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dismay. Who ever saw a more shameful aban- / wide-spread action will not be found propordonnent of munitions gathered at such vast tionate to the numbers engaged on either side, expense? The teamsters, many of them, cut and to the duration of the conflict. The nature the traces of their horses, and galloped from of the ground, and the fact that the struggle the wagons. Others threw out their loads to was confined to attacks upon batteries and amaccelerate their flight, and grain, picks, and buscades, made the whole affair a series of fiery shovels, and provisions of every kind lay tram- skirmishes, rather than a grand field encounter. pled in the dust for leagues. Thousands of Men fought with a kind of American individmuskets strewed the route, and when some of uality--each for himself—and the musketry us succeeded in rallying a body of fugitives, firing was of the most irregular character. and forming them in a line across the road, There were few such heavy volleys as those hardly one but had thrown away his arms. which made the hills echo last Thursday. If the enemy had brought up his artillery It would not be surprising if our entire loss and served it upon the retreating train, or had in killed and wounded should prove to have intercepted our progress with five hundred of been not over a thousand men. The rebels his cavalry, he might have captured enough must have suffered twice as much from the supplies for a week's feast of thanksgiving. terrific cannonading of our artillery in the foreAs it was, enough was left behind to tell the noon, and from the desperate charges of the story of the panic. The rout of the Federal Zouaves, the Sixty-pinth, and the other corps army seemed complete.
which were especially distinguished in the en
gagement. The Zouaves captured two batterA Check to the Retreat.
ies, fought hand to hand with the Carolinians The sight of Miles's reserve drawn up on the in a furious bowie-knife conflict, routed the hills at Centreville, supporting a full battery of famous Black Ilorse Cavalry, and only broke field-pieces, and the efforts of the few officers ranks when victory became hopeless. still faithful to their trust, encouraged many of Nine-tenths of our killed and wounded were the fugitive infantry to seek their old camps perforce left on the field, and in the hospitals and go no farther. But the majority pushed at either end; and as the enemy retains poson to a point near the late site of Germantown, session of the ground, we can get no accurate where Lieut. Brisbane had formed a line of details of our losses. From prisoners taken by Hunt's artillerists across the road and repulsed us we learned that the rebel leaders, deterall who attempted to break through. I par- mined to have no incumbrances on their hands, ticularly request attention to the service thus issued orders to give no quarter. It is posirendered by this loyal young, officer.
tively known that many of our comrades were While he was thus engaged, a courier arrived bayoneted where they fell. All the wounded with the news that Col. Montgomery was ad- Zouaves suffered this inhuman fate. vancing with a New Jersey brigade from Falls Rickett's, Carlisle's, and the West Point batChurch, and that the retreat must be stopped, teries remain in the enemy's possession. Twenonly the wagons being allowed to pass through. ty-three of our guns, including the thirty-twoSome thousands of the soldiery had already pound siege pieces, were taken. * But Shergot far on their way to Washington. Poor man, who went into action with six cannon, fellows! who could blame them? Their own came out with eight-two of them dragged colonels had deserted them, only leaving orders from the rebel embrasures. Large numbers of for them to reach Arlington Heights as soon as sutlers' and train wagons are probably cut off, they could. A few miles further I met Mont- and abandoned arms and munitions have fallen gomery swiftly pressing to the rescue, and re- into the enemy's hands. At the date of this ported the success of Lieut. Brisbane's efforts. letter, it is uncertain whether any of our regiAnd so I rode along, as well as my weary horsements which were intercepted at the time of could carry me, past groups of straggling fugi- the panic have surrendered themselves to the tives, to Fairfax, where Col. Woodbury was rebels; but this must be the case with many expecting, and guarding against, a flank moves of the infantry, who, ignorant of the country, ment of the enemy, and on again to Long starving and exhausted, dashed into the forests Bridge and the Potomac. But the van of the in their retreat. Every hour, however, is rerunaway soldiers had made such time that I ducing our list of missing, as the stragglers found a host of them at the Jersey intrench- reach their old carnps alor.g the Putomac. ments begging the sentinels to allow them to cross the bridge. To-day we learn of the safe
Theory of the Defcat. retreat of the main body of the army; that
The disastrous result of the action was perthey were feebly followed by the rebels as far haps inevitable-even though no panic had ocas Fairfax, but are now within the Arlington curred at the close-from the three causes lines, and that McDowell, a stunned and van- against which the noblest soldiery can never quished general, is overlooking the wreck of successfully oppose their daring. First, the his columns from his old quarters at the Custis enemy's forces had been largely underrated, mansion. Our Losses.
* Bis of the twenty-three cannon were recovered the
next day by Col. Einstein, the enemy having delayed reThe list of the killed and wounded in this moving them from tho field.
and nearly doubled our own in number; second, | ceeded to Fairfax Court House, where they ar. the onus of the attack rested entirely upon us, rived at 10 A. M., and found the breastworks and thu natural and scientific defences of the of the enemy deserted, as well as the town, of rebels made their position almost impregnable; all secession troops. Halted in the town before third, many of our leaders displayed a lament- the Court House; the flag was hoisted upon able want of military knowledge. There was the Court House by the Rhode Island regiments, little real generalship in the field. There was the band saluting it with the national airs. no one mind of the Napoleonic order, at once The march was then resumed; the whole centralizing and comprehending the entire move brigade proceeded half a mile beyond Fairfax, ment of the day. There was no one to organ- and bivouacked on the old camp-ground of the ize our regiments in strong, swift-moving col- rebels, which they had abandoned that morning umns, and hurl them powerfully against the between 6 and 9 o'clock. Large quantities of foe. Nor were the generals of division more blankets were found burning, having been decompetent to their work. They exhibited per- stroyed by them in this manner in their hasty sonal bra very, but advantages gained were not retreat; also, a store-room of military clothing secured ; important points were abandoned as was found by them, as well as a dozen or more soon as carried; and a reckless, fatiguing pur- tents, which were immediately put to good use, suit preferred, until Beauregard and Davis, and a bullock just dressed, which furnished who commanded in person, led us on to posi- rations for the Seventy-first, as far as it went. tions thoroughly available for the attack of In this encampment the brigade remained till their final reinforcements. As for us, no one 7 A. M. Thursday, July 18, the brigade again had thought of providing that reserve absolute- marched one mile, and halted by command of ly necessary to the sealing and completion of Gen. McDowell. Here the brigade remained à battle's successes.
till 3 P. M., on an old camp-ground of the eneIt is the last conflict of the day that decides the my, when the march was again taken up, under victory and defeat. We had no cavalry to rout) a scorching sun, till within a mile and a half of our retreating foe. Our artillery was not ren-Centreville, where we bivouacked once more, dered efficient in the afternoon. Gen. Tyler the men making pleasant huts of the boughs neglected to guard his rear, and to check the of trees. pushing forward of his trains. As for the During the night the regiment was called to colonels, many of those who were not wounded arms, in consequenco of the firing of pickets on or killed in the engagement exhibited not mere- our left. Friday and Saturday were passed in ly inefficiency, but the pusillanimity which I this place very pleasantly, the rogiments of the have before recorded. To concludo: Before brigade having a regimental drill each day, and we can force our way through a country as also being served with good rations of fresh well adapted for strategic defence as the fast- meat and plenty of coffee and sugar. Desses of the Piedmontese, the defiles of Swit- On Saturday, orders were issued to prepare zerland, or the almost unconquerable wilds in to march at 1 A. M., Sunday, each man to take which Schamyl so long held'the Russians at two days' rations of good salt beef, salt pork, bay-before we can possess and advance beyond and crackers in haversack, with positive inthe scientific intrenchments with which the structions to fill his canteen with water, and skill of disloyal officers has made those Virginia not to use it on the route, as water was scarce. forests so fearfully and mysteriously deathful This was done, and the regiment marched with to our patriotic soldiery, we must discover the the brigade Sunday morning at 2 A. M., for the executive leader whose genius shall oppose new battle-field, passing through Centreville just moles of subduing a novel
, and thus far suc- before sunrise. cessful, method of warfare, and whose alert ac- After proceeding a mile and a half beyond tion shall carry his devices into resistless effect. Centreville we were ordered to halt and cap
-N. Y. World, July 23.
our pieces. We then crossed a bridge, inounted
a hill in the vicinity, and to the right of Gen. Doc. 6.
McDowell's head-quarters, and then turned to
the right into a field, at a double-quick, which NEW YORK SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT, was kept up about a quarter of an hour, passing
through a wood and halting in a field, where AT BULL RUN,
we remained about twenty minutes, Gen. McThe regiment left the Navy Yard Tuesday, Dowell and his staff caine into the field. Jaly 16, at 10 o'clock, and marched up the | This was between 6 and 7 o'clock. The march arenue over t'ie Long Bridge, to their camping was then resumed by a circuitous route through grounds, within fivo miles of Fairfax, where, at the woods, passing several dry brooks, until wo 9 P. M., they stacked and bivouacked for the reached Bull Run, which wo waded' in great night in the open field, together with Colonel confusion, every one being anxious to get water. Burnside's brigade, consisting of the First and Company lines were immediately formed on Second Rhode Island Infantry, Second Rhode the other side, and an advance was made up Island Battery, and Second New Hampshire the road at a quick step, firing being heard Volunteers. At 5 A. M., July 17, (Wednesday,) upon our left. the brigade formed a line of march, and pro- After 4 mile's marching at quick step, we were put upon double-quick up the hill
, wheel- | posed was the Seventy-first; took a short cut ing to the left
, into an old stubble-field, where across the fields, when the cavalry galloped up we halted, and our arrival was announced by a and arrested me. shot from a rifle cannon whistling over our They took me back to the hospital, where, heads. The halt did not last two minutes, during the confusion, I managed to conceal when Col. Burnside led the different regiments myself under a blanket, which was saturated into their positions on the field. The Second with blood. Col. Barker, of the Virginia carRhode Island entered the field first, to the ex- alry, then galloped up, and ordered all the untreme right, then the Rhode Island battery, wounded prisoners to be driven to the Juncsix pieces, and the two howitzers of the Seven- tion. ty-first; and then to the left the Seventy-first, I should think there were about 50 prisoners and after it, on its left the First Rhode Island, in all at that point. They left me, supposing and then the Second New Hampshire, all form- I was wounded. A guard was left to guard ed in line of battle on the top of the hill. This the hospital. I arose to go in quest of Dr. Peugmovement was done at double-quick. We were net, and found him engaged in amputating the immediately ordered to fall back and lie down, arm of Harry Rockafellow, of S. Street, Philaas the discharge from the enemy's battery was delphia, of Company F, Seventy-first regiment. very severe.
Dr. Peugnet requested me to assist him, and The First and Second Rhode Island regiments, he having completed his operation, then amputhe Rhode Island battery, and the two howit- tated the arm at the shoulder-joint of a serzers opened fire on the enemy. One of the geant of a Maine or a New Hampshire regi. Rhode Island guns was immediately disabled ment, who had a brother about 17 years of by a shot from the enemy, and was carried off age, who had remained behind to take care of the field. The Seventy-first lay there as or him. This man died under the operation. dered, when an aid from Col. Burnside rode up. The next operation was that of my friend Wm. and asked for the field officers. Col. Martin Smith, of Brooklyn, whom I had conveyed to then ordered us forward.
the hospital. His foot was amputated. Prior to this some of the Seventy-first had During this time Drs. Foster, Swift, and Wingone over to the First Rhode Island, and were ston, of the Eighth New York; Dr. De Grant, fighting in their ranks. Boroughs, commissary Dr. Griswold, Dr. Buxton, and the doctor of of the Seventy-first, rode up in front of us, dis- the Fourth Maine ; Dr. Stewart, of Minnesota; mounted from his horse, and told the boys to go Harris, of Rhode Island, and four others whose in and fight on their own account, which they names I did not learn, one of whom, I believe, did with a will. Just prior to this Capt. Hart, was the surgeon of the West Point battery, of Company A, had been wounded and carried were attending to the wounded of their refrom the field; also Capt. Ellis, of Company spective regiments. Private Tyler, of the West F. Then Lieut. Oakley came on. Going for- Point battery, had his thigh amputated and ward to the brow of the hill he received a died that night. Cornelius, Col. Martin's ser• shot in the leg of his pantaloons from one of vant, who was wounded while assisting the his own men.
colonel to dismount, also died. Mullen, SecSome time after this the firing ceased upon ond Rhode Island, and two of the Seventy-first, both sides. McDowell, with his staff, then whose names I do not know, were found dead rode through our lines, receiving a cheer from next morning. the Seventy-first, and passed down the hill to Gen. Beauregard and Col. Barker came up the left, within 600 feet of the enemy's line. about 7o'clock that evening with 150 prisonAfter that the brigade fell back into the woods ers of different regiments, most of whom were and rested, taking care of the wounded, and Fire Zouaves. He stopped and inquired how removing them to the hospital; some straggling our wounded were getting along, while the about over the fields without their muskets, prisoners were driven towards the Junction by looking on at the fight in other parts of the en- the cavalry. During the night a number of gagement, which they supposed was the end prisoners were brought in, and on Monday of the battle, thinking the day was ours. morning 30 were sent on, their hands tied to.
At about 3 o'clock we formed in line again, gether in front with Manilla rope; among them on the brow of the hill. It was at this time was the lad of 17, from Maine, who plead bitthat a shell fell over my left shoulder, and terly to be left to see his brother buried, but striking the ground behind me, rebounded upon was refused. the foot of private Wm. N. Smith, of Brook- During the forenoon an order was issued by lyn, tearing it open. Ho threw his arms Gen. Johnston for every one to be removed around my neck, and I assisted in carrying from Sudley Church to Richmond, rid the Junchim to the hospital.
tion. All who were not wounded were taken I returned from the hospital towards my reg- under a tree and tied, as an attack was anticiiment, and met other troops retreating, who pated. Our doctors strongly remonstrated informed me that my regiment had gone across against this order, as the greater part of our the fields. I ran past Sudley Church, then wounded, 280 in number, had not received any used as the hospital, up the hill
, saw a regi- attention. Capt. Patrick, of the Virginia caval. inent about half a mile ahead, which I sup- ry, stated these were his instructions, and he
meant to carry them out. We were accordingly | back on parole-Drs. Peugnet, Swift, Winston, all seized, hands bound, except the doctors, who De Graw, Buxton, and Stewart-and immediwere in ambulances. "It was then raining in ately commenced attending to the wounded. torrents, and some 80 of the wounded were Their exertions were unremitting; their time lying in the vicinity of the church and black- day and night was given to the wounded until smith shop without any shelter excepting a all the wounds were properly dressed and all blanket. The doctors were hurriedly taken cared for. away, we being told that our wounded would On Wednesday morning, Dr. Peugnet put be cared for by themselves.
me in charge of the hospital, and allowed me Here we waited till 12 o'clock at night in to choose 20 from the prisoners and wounded, the rain, awaiting orders, when I requested who were able to take care of the wounded, to Capt. Patrick to allow me to go down to the assist me. hospital to see a relative who was badly wound- The same morning a lady of tho neighbored, telling him it would be better to shoot our hood brought us a bottle of wine and two wounded at once than to allow them to die dozen eggs, and we bought at noon twelve off by inches; they were all calling for water, dozen eggs from a sutler. Thursday morning and no one there to give it to them. He then a number of secession doctors made their apsaid, “Well, my man, choose another man with pearance, bringing with them some luxuries, you and go down.” I choso Smith, of Com- which they gave to our doctors. Some time pany H, Seventy-first regiment. Capt. Patrick during the day Noble, of Company F, and Gilthen inquired if there were any more men who lette, of the Engineer Corps, both of the Sevhad brothers or relatives among the wounded. enty-first, were brought in as prisoners, and A general rush took place among the prisoners were retained as assistants at the hospital. --they all stepping forward. He then allowed They were not wounded. This day a number Atwood Crosby, of Maine, to take care of his of ladies and farmers of the surrounding counbrother, who was wounded in the back, and try visited our hospitals, bringing with them five others: Tompkins, Company C, Seventy- milk, soup, and cakes. first; John Hand, of Massachusetts; a young On Friday, they commenced removing the boy of the Second Rhode Island, about 17 prisoners and wounded, amongst them Capt. years old; Deegan, of the Twenty-seventh, and Gordon, of the Eleventh Massachusetts, Lieut. another, an assistant to a Maine surgeon, and Hamlin, Scott Life Guard, and all the nonhis servant, who cooked for the prisoners, un- commissioned officers, leaving instructions with der the direction of Tompkins. The rest were us to be prepared to follow the ambulances kept out in the rain all night, and the follow- containing the wounded, who had undergone ing morning were sent to Richmond.
operations, on Saturday. In the mean time, Daring Monday night a man from Wisconsin Capt. Allen, of the Eleventh Massachusetts, died, calling for his mother. He had a daguer- disguised as a private and wounded prisoner, a reotype of his wife and two children. He Wisconsin boy, named Worldorf, and myself
, called me to give him some water, which I did planned an escape, which was successfully acvery frequently. He called for his “Dear complished between 5 and 10 P. M. Friday mother"—these were his last words. He was night. We ran the guard, and crawled on our a man about 5 feet 6 inches, with a light mus- hands and feet out of hearing distance of the tache, and was wounded in the groin. A boy sentinels; proceeded in a north-east direction about 18 years old, dressed in the uniform of until 3} A. M.; met two pickets of the enemy the Eighth regiment, about 5 feet 10 inches in a small tent on the main road, which we in height, sandy complexion, shot in the head; had to cross to accomplish our escape; the had $21 in his pocket-book, and a white silk pickets cowed at our appearance, and hid bebadge, marked “Parker Guard,” died Monday hind a tree, and we backed some one hundred night. Lieut. Devers, of Ellsworth Zouaves, feet with sticks pointed in the direction of the wounded in the arm. He laid down to rest, pickets, and then turned and ran about two and in the morning, when I went to bandage miles, keeping a little to the north. his arm, I found him dead. Also, a man from At 2 P. M., not knowing where we were, we Rockland, Me., named Fletcher.
determined to approach a house and inquire. On Tuesday, Allen, of Company C, Seventy- We met two women at the gate, and told them first, died. He was wounded in the abdomen. we belonged to the Fourth Alabama regiment. Butler, of Company C, Seventy-first, Elizabeth- They asked for Messrs. Grey of that regiment town, N. J., also died; wounded in legs. --if we know them and a number of others, Doctors were not there to amputate. George all of whom, we told them, were shot at Bull Sayne and John P. Morrissey, both of the Sev- Run. They asked where we came from, and enty-first, also died Wednesday morning, within where were our arms. These questions we one hour of each other, lying side by side. evaded, and asked them to show us the way to Mead, of Massachusetts, a wealthy shoo-manu- Centrevillo, which they did. We took an opfacturer, died while having his thigh amputa- posite direction, and at 4 P. M. halted at an. ted. Several others died, whose names I could other house, where an old man came out and not learn, numbering in all 32.
asked if we were soldiers. We replied in the On Tuesday evening, six of the doctors came l affirmative, an ded wo belonged to the Fourth Alabama regiment, and had been pick- | trees, Capt. Allen clipping the branches, in ing blackberries and strayed away from our order that we might pull them down over us. camp. He then said, “ Are you the regiment with more facility; it was perhaps five minutes that is waiting for artillery ?" I replied, “The before they reached this portion of the thicket, same.” “Then, boys,” said he, "you are sta- and these trees being so much exposed, they tioned at Ball's Mill, three miles from here, concluded no person was there, and went away [pointing in the direction of Leesburg,] half- to the other end of the woods, but soon reway from here to Leesburg.” He then said, turned, and on passing one of these trees, one “Were you in the fight Sunday?” “Yes." of the horses ridden by one of our pursuers "I am glad, boys, you escaped from the slaugh-grazed my right leg with his hoof, and so close ter. These - Yankees, I would like to see were they upon us that we overheard all their every man of them strung up; I never could conversation. bear them. I will send Edward to show you During this time, some twelve or fifteen of the way to the main road." Wo thanked him the inhabitants of Milford turned out with their and left.
guns and pistols to assist the troopers to find At 5 P. M. came to a railroad. I saw a little the Yankees; and an order was given, by an boy and girl, and asked them what road it was. old man in citizen's dress, for the horsemen to They replied they did not know, but if we follow up in the next woods, with orders to would go to the house Jeff, would tell us. the men who had come together, to look in all After some further inquiries, without getting the bushes and to turn over all the old logs, any information, we crossed the track and took and leave nothing undone which they might to the woods, and continued our march until 6 suppose would tend to our capture. Here one P. M., when we saw a house standing alone in of them reckoned the Yankee
had the bushes. We determined to go there, and got away: another said that if they were in get something to eat. Arriving at the gate, we those woods, they would give us a right warminquired if they had something to sell us. They ing, and they commenced discharging their said they liad, and we lost no time in investing guns in the bushes in every direction, but, in fifty cents' worth of hoe-cake and milk. happily, did not aim in the direction of our
While we were devouring these (to us) luxu- tree. ries, a horseman galloped up to the door, and In about an hour the old man returned, and the lady of the house called the man with whom ordered a boy about eighteen years of age to we were conversing, “Cousin George,” (his remain beside us on a log, with instructions to name is Edwards.) We suspected something fire at us the moment he saw us="Even," said wrong, and took a precipitate leave down the he, “ if you do miss them.” It was now 9 hill, and continued our march. Half an hour P. M., and the long prayed-for darkness came after leaving this house we crossed the main to our rescue, and helped to cover our retreat. road, and crossed the field, in order to reach a For nearly another hour the old wretch kept wood which we supposed was a forest, but prowling about the woods, and finally went which turned out to be nothing but a small away. At about 11 o'clock we were so exthicket. Soon after crossing the thicket, we hausted that we fell asleep, and rested until 12, espied eight mounted troopers at full speed, when Allen crawled over to me and said, passing along the road, some fifteen yards “They haven't got us yet.” ahead; not supposing they were in search of I had dreamt, during my short slumber, that us, we continued on our way, when, upon I was a captive, and he had some difficulty in looking round, we found they had halted at persuading me to the contrary. Being reasthe foot of the hill, and were looking in all di- sured, I arose from my retreat, and, as we rections; at last they saw us, and commanded emerged from beneath the branches which had us to halt and come back. This we had no just saved our lives, we beheld the youth who, desire to do; and, knowing the fence along two hours before, had been placed to watch for the road to be impassable on horseback, we us; he was in a deep slumber, and had his gun thought our chances of escape were good. We grasped between his folded arms, in a horizonaccordingly ran, and they fired, one or two of tal position. I drew my knife to despatch him, them dismounting simultaneously with the dis- but Capt. Allen prevented me. charge of the others' guns, to let the rails of We then retraced our steps for nearly a mile the fence down in order that they might pursue and a half, and struck over for the Potomac, us into the woods.
which we reached at 41 o'clock Sunday morn. In the mean time we had gained the wood ing, having kept up a quick and double-quick and found another fence surrounding it. This step all along the road. fence was equally as wide as the first one. Having reached the Potomac, we sat down They galloped off to the edge of the woods to rest; but we were hardly seated before we where we should have to pass to make our es- saw a man on horseback approaching us by the cape, and surrounded the woods. Here they road. He walked his horse past us as though dismounted, took down the rails and entered he was unaware of our presence, until he the bushes, and commenced their search. In reached the corner of a fence surrounding a the mean time we had run back to where we cornfield, when he put spurs to his horse and entered the bush, and hid under two large elm went up the hill at full speed. We suspected