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horses—Mr. R.'s and our own were watered, by which he gives a correct description,) it was 4 a servant; but the reported conversation did not o'clock. The retreat commenced in Centreville at take place. A short distance from that inn, Mr. I half-past four. During this half hour he went Russell put spars to his animal, and, riding fu- about one mile down the Warrenton road, and riously, left us behind; he picked up ample mate- there met the teams returning, with some straggling rial for misrepresentation, however, as he went. soldiers and one reserve regiment, which were not We point out the greatest falsehood, if one false in the fight. He did not wait to see the main porhood can be greater than another, in the columns tion of the army, which did not reach Centreville that he has devoted to the vilification of our until about two hours after his flight. troops :
His excuse for hurrying to Washington on ac* Washington was still 18 miles away. The road was
count of mailing his letter that night, is inconsisrough and uncertain, and again my poor steed was under tent with his statement that he went to bed, and way, but it was of no use trying to outstrip the runaways that the mail did not leave until 4 o'clock the next Once or twice I imagined I heard guns in the rear, but I morning. could not be sure, in consequence of the roar of the flight behind me. It was most surprising to see how far the foot
He probably dreamed of the statements which he soldiers had contrived to go on in advance."
furnishes the Times, that there were no batteries It must have been surprising indeed! From the taken-no charges made ; that the Union forces moment of meeting the First New Jersey regiment, and no doubt reflected his own feelings when he
lost five batteries, 8,000 stand of arms, &c., &c., of which we have spoken, not a soldier, unless one calls the Union forces cowardly at being repulsed of a baggage, or a picket-guard, did we see on the after marching twelve miles and fighting three or road-not one. The wagons going in were few, and their progress was not such as to indicate that four hours an entrenched enemy which numbered
W. E. H.* they were making a retreat. We faced train after more than three to one. train going out with supplies, without guard, and To the Editor of the Journal : without suspicion that the army was beaten and in At last we have it. After two Atlantic voyages flight. The defeat was not known to any on the it is "salt” enough, all must admit, and more than road, not even to Mr. Russell, who informed us that that, we must admit that, what he saw of the affair our army would fall back and encamp for the night, at Bull Run he has described with graphic and only to renew the battle the next day. The “roar painful truth. of the flight behind me" is a stretch of the imagi But, as your correspondent, W. E. H., who knew pation. We were behind me,” and heard the more of his personal movements than I did, says, guns, and marked the time as 7:15; but save our “He was at no time within three miles of the batpoor old thick-winded steed, there was not another tle-field," and consequently was no better informed horse on the road within our sight. A few car- upon the subject than you were, Mr. Editor, sitting riages with wounded, a few retiring civilians-none in your sanctum. Therefore the earlier struggles making haste, none suspecting the finale that was of the day-the hard won successes of the Union reaclied-soon passed us; but not an armed man, troops-receive but passing notice, because he did trooper por footman, was anywhere near. Mr. Rus- not see them—he only saw the rout. sell in the next paragraph confesses as much : Yet in another letter, from which I have only
"It was a strange ride, through a country now still as seen extracts, he arrives at various conclusions, deat, the white road shining like a river in the moonlight, "from further information acquired.” One is that the trees black as ebony in the shade ; now and then á igure flitting by into the forest or across the road fright: confederate cavalry upon any regiment of the enemy
“there was not a charge of any kind made by the boas pickets and sentries all asking, What's the news?' until they broke." if this be true, the Fire Zousad evidently prepared for any amount of loss." aves are all liars, and thousands of spectators were
The truth is probably this : The imaginative cor- deceived, including Major Barry, of the artillery, respondent left the battle-ground before any confu- who states expressly in his report that the cavalry sion occurred, and when the retrograde movement charged upon the Fire Zouaves. was ordered. Hearing the exaggerated stories of
Mr Russell says, "there were no masked batteries what came to be a flight, after he got into Wash- at play on the side of the Confederates." Either ington, on Monday, while the excitement was at its he was grossly misinformed, or he purposely disheight, he wove them into his letter as facts of his torts the truth by quibbling on the word masked. If own observation. The rout was disgraceful enough a masked battery is absolutely one concealed by to make any man's blood cold in his veins; but it carefully constructed abatis, or elaborate mantelets, Tas not what Mr. Russell describes. As we have such as Mr. Russell bas perhaps seen in India or the asserted, he did not see it.
Crimea, and nothing else, then it is very possible
there were none upon the field; but if it is a bat. From the Providence Journal.
tery of siege or light artillery, with or without enTo the Editor of the Journal :
trenchments, so placed that it is entirely concealed Mr. Russell, who occupies so large a space in by woods, underbrush, or artificial screens until the the London Times in giving a description of " What attacking force is close upon it, then I am one of he saw" at the repulse of “Bull Run," was at no of several such upon the hill east of our (Rhode
thousands who can bear witness to the existence time within three miles of the battle-field, and was Island) field of action. I did not see either fortifiat no time within sight or musket-shot of the enemy. cations or cannon; but when a puff of smoke is
He entered Centreville after the writer of this, and left before him. At the period of the hardest seen to issue from a piece of woods, followed by a aghting, he was eating his lunch with a brother heavy report and a heavier ball—when this goes John Bull," near Gen. Miles's head-quarters.
on for hours, the missiles ploughing up the earth in When the officer arrived at Centreville, announc- every direction, and sowing it broadcast with the ing the apparent success of the Federal forces, (of * Mr. William E. Hamlin, of Providence, R. L
dead, one is likely to conclude that there is some as it will give the North another insult to thing behind that screen of trees, and that some avenge, and inspire the South with additional thing is my idea of a masked battery.
confidence. The Confederates will accept it as Finally, he says,
" There were no desperate proof demonstrative of their faith that the struggles except by those who wanted to get away." North cannot conquer them, and may take it
Of course not. He did not see them, and he is into their heads to corroborate it by an attoo truthful to relate any thing he did not see.
His account of the retreat is no worse than the tempt to inflict on the North that with which truth-what he saw of it. But be it remembered they have been menaced by the Cabinet of that he was with the very advance of the Aying Washington and its supporters. “What will column, the most panic-stricken portion of the England and France think of it?” is the quescrowd—that he was in Washington at 11 P. M. of tion which is asked over and over again. "The Sunday, about the hour when our regiments and news must go forth in its most unfavorable many others camped in the vicinity of Centreville, form, and it will be weeks, if ever, before the having regained our quarters, were lighting fires, North can set a great victory to the credit side drying our clothes, or talking over the prospect of of its books against the Confederates. In thirty a renewed attack on Manassas next day. Many of days or so the question will be answered—not us lay down to sleep, from which we woke, more hastily or angrily, in spite of provocation and astonished than Mr. Russell himself
, at the idea of offence, but in the spirit of honorable neutralcontinuing our retreat to Washington; but the ity. In the States one thing is certain-the order came from head-quarters, and we obeyed, Cabinet will resist the pressure of the mob, or of this, or of the good order preserved by several be hurled out of office. If they yield to the regiments, including ours, all the way from the battle-field to Cub Run, and again resumed after fanatics and fight battles against the advice of three or four miles, Mr. Russeli says nothing—be their officers, they must be beaten; and the did not see it-he wasn't there.
tone of New York indicates that a second deYet his story will be received as Times' gospel, feat would cost them their political existence. not to be gainsayed, by hundreds of thousands in They can resist such pressure in future as has England, while the contradiction, if it ever reaches been brought on them hitherto by pointing to there, will come as a stale American apology, un- Bull Run, and by saying, “See the result of worthy of belief.
DE W.* forcing Gen. Scott against his wishes." Of the
Cabinet, Mr. Chase, the Secretary of the TreasRUSSELL'S SECOND LETTER ON BULL RUN. ury, is perhaps the only man who bore up WASHINGTON, July 24, 1861.
against the disheartening intelligence of Monmay bring forth, particularly in time of war, army was more frightened than hurt, and that As no one can say what a day or a night day morning; but Mr. Seward and others are
recovering their spirits as they find that their I avail myself of a chance of probable quiet, the Confederates did not advance on the Capsuch as it is, amid the rolling of drums, the ital immediately after the success,
It was a braying of trumpets and bands, the noise of sad, rude sweep of the broom to the cobwebmarching men, rolling of wagons, and general life and activity in the streets, to write some been laying out warps in all directions, and are
spinners; to the spider politicians, who have remarks on the action at Manassas or Bull Run. Of its general effects abroad, and on the now lying in frowsy heaps among the ruins of North and South, a
their curious artifices. Nothing can restore ger and perhaps a better them to their places in the popular estimation; view can be taken from Europe than on this side of the Atlantic. There is a natural and nothing could have kept them there but the intense anxiety to learn what impression will rapid and complete success of their policy, and be made abroad by the battle-for, notwith: sword they have drawn is held over their heads
the speedy fulfilment of their prophecies. The standing the vulgar and insolent arrogance of by the hands of some coming man whose face the least reputable portion of the press in the United States, generally conducted by aliens or and the ground shakes beneath his tread. If
no one can see yet, but his footsteps are audible, persons who liave left Great Britain from cause Mr. Lincoln were indeed a despot, with the --it is felt that the result of the action
must genius to lead or direct an army, now would have very strong influences over the fortunes be his time. All the odium which could be of the contending parties, particularly in the heaped upon him by his enemies, all the accumoney-market, to which recourse must be had sations that could have been preferred, North in fear and trembling. It would be well not and South, have been fully urged, and he could to arrive at hasty conclusions in reference to not add to them by leading his army to victhe bearing of the defeat on the actual struggle. tory, while with victory would certainly come Those who are persuaded that the North must the most unexampled popularity, and perhaps and will subjugate the South, see in the disaster
an extraordinary and prosperous tenure of merely a prolongation of the war, a certain loss of material, or even an increment of hope in of a Napoleon, nor conld it be determined by
power. The campaign would be one worthy the spirit it will arouse, as they think, among even $500,000,000 and 500,000 men, unless the Unionists
. Others regard it as an evil they were skilfully handled and well econoomen for the compromise they desire to effect, mized. If popular passion be excited by dema• Winthrop De Wolf
gogues, and if it be permitted to affect the
councils of the State, it is easy to foresee the so bad as it might have been." The eye of end, though it is not so easy to predict by faith is turned to the future, the eye of specuwhat steps ruin will be reached at last. The lation is directed on the hoards of capital, and Ministers are already ordered to resign by the there is a firm belief that some clever person masters of the mob, and suffer a just punish- or another will succeed in inducing John Bull ment for their temporary submission to the to part with a little of his surplus cash, for clamor of the crownless monarchs of the North- which he will receive egregious percentage. East. The Secretary at War, Mr. Cameron, If the bulk of the capital and population of whose brother fell at the head of his regiment the North is thrown into this struggle, there in the field, is accused of making the very sub- can be but one hope for the Confederates mission-which was, indeed, a crime if ever it brilliant victories on the battle-field, which must occurred-by the very people who urged it lead to recognition from foreign powers. The upon him, and there are few Ministers who fight cannot go on forever, and if the Confedescape invective and insinuation.
erate Stares meet with reverses—if their capiThe great question to be decided just now is tal is occupied, their Congress dispersed, their the value of the Union sentiment in the North. territory (that which they claim as theirs) ocWill the men and the money be forthcoming, cupied, they must submit to the consequences and that soon enough to continue the war of of defeat. Is not that equally true of their opaggression or recuperation against the seceded ponents? On what ground can the United States, States? The troops here complain of want of which were founded on successful rebellion, money, and say they are not paid. If that be claim exemption from the universal law which so, there is proof of want of funds, which, if it they did so much to establish? Whatever the lasts, will prevent the reorganization of another feelings of the North may be now, there can be army, and I think it would not be safe to rely no doubt that the reverse of Manassas caused on the present army, or to depend on many of deep mortification and despondency in Washthe regiments until they have been thoroughly ington. Gen. Scott, whether he disapproved, reorganized. It must be remembered that the as it is said, the movement onward or not, was United States is about to lose the services of certain that the Confederates would be defeatsome 80,000 men, many of whonı have already ed. Every honr messengers were hurried off gone hoine. These are three months' men, from the field to the end of the wire some miles called out under the President's proclamation. away, with reports of the progress made by the Whether they will enlist for the term of three troops, and every hour the telegrams brought years, now proposed, cannot be determined; good tidings up to 4 o'clock or so, when the bat, jadging from their words they will not do victory seemed decided in favor of the Federalso if their present officers are continued or re- ists; at least, the impression was that they had commissioned. At all events, they will nearly gained the day by driving the enemy before all go home to be "mustered out of the ser- them. Then came the news of the necessary vice," as it is called, at the expense of the Gov- retirement of the troops; nevertheless, it is ernment. It is reported in Washington that affirmed that up to 8 o'clock in the evening steps were taken long ago to supply the places Gen. Scott believed in the ultimate success of of the retiring battalions, and that there were the United States troops, who under his own also offers of 83 battalions, which have been immediate orders had never met with a reverse. accepted by the Government, sent in as soon The President, the Secretary of War, and other as the news of the disaster at Bull Run was members of the Government, were assembled communicated to the North. How the regi- in the room where the telegraph operator was ments about to leave in a day or two were sent at work far into the night, and as the oracles into the field at all is one of the mysteries of of fate uncoiled from the wires gloom gathered the War Department,
on their faces, and at last, grave and silent, While Congress has been passing bills of they retired, leaving hope behind them. It pains and penalties, confiscating rebel property, must have been to them a time of anxiety beand amending sundry laches in the penal code, yond words; but of old the highest honors as well as filling up rat-holes, through which were given to him who in calamity and disaster conquered and run-away sucessionists might did not despair of the republic. And it is to the escape, in the laws and body of the Constitu- credit of the president and his advisers that they tion, the conquest is suddenly deferred, and have recovered their faith in the ultimate sucCotton stands king on the battle-field. * We cess of their cause, and think they can subjugate are glad of it," cry the extreme Abolitionists, the South after all. If the Confederates have sufactually delighted, because now slavery is fered heavily in the battle, as is believed to be doomed." The extreme depression which fol- the case, they may be disheartened in spite of lowed after the joy and delight caused by the their victory, and the news of a second uprising erroneous statements of victory, complete and and levée en masse in the North may not be brilliant, has been gradually disappearing, in without an unfavorable effect on their ardor. proportion to the inactivity of the enemy or to Such men as Wade Hampton, who is reported their inability to take advantage of their suc- killed, leave gaps in their ranks not readily tess by immediate action. The funds have re-filled, and the number of colonels reported to Puered, and men are saying, “Well, it's not be hors de combat would indicate a considerable
VOL. II.-Doc. 5
loss. But the raw levies are not likely to be fit The tone in which some officers speak of being for much for months to come, and it is difficult " whipped” is almost boastful and exultant. to see how they will be fit for any thing until Last night I heard one declaring he thought it they get proper officers. Some of the so-called was a good thing they were beaten, as it would regiments which have recently come in are put an end to the fighting; "he was quite sure mere mobs, without proper equipments, uni- none of his men would ever face the Confedform, or arms; others are in these respects erates again.” Another was of opinion that much better, marching well and looking like it was lucky they had not advanced much fursoldiers, but still no better than the troops who ther, as in that case they could not have escaped were beaten. It is not courage (need it be so well. And so on. It would be, I am certain, said ?) which is wanting-it is officers; and as unjust to the bulk of the officers to suppose without them men are worth little or nothing. they entertain such sentiments as these, as it The men of some regiments fought well; others would be in the last degree untrue to say that did not. There was little or no difference be their men were destitute of courage, and were tween the privates of the one and those of the not ready to fight any enemy, if fairly disciother; there was probably a marked distinction plined and properly led; but the expression of between the officers. The West Point cadets these things is indicative of the want of proper will all be used up by the increase of the regu- esprit militaire, and it should be reprehended lar army of the United States to 40,000 men, by those who wish to establish the loyalty of just agreed upon by Congress, after some dis- the volunteer army. No doubt the American putes between the Senate and the House of Rep- papers will furnish detailed lists of killed and resentatives; and the bulk of the officers with wounded, if you have any fancy to publish them, military experience and education are provided and columns of letters from the soldiers, and for already.
pages of incidents of the battle which may be The President is not exempt from the fate of consulted by the curious ; but there is a concurthe unfortunate in all republics, but he has yet rence of testimony to the good conduct of a good deal of the future to draw upon, and the Blenker's Germans, the 69th Irish, and the 79th people are amused by changes among the mili- Scotch. Capt. Meagher, indeed, I am told, tary commanders and by threats and promises, yielded to the universal panic, and was seen on for which they will all have to pay before the foot at Centreville making the best of his way quar is adjusted. It is so generally asserted towards Fort Corcoran, with exclamations which that Gen. Scott did not approve the advance, implied that for the moment he recognized for which his plans were not matured, and it the Southern Confederacy as highly belligerent. is so probable, too,) that it may be believed by Col. Corcoran, conspicuous by his great stature, those who have not the greatest faith in the being a man of 6 feet in height, was an object
firmness of his character, and who think he of attraction to the enemy, and is lying dangerI night be induced to give orders for the execu- ously, if not mortally, wounded. The Rhode
tion of ill-conceived and hasty projects, or at Island regiment has been, however, the most all events, to precipitate operations without the favored by the voice of praise, though many necessary conditions of success. It is certain competitors are now putting in claims for at the country was becoming fretful and impatient, least equal honor. and that men like Mr. Wilson, Chairman of the There are various statements in reference to Military Committee of the Senate, were loud the conduct of the regular cavalry and infantry. in their complaints of the delays and inactivity The regular officers admit that at one time the of the army and of its chief, and of the preten- cavalry gave way, but they did not break or sions of the regular officers. The schism which fly; they were rallied, drew up in line again, must always exist between professionals and and showed front to the enemy. The regular quacks, between regular soldiers and volun- officers declare that it was the infantry which teers, has been greatly widened by the action saved the retreat, covering it steadily in conon Sunday. The volunteers indulge in severe junction with the Germans; and the losses of reflections on the generalship of the command the United States Marines argue that they had ers, the regulars speak with contemptuous bit- a large share of the enemy's fire. The artillery terness of the inefficiency and cowardice of the who lost their guns speak, as artillery will do volunteer officers. The former talk learnedly under the circumstances, of the infantry which of the art of war, and of the cruelty of being deserted them; and the general officers, who led like sheep to the slaughter. The latter, must after all be the best judges, bear strong without detracting from the courage of the testimony to the good services and general men, inveigh against those who directed their steadiness of the regulars engaged in the action. regiments on the field; and the volunteer pri- When the statements in the American papers vates are glad to add their testimony against are compared with the facts, I am aware it will many of the officers, whose pride in uniforms be necessary to rely a little on "character," in and gold lace did not permit them to soil them asking faith for what I report. There was not in the smoke of gunpowder. It is remarkable a bayonet charge made by the Federalist inthat so much hankering after military reputa- fantry during the day; there was not a charge tion should be accompanied, in some instances of any kind made by the Confederate cavalry at least, by an absence of any military spirit. I upon any regiment of their enemy until the
latter broke. There was not a hand to-hand | Monday morning, there was no reason on earth encounter between any regiinents. There was why they should not have either got into not a single " battery charged” or taken by Washington or compelled the whole of the the Federalists. There were no masked bal Federalist army that kept together and could teries in play by the foriner.* There was no not escape, as it was all on one road, to surannihilation of rebel horse by Zouaves, Fire or render themselves prisoners, with all they posother. A volley fired by one battalion emptied sessed. If the stateinents in the Federalist three saddles among a body of horse who ap- papers as to their strength be correct, the peared at some distance, and the infantry which rebels could have easily spared 30,000 men for performed the execution then retired. There that purpose, with a reserve of 10,000 or 15,000 were no desperate struggles except by those in their rear. The Chain Bridge, the fords who wanted to get away. The whole matter above the Falls, were open to them—at least, in plain English amounts to this: The Federal- there could be but little or no opposition from ists advanced slowly, but steadily, under the the disorganized forces. The columns moving fire of their artillery, driving the enemy, who round from Fairfax to their left by Vienna rarely showed out of cover, in line before them, would have been able certainly to cross at and gradually forced them back on the right Matildavillo; others could have got over at the and the centre for a mile and a half towards Falls, and still there would have been enough Manassas. As the enemy fell back they used to permit Beauregard to occupy Manassas, and their artillery also, and there was a good deal to send on a heavy column to cover Alexandria of pounding at long ranges with light field- and to shut up the Federalists in the earthguns, and some heavier rifled ordnance, the works and téte de pont, if not to wrest them line on both sides being rarely within 800 from troops deeply affected by the rout they yards of each other. On one occasion the regi- were witnessing. If the Confederates had the ments on the right were received by a mus- cavalry of which so much has been said, they ketry fire from the enemy, which induced them were scandalously handled. A detour by a to fall back, but they were rallied and led for- cross road from Centreville to the Germantown ward towards the front. The Confederates road would have placed the horse in the rear again gave way, and the Federalists advanced of the retreating mass in half an hour, and it is once more. Again the line of the enemy ap- not too much to say that mass would have peared in front, and delivered fire. The Zou- thrown itself on the mercy of the pursuers. If aves, as they are called, and the 11th New Beauregard's or Lee's force was small, as they York, which were on the flank, fell into confu- say, and suffered as much as the Federalists sion not to be rallied, and eventually retired aver, the flight is the more incomprehensible. from the field in disorder, to use the mildest But still it is very strange that the victors term, with a contagious effect on their com- should not have been aware of their victoryrades, and with the loss of the guns which they that is, of the utter rout which followed their were supporting. Nothing would, or could, or repulse. Tho attempt to form line on the top did stop them. In vain they were reminded of Centreville, only partially successful as it of their oaths to “ avenge Ellsworth's death." was, might have imposed on the enemy, and Their flag was displayed to the winds—it had saved McDowell from the pursuit which he did lost its attractions. They ran in all directions his best to avert. The journals, which at first with a speed which their fortune favored. “I boasted of the grand Union army of 45,000 tell the tale as it was told to me" by one who men, are now anxious to show that only 20,000 had more to do with them, and had better op- were engaged. Why did the other 25,000 run portunity of witnessing their conduct than I away? The German regiment, under Col. had; for, as I have already stated in a previous Blenker, and perhaps some other corps, may letter, I was late on the ground, and had not have retired in good order, but eventually few been able to see much ere the retreat was or- withstood the ceaseless alarms. dered. Though I was well mounted, and had The rain, which commenced on Monday mornleft Washington with the intention of return- ing early, may have had much to do with the ing early that night, I found fugitives had pre- undisturbed retreat of the Federalists, as the ceded me in masses all the way, and when I enterprise and activity of the enemy would be crossed the Long Bridge, about 11 o'clock, much diminished in consequence, and as for I was told that the city was full of those the beaten army, it has been always observed who had returned from the fight. But if the that troops hold together and march well in miserable ront and panic of the Federalists rain. But with all allowances and excuses, it have produced such deplorable results to their is still mysterious inactivity Johnston, whose cause, they have still much to be thankful for. junction with 40,000 men is said to have taken Had the Confederates been aware of their suc- place (if he had half the number it is more than cess, and followed up their advantage early on I give him credit for) on the morning of the
battle, must have swelled the force under Lee See Mr. De Wolf', letter, pages 66-64 ante, in which Nr. Russell's statements in regard to the charges on the and Beauregard to 70,000 men at the least. correct and unfounded. See also the official reports.- and it is believed here that he is already away field and respecting masked baiteries, are asserted to be in. He is the best officer in the Confederate army, Ed. R. R. 1 See ente, pp. 9, 10, 63, 64.-Ed. R. R.
operating in Western Virginia. There is a sus