessings which they can feel and realize. I trust in God that they will rise, and force their servants so to read the constitution as to include the neglected parts of this Union, for which we now ask this

reasonable measure.

No, we would be unworthy of being called the descend-
ants of ancestors so brave and noble. Let us put forth
our hands and improve it, and give to its high-minded in-
habitants all the facilities in our power, by constructing
for them roads and canals, and improving their rivers; then
shall we merit the name of representatives of a free and
enlightened people. Pursuing this system, you would bind
together the North and the South, and prevent jealousy
and distrust, which is now but too apparent.
would hear nothing said about States flying off from their
All would be
sisters, and rebelling against the Union.
bound together in bonds of harmony and peace; and when
our posterity came into our places, they would have the
pleasing reflection that they too had cause for holding in
affectionate remembrance those who had preserved, in
health and vigor, their beloved country.

Then you

I have not had much experience in legislation, but I have been here long enough to know that tide water has Mr. RICHARDSON, of Massachusetts, said, that, havbeen the spoiled child of this Government. I see on your ing given notice, some time since, that he would move an table, and on passage, bills to open mouths of rivers, build amendment of the bill now before the committee, so as to sea-walls, improve harbors, and various other things, to extend the road proposed from Buffalo to Lake Champlain, which I hear no man object; but when we from the other in Vermont, and thence to Boston, in Massachusetts, he side of the ridge ask for something to be done to benefit deemed it his duty to assign his reasons for supporting the the Union at large, and our constituents in particular, then bill, provided the amendment should be adopted. the constitution adopted for the whole United States is too Without the amendment, [said Mr. R.] this bill proposes narrow to reach us, and some of our folk join in saying, if the construction of a national road from Buffalo, in the we stretch it from tide water it will tear. Indeed, it does State of New York, passing by the seat of Government, seem to me that some gentlemen think that constitution, to New Orleans. According to the estimate, it will be commerce, and every thing stops with tide water. They fifteen hundred miles in length, and will pass through might as well try to convince me that a goose, swimming parts of nine States of this Union. The population of in tide water, turns to a terrapin when it gets above, as the States through which it is to pass, in 1820, was about that commerce ceases to be commerce when it is put into six millions. It was my intention to show, at this time, a boat or wagon. Sir, this may be sound argument with the claims of New York and of the Eastern States to an hair-splitting politicians, but it would be laughed at by our extension of this road. But, sir, by the state of the quescommon ploughboys. If the good people of Tennessee [tion I am precluded from doing this, since there has been

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