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fortified, that it was watched by only one or take the road for Sudley's Springs-or, rather, two companies; and, moreover, that the run it was provided that (if I mistake not) Hunter's above it was almost everywhere passable for division should proceed to Sudley's Springs, and wheeled vehicles.
Heintzelman to take the lower ford. These Midway between the stone bridge and Sud- matters, however, to be regulated by circumley's Springs, maps indicated another ford stances. which was said to be good.
It was intended that the head of Hunter's Notwithstanding our conviction of the prac- division should be at the turn off at early day." ticability of these fords, no known road con- light, or abont 4 A. M., and that it should reach nected with them from any of the main roads Sudley by six or seven. on our side of Bull Run. We had information You are aware of the unexpected delay. The that a road branched from the Warrenton turn- two leading brigades of Tyler's had not cleared pike, a short distance beyond Cub Run, by the road for Hunter to this point until half-past which-opening gates and passing through pri- five, and our guide, alleging that a nearer route vate grounds--we might reach the fords. It to the ford would bring our column in sight of was desirable to assure ourselves that this route the enemy's batteries, led them by so circuiwas entirely practicable. In company with tous a way that Hunter did not reach Sudley Capt. Woodbury (Engineers) and Gov. Sprague, until half-past nine or thereabouts. and escorted by a company of cavalry, I, on Accompanying the commanding general, we, the 19th, followed up the valley of Cub Run as you are aware, after waiting two or three until we reached a point west ten degrees hours at the turn off, rode on to overtake the north, and about four miles in an air line from front of Hunter's division, when we emerged Centreville, near which we struck a road which from the woods, nearly northeast of Sudley, we believed to lead to the fords. Following it into the open country, from whence the course for a short distance we encountered the ene of the run and the slopes of the opposite shore my's patrols. As we were most anxious to could be seen; we could perceive the enemy's avoid attracting the enemy's attention to our column in motion to meet us. The loss of time designs in this quarter, we did not care to pur- here, in a great measure, thwarted our plan. sue the reconnoissance further. We had seen We had hoped to pass the ford and reach the enough to be convinced of the perfect practi- rear of the enemy's forces at Warrenton stone cability of the route. To make more certain bridge before he could assemble in sufficient of the fords, however, Capt. Woodbury pro- force to cope with us. posed to return at night, and with a few Michi- It now became necessary to have Tyler's gan woodsmen from Col. Sherman's brigade, division force the passage of the bridge. It to endeavor to find them. On returning to had always been intended that this division camp it was determined to send Capt. Wright should pass at or near the bridge, but it was and" Lieut. Snyder (Engineers) with Capt. hoped, by taking its defences in rear, it could Woodbury. At the same time the commanding be passed without force. The commanding general directed Capt. Whipple (Topographical general promptly sent orders to Tyler to press - Engineers) and Lieut. Prime (Engineers) to his attack with all vigor. make a night reconnoissance of the run between I had yet much confidence that, though we Warrenton Bridge and Blackburn's Ford. Both had been anticipated, (owing to the delays menthese night expeditions failed. It was found tioned,) the enemy was not yet assembled in the enemy occupied the woods too strongly on numbers to oppose us in great force, (a confiour side of the run to permit the reconnoissance dence which I think the facts justified ;) that to be accomplished. It was not our policy to we might successfully attack him in front, while drive in his pickets until we were in motion to the division of Tyler should fall upon his flank attack.
and rear. On laying before you the information obtain. When we reached the front of Hunter's col. ed, the commanding general believed himself | umn the battle was just commencing. The justified in adopting the following plan of at- events of the battle-field will be described in tack, which was decided upon on the 20th : the reports you will receive from other quar
First-A false attack to be made by Rich- ters. I was near the commanding general unardson's brigade (temporarily attached to Miles's til some time after the arrival of Sherman's division) on Blackburn's Ford, the rest of that brigade on our left. Being accidentally sepadivision remaining in reserve at Centreville. rated, I saw yourself on the right, and joining
Second— Tyler's division to move from its you, we observed for some time the action on camp at 3 A. m. (the 21st) towards the stone the heights, where the enemy made his final bridge of the Warrenton turnpike, to feign and successful stand. As we were observing, the main attack upon this point.
the Zouave regiment of Heintzelman was Third—The divisions of Hunter and Heintzel. driven back, leaving Rickett's battery, upon man (in the order named) to leave their camps which we observed the enemy charge. at 23 A. N., (they were encamped about two or You left me here, and I remained a few minthree miles beliind Tyler,) and, following his utes longer an anxious spectator, and for the movement, to diverge from the Warrenton first time beginning to anticipate a possible deturnpike at the by-road beyond Cub Run, and feat. Two brigades of Tyler's division had
passed over the run, and I supposed (and I be- Charles E. Cross, to the Second Division; un: lieved the commanding general supposed) that der Col. Hunter. the entire division was over. If so, the stone Capt. H. G. Wright and First Lieut. G. W. bridge was unguarded, and if we were de. Snyder, to the Third Division, under Col: feated our retreating columns might be cut off Heintzelman. from Centreville by the detachments of the Capt. B. S. Alexander and First Lieut. D. C. enemy crossing this bridge. I became so anx- Houston, to the First Division, under Gen. Tyler. ious on this point that I sought you again, and First Lieut. F. E. Prime, to the First Divifound you at some distance in the rear. After sion, under Col. Miles. some consultation, you, on my assuming the They have all been most active and zoalous in responsibility, sent an order to Col. Miles to the discharge of the duties devolving upon them. move up two of his brigades to the stone bridge, A report from Capt. D.P. Woodbury is here, and to telegraph the Secretary of War to send with annexed. Reports from Capts. Wright up all the troops that could be spared from and Alexander and Lieut. Prime will be furs Washington.
nished when received. • While I was returning towards the front, I am, very respectfully, your most obedient, intending to rejoin the commanding general,
J. G. BARNARD, Major Engineers. I saw our front give way, and it soon became evident that we were defeated.
MAJOR BARRY'S REPORT. I have stated that it was a part of the plan
ARLINGTON, Va., July 23, 1861. of the battle, that Tyler's division should pass Capt. J. B. Fry, Assistant Adjutant-General, at or near the stone bridge. Two of his bri- Head-quarters Department N. E. Virginia: gades actually did pass, not at the bridge, (they CAPTAIN: Having been appointed, by special finding fords a half mile higher up,) and con- orders No. 21, Headquarters Department Northnected themselves with our left. In anticipa- eastern Virginia, Centreville, July 19, 1861, tion that the stone bridge would be blown up, Chief of Artillery of the Corps d'Armée, comCapt. Alexander had been instructed to ob- manded by Brig. Gen. McDowell, and having tain a trestle bridge to replace it. This he had served in that capacity during the battlo of the on the spot, but there appears to have been no 21st inst., I have the honor to submit the fol: mine prepared under the bridge. Capt. Alex- lowing report: ander passed over his pioneers one by one, The Artillery of the Corps d'Armée consisted and set them to cutting away the abatis—two of the following named batteries: Rickett's hundred yards in extent-obstructing the road. (Light Company I, 1st Artillery) six 10-pounder This task was accomplished, and the way was Parrott rifle guns; Hunt's (Light Company M, opened for Schenck's brigade to fall on the 20 Artillery) four light 12-pounders; Carlislo's enemy's right at the moment when our lines (Company E, 20 Artillery) two James's 13finally gave way in front.
pounder rifle guns, two 6-pounder guns; Tid. It will be seen from the above that the com- ball's (Light Company A, 20 Artillery) two 6bination, though thwarted by adverse circum- pounder guns, two 12-pounder howitzers; stances, was actually successful in uniting three Green's (Company G, 2d Artillery) four 10entire divisions, (excepting the brigade of pounder Parrott rifle guns; Arnold's (ComSchenck, which had just opened its way to pany D, 2d Artillery) two 13-pounder James's fall on the enemy's right at the moment when rifle guns, two 6-pounder guns; Ayres's (Light our lines finally gave way in front,) upon the Company E, 3d Artillery) two 10-pounder Pardecisive point.
rott rifle guns, two 12-pounder howitzers, two A fault, perhaps it was, that it did not pro-6-pounder guns; Griffin's (Battery D, 5th Arvide earlier for bringing the two brigades of tillery) four 10-pounder Parrott rifle guns, two Miles's (in reserve at Centreville) into action. 12-pounder howitzers; Edwards's (Company G, One of his brigades (Richardson's) actually 5th Artillery) two 20-pounders and one 30did participate, (though not on the battle-field,) pounder Parrott rifle guns. The 2d Regiment and in its affair at Blackburn's Ford probably Rhode Island Volunteers had with it a battery Deutralized at least an equal number of the of six 13-pounder James's rifle guns; the 71st enemy.
Regiment New York Militia, two of Dahlgren's On retiring to Centreville my opinion was boat howitzers, and the 8th Regiment New asked as to maintaining our position, and I York Militia a battery of six 6-pounder guns. gave it in favor of a prompt retreat; for I be- The men of this last-named battory having lieved the enemy was far superior in numbers, claimed their discharge on the day before the and that, elated by his victory, he would pur- battle, because their term of service had exsue, and I believed that a defeated army, actu- pired, the battery was thrown out of service. ally driven back on Washington before a pur- The whole force of artillery, of all calibres, sning enemy, would endanger the safety of the was therefore 49 pieces, of which 28 were rifled Capital.
guns. All of these batteries were fully horsed The engineer officers under my command and equipped, with the exception of the two and attached to the different divisions were as lewitzers of the 71st regiment New York Mili
tia, which ere without horses, and were drawn Capt. D. P. Woodbury and Second Lieut. hy drag-ropes manned by detachments from
the regiment. Gen. McDowell's disposition for ron of United States Cavalry, under Captain the march from Centreville on the morning of Colburn, 1st Cavalry, was subsequently ordered the 21st inst., placed Tidball's and Green's bat- as additional support. We were soon upon the teries (8 pieces) in reserve with the division of ground designated, and the two batteries at Col. Miles, to remain at Centreville; Hunt's once opened a very effective fire upon the eneand Edwards's (6 pieces) with the brigade of my's left. The new position had scarcely been Col. Richardson, at Blackburn's Ford; and occupied, when a troop of the enemy's cavalry, Carlisle's, Ayresis, and the 30-pounder (11 debouching from a piece of woods close upon pieces) with the division of Gen. Tyler, at the our right Hank, charged down upon the New stone bridge; Rickett's, Griffin's, Arnold's, the York 11th. The Zouaves catching sight of the Rhode Island, and the 71st regiment batteries cavalry a few moments before they were upon (24 pieces) accompanied the main column, them, broke ranks to such a degree that the which crossed Bull Run at Sudley's Springs. As cavalry dashed through without doing them soon as the column came in presence of the much harm. The Zouaves gave them a scatterenemy after crossing Bull Run, I received from ing fire as they passed, which emptied five sadGen. McDowell, in person, directions to super- dles and killed three horses. A few minutes intend the posting of the batteries as they sever- afterward a regiment of the enemy's infantry, ally debouched from the road and arrived from covered by a high fence, presented itself in line the field. The Rhode Island battery came first on the left and front of the two batteries, at apon the ground, and took up at a gallop the not more than 60 or 70 yards' distance, and position assigned it. It was immediately ex- delivered a volley full upon the batteries and posed to a sharp fire from the enemy's skir- their supports. Lieut. Ramsay, 1st Artillery, was mishers and infantry, posted on the declivity killed, and Capt. Ricketts, 1st Artillery, was of the hill and in the valley in its immediate wounded, and a number of men and horses front, and to a well-sustained fire of shot and were killed or disabled by this close and wellshell from the enemy's batteries, posted behind directed volley. The 11th and 14th regiments the crest of the range of hills, about 1,000 yards instantly broke, and fled in confusion to the Jistant. This battery sustained, in a very gal rear, and, in spite of the repeated and earnest ant manner, the whole force of this fire for efforts of Col. Heintzelman with the latter, and nearly half an hour, when the howitzers of the myself with the former, refused to rally and 31st New York Militia came up, and went into return to the support of the batteries. The battery on its left. A few minutes afterward, enemy, seeing the guns thus abandoned by their Griffin brought up his pieces at a gallop, and supports, rushed upon them, and driving off çame into battery about 500 yards to the left the cannoneers, who with their officers stood of the Rhode Island and New York batteries. bravely at their posts until the last moment, Rickett's battery came up in less than half an captured them, ten in number. These were hour afterward, and was posted to the left of the only guns taken by the enemy on the field. and immediately adjoining Griffin's. The ene- Arnold's battery came upon the field after Ricmy's right, which had been wavering from the kett's, and was posted on our left centre, where moment Griffin opened fire upon it, now began it performed good service throughout the day, to give way throughout its whole extent, and and by its continual and well-directed fire asretire steadily, his batteries limbering up rapid- sisted materially in breaking and driving back ly, and at a gallop taking up successively two the enemy's right and centre. new positions further to his rear. The foot The batteries of Hunt, Carlisle, Ayres, Tidtroops on our left, following up the enemy's ball, Edwards, and Green (21 pieces) being retiring right, soon left our batteries so far in detached from the main body, and not being our rear that their fire was over the heads of under my immediate notice during the greater our own men. I therefore directed the Rhode portion of the day, I respectfully refer you to Island battery to advance about 500 yards in the reports of their brigade and division comfront of its first position, accompanied it myself, manders for the record of their services. and saw it open fire with increased effect upon The army having retired upon Centreville, I the enemy's still retiring right. Returning to was ordered by Gen. McDowell in person to the position occupied by Rickett's and Griffin's post the artillery in position to cover the rebatteries, I received an order from Gen. Mc. treat. The batteries of Hunt, Ayres, Tidball, Dowell to advance two batteries to an eminence, Edwards, Green, and the New York 8th regispecially designated by him, about 800 yards ment, (the latter served by volunteers from in front of the line previously occupied by the Wilcox's brigade,) 20 pieces in all, were at enemy's batteries. 'I therefore ordered these once placed in position; and thus remained two batteries to move forward at once, and, as until 12 o'clock P. M., when orders having been soon as they were in motion, went for and secur- received to retire upon the Potomac, the bated as supports the 11th (Fire Zouaves) and the teries were put in march, and, covered by 14th (Brooklyn) New York regiments. "I accom- Richardson's brigade, retired in good order panied the former regiment to guide it to its and without haste, and early next inorning reproper position, and Col. Heintzelman, 17th Uni- occupied their former camps on the Potomac. ted States Infantry, performed the same service In conclusion, it gives me great satisfaction for the 14th on the right of the 11th. A squad- to state that the conduct of the officers and eve
listed men of the several batteries was most | lances, they can then return to their proper exemplary. Exposed throughout the day to positions. a galling fire of artillery and small-arms, sev As the general commanding visited almost eral times charged by cavalry, and more than every part of the ground during the conflict, once abandoned by their infantry supports, with a view to encourage or direct the moveboth officers and enlisted men manfully stood ments of the troops, my position as a member by their guns with a courage and devotion of his staff gave me every opportunity of seeworthy of the highest commendation. Where ing the results of the action. I therefore emall did so well, it would be invidious to make braced the opportunity thus offered to give didistinction, and I therefore simply give the rections when needed to the drivers of the amnames of all the officers engaged viz.: Major bulances where to find the dead and wounded ; Hunt; Captains Carlisle, Ayres, Griffin, Tid- and also to those carrying off the wounded ball, and Arnold; Lieutenants Platt, Ransom, where they could find the needed conveyances. Thompson, Webb, Barriga, Green, Edwards, The stretchers were found very useful and comDresser, Wilson, Throckmorton, Cushing, Har- fortable to the wounded, and were in constant ris, Butler, Fuller, Lyford, Will, Benjamin, Bab- requisition, conveying them to the nearest ambitt, Haines, Ames, Hasbrouck, Kensel, Harri- bulances. son, Reed, Barlow, Noyes, Kirby, Elderkin, So far as I am informed, the medical staff Ramsay, and aig. The two latter were killed. belonging to the different volunteer regiments
I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient discharged their duties satisfactorily. I observant,
served Acting Assistant-Surgeon Miles busily WM. F. BARRY, Major 5th Artillery, engaged in dressing wounded men under the
shade of a tree, in a part of the field where the MEDICAL AND SURGICAL REPORT,
fire from the enemy was very hot. He addressARLINGTON, Department N. E. Va., July 26, 1861. ed me a brief inquiry as I passed relative to Being chief of the Medical Staff with the the safety of his father, and then resumed his Army in the Department of N. E. Virginia, I occupation. have the honor to make the following report Surgeon 0. O. Keeney of Col. Hunter's di. of so much of the results of the action on the vision, and Assistant-Surgeon D. L. Magruder, 21st at Bull Run, as came within my charge. attached to the commanding general's staff
, As the officers of the Medical Staff were at- did good service in the hospital church I have tached to the different regiments and on duty mentioned, and also in two houses near the with them, I deemed it proper to remain with church, where the wounded were placed after and accompany the general commanding and the church had been filled. These officers restaff from the beginning to the termination of mained busily engaged in the discharge of their the battle, in order that I might be present if duties till the enemy's cavalry made their apany were wounded; and, also, that I might be pearance, and but narrowly escaped capture, enabled to visit in this way every part of the when they left. Drs. Swift and Winston, atield where the killed and wounded might be tached to the New York 8th regiment, remainfound.
ed with their sick sacrificing all selfish considAfter the action had fairly commenced, and erations for their own safety, in order that the the wounded and the dead were lying on the wounded might not be neglected, and are now field in every direction, I despatched Assistant- prisoners. I am informed that Assistant-SurSurgeon D. L. Magruder to the rear, with geons Grey and Steinburg of the Regular Army, directions to prepare a church (which 'I had and Drs. Honiston and Swan of the New York observed as we passed before arriving at the 14th, also preferred to remain rather than scene of action) for the reception of the wound. abandon their charge. The conduct of these ed, and also to send the ambulances forward officers is worthy of all commendation. 33 rapidly as possible to pick up the wounded It would be premature in me, in the aband dead. In a very few minutes the ambu- sence of sufficient data-the reports of the reglances made their appearance, and contrivedimental surgeons not yet being received-to throughout the day to visit every part of the express a positive opinion as to the number ground which was accessible, so as to be with killed and wounded in the action on the 21st. in reach of those parts of the field where the There were, no doubt, many concealed from fighting was going on, and wounded were to observation under cover of the woods and be found. It is due to the ambulance drivers bushes, but, judging from the number that I to say that they performed their duties effi- saw in various parts of the field, and allowing ciently, and the result of their operations also a wide margin for those unobserved, I should shows how absolutely necessary these means think that the killed and wounded on our side of conveyance are to the comfort and relief of did not exceed from 800 to 1,000. the wounded in giving them shelter and water The impossibility of making a careful survey when ready to perish with heat and thirst. By of the field after the battle had ceased, must means of the ambulances, also, the men who go be my apology for the briefness and want of to the relief of their wounded comrades are detail in this report. separated but a short time from their compa W. S. KING, Sur. and Med. Direc'r, U.S.A. sias, as, having deposited them in their ambu Capt. J.B. Fer, Asst. Adjt.-Gen., U.S.A.
SUBSISTENCE DEPARTMENT REPORT. culties arose, and I may not have succeeded in
ARLINGTON, Va., Aug. 2, 1861. my object. CAPTAIN: For the information of the gen
Making due allowance for all losses on the eral commanding the Department, I have the march, according to the reports of the officers honor to submit the following report in refer- conducting the trains, and my own observation, ence to the subsistence of the army under his at least (160,000) one hundred and sixty thoucommand during its recent operations in front.
sand complete rations were received by the army On the 15th ult., the commanders of divisions at and in the vicinity of Centreville--sufficient were directed to see that all the troops of their for its subsistence for five days. respective commands have cooked and in their In a circular from Department Head-quarters, haversacks by 3 P. M. the next day three days' dated at Centreville, July 20, 1861, commandrations; and orders were given that five days' ers of divisions were directed to give the necesadditional subsistence should be loaded into sary orders that an equal distribution of the wagon-trains on the day of march, and follow subsistence stores on band might be made imthe army on the day succeeding, and that a mediately to the different companies in their specified number of beef cattle should be driven respective commands, so that they should be forward with each train.
provided with the same number of days' subsistOwing to the necessary number of wagons not ence and that the same be cooked and put into being furnished in season, to uninstructed and the haversacks of the men, and they were inmavy worthless teamsters and green teams, and formed that the subsistence stores there in posto some of the roads being bad, only one of the session of each division, with the fresh beef that trains, that in charge of First Lieut. J. P. Haw- could be drawn from the chief commissary, kins, 20 Infantry, A. A. C. S., was able to over- must last to include the 23d inst. take the army on the morning of the 18th. It, The three days' subsistence it was directed with 90 head of beef cattle, by travelling all the the troops should have in their haversacks by previous night, arrived at Fairfax Court House 3 P. M., on the 16th of July, should have lasted on the morning stated, before the army had them to the afternoon of the 19th. After the taken up its march.
distribution made in compliance with the circu· During the morning, while the army was lars above referred to, I know of several inmoving forward to Centreville, it was thought stances in which subsistence stores remained in the other subsistence trains, in charge of First possession of division and brigade commissaLieutenants G. Bell, 1st Artillery, James Cur- ries, and of others in which provisions were tis, 15th Infantry, intended for Col. Heintzel- left on the ground of the encampments on the man's and Gen. Tyler's divisions, respectively, morning of the 21st of July. would not reach the army in season, and I was From personal observation on the march, on directed to distribute the subsistence in the train the morning of the 21st of July, I know that, present as equally as possible among the several generally, the haversacks of the men were divisions.
filled—whether properly or not, I do not know. Fourteen wagons, containing about 17,000 Regimental officers should be held accountable rations, were sent in charge of Lieut. Hawkins for that. During the battle, and following it
, I to the 5th division; the remaining wagons noticed many filled haversacks, canteens, blanwere directed to immediately proceed to Čen- kets, and other property, lying on the ground, treville, and I had made the best arrangements their owners having doubtless thrown them in my power to distribute the provisions they away to get rid of the labor of carrying them contained among the other three divisions. on so hot a day, and under such trying circum
Shortly after our arrival at Centreville I was stances. officially informed that the train, with 65 head I beg leave to call your attention to the reof beef cattle, in charge of Lieut. Curtis, was in ports of Lieutenants Bell, Hawkins, and Curtis
. the vicinity, and the train, with 70 head of The duties they performed were highly imbeef cattle, in charge of Lieut. Bell, was at portant, and all who are acquainted with the Fairfax Court House. I then directed the first difficulties under which they labored and overof these trains to come forward to Centreville came, will know that they acted with judgment and encamp for the night, and the second to and energy, and for the best interests of the come forward with as little delay as possible, Government. and myself conducted the remaining wagons of
I am, sir, very respectfully, Lieut. Hawkins's train, and turned them over
H. F. CLARKE, Capt. and Com. Subs, to the officer (Lieut. Merrill) directed by Gen. Capt. JAMES B. Fry, Ass't Adj.-Gen. Tyler to receive and distribute to the 1st division the subsistence stores they contained.
Doo. 2. I endeavored to distribute the subsistence stores equally among the several divisions, ac
SECESSION REPORTS. cording to the strength of each ; but in conse- REPORT OF BRIGADIER-GENERAL ARNOLD ELZEY. quence of the necessity of breaking up the train
HEAD-QUARTERS 4TH BRIGADE, CAMP AT in charge of Lieut. Hawkins, which was in
FAIRFAX STATION, July 25, 1861. tended for the divisions of Colonels Miles and Sır: In compliance with your instructions, I Hunter, and the late arrival of the others, diffi- have the honor to make the following report