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he having abandoned his intrenchments the not returning to make an effort to follow us. night before.
Qur batteries on the hill now opened fire, sus. On advancing one mile in front of Centre- tained by the Second Michigan regiment on the ville, I came to a halt near some springs to pro- right, in close column by divisions—the other cure water for the brigade, and Gen. Tyler and two regiments forming line of battle on the left. myself left with a squadron of cavalry and two The New York regiment, after some time, companies of infantry for the purpose of mak- formed under cover of the woods in rear. In ing a reconnoissance, to the front, which, on ar- this affair our skirmishers advanced so close to riving one mile in front of Blackburn's Ford, the enemy's works and batteries that two proved that the enemy had a battery in rear of mounted officers were killed inside the breastthe run so as to enfilade the road. He had also works, and one of our men was shot through strong pickets of infantry and skirmishing par- the shoulder with a revolver by one of the ties occupying the woods and houses in front of enemy's officers, and one of their cannoneers his position. The battalion of light infantry was bayoneted by one of our men while the was now ordered to deploy five hundred yards former was engaged in loading his gun. Our in front of the eminence upon which this camp skirmishers, also, in falling back, bad several is situated, and a position was at once taken by of their wounded bayoneted by order of the the ritled guns, which now opened their fire. enemy's officers.
This fire was not answered by the enemy un- The enemy's intrenchments and batteries aptil several rounds had been tired, and I pushed peared to be in rear of the creek called Bull forward the skirmishers to the edge of the Run. The batteries on the extreme right of woods, they driving in those of the enemy in their line were on high ground, and fired over fine style, and then brought up the 1st Massa- the heads of their infantry in front. At night chusetts regiment to their support, the skir- we fell back to Centreville for water and lamishers still advancing into the woods. tions, and this morning have again occupied
Capt. Brackett's squadron of the 20 Cavalry, our ground upon the bill in front of the enemy, and two 12-pounder howitzers, commanded by they being in large force, and having their Capt. Ayers, 5th U. S. Artillery, now moved pickets and skirmishers in the woods, and in up into an opening in the woods, in support. front of them, as yesterday. I have the honor The enemy also opened another battery more to also to inclose a statement of our loss incidental our left, so as to cross fire with the other upon to this affair. I have the honor to be, the road. I ordered up at this time the 12th Very respectfully, your obedient servant, New York regiment, Col. Walrath, to the left
J. B. RICHardson, of our battery, and it being forined in line of Col. Commanding Fourth Brigade, First Division. battle, I directed it to make a charge upon their To Brig.-Gen. Tyler, Commanding First Division. position, the skirmishers still pushing forward List Of CASUALTIES INCIDENT TO THE AFFAIR AT and drawing the enemy's fire, but keeping
BLACKBURN'S FORD. themselves well covered. I now left the position of the 12th New York regiment to place E, Captain Ayers, Fifth Artillery, command
Third Regiment U. S. Artillery, Company upon the right of the battery the Massachusetts and the 2d and 30 Michigan regiments, when ing: First Lient. Loraine wounded.' 2 privates a very heavy fire of musketry and artillery was
4 horses killed, 3 killed, 1 private wounded.
horses wounded. opened by the enemy, along whole line. On moving toward our left, I found the 12th New 1, Second Caralry.—1 sergeant and 2 privates
Capt. Brackett's Squadron, Companies G and York regiment had fallen back out of the
wounded. 8 horses wounded. woods in disorder, only parts of two companies, some sixty men in all , remaining in line, and der.—1 sergeant and 1 private killed. 4 pri
Light Infantry Battalion, Capt. Britchschneiretreating. The howitzers, and also the caval- vates wounded, (3 of the Second Michigan, ry, had been withdrawn; our left was thus exposed, although the skirmishers still held their
Twelfth New York Regiment, Col. Walrath ground in the woods, and the three remaining 1 corporal and 18 privates wounded. 1 cor
commanding.-1 corporal and 4 privates killed. regiments on the right remained firm and determined.
poral and 9 privates missing. I now reported to Gen. Tyler that the main
Second Michigan Infantry, Col. J. B. Rickbody of the New York regiment had fallen
ardson commanding.-i private wounded. back in confusion, and I proposed to make a
Third Michigan Infantry, Col. McConnell charge with the three remaining regiments, for
commanding.-1 private wounded.
TOTAL.- 19 killed, 38 wounded, and 26 miss. the purpose of carrying the enemy's position. The General replied that the enemy were in large ing; 4 horses killed and 11 wounded.
J. B. RICHARDSON, force and strongly fortified, and a further attack
Col. Commanding Fourth Brigade, First Division. was unnecessary; that it was merely a reconnoissance which he had made, that he had BEAUREGARD'S OFFICIAL REPORT. found where the strength of the enemy lay, and
HEAD-QUARTERS, 1st CORPS ARMS OF THE ordered me to fall back in good order to our
PotomAC, MARASSAS, August, 1881. batteries on the hill, which we did, the enemy General: With the general results of the closing his fire before we left the ground, and engagement between several brigades of my
command and a considerable force of the ene- / Stone Bridge crossing, with Sloane's 4th regi. my, in the vicinity of Mitchell's and Blackburn's ment South Carolina volunteers, Wheat's SpeFords of Bull Run, on the 18th ultimo, you cial Battalion Louisiana volunteers, four 6were made duly acquainted at the time by tele- pounder guns and two companies of Virginia graph, but it is my place now to submit in de- cavalry. tail the operations of that day.
Early's brigade, consisting of Kemper's 7th, Opportunely informed of the determination Early's 24th regiment of Virginia volunteers, of the enemy to advance on Manassas, my ad- Hays' 7th regiment Louisiana volunteers, and vanced brigades, on the night of the 16th of three rifle pieces of Walton's battery. LieuJuly, were made aware from these head-quar- tenant Squires’ at first were held in position in ters of the impending movement; and in exact the rear of, and as a support to, Ewell's briaccordance with my instructions, a copy of gade, until after the development of the enemy which is appended, marked " A," their with in heavy offensive force, in front of Mitchell's drawal within the lines of Bull Run was effect- and Blackburn's Fords, when it was placed ed with complete success during the day and in rear of and nearly equidistant between night of the 17th ultimo in face of, and in im- McLean's, Blackburn's, and Mitchell's Fords. mediate proximity to a largely superior force, Pending the development of the enemy's despite a well-planned, well-executed effort to purpose, about ten (10) o'clock a. M., I estabcut off the retreat of Bonham's brigade—first lished my head-quarters at a central point, at Germantown, and subsequently at Centre- McLean's farm-house, near to McLean's and ville, whence he withdrew by my direction, Blackburn's Fords, where two 6-pounders of after midnight, without collision, although en- Walton's battery were in reserve; but, subseveloped on three sides by their lines. This quently during the engagement, I took post to movement had the intended effect of deceiving the left of my reserve. the enemy, as to my ulterior purposes, and led Of the topographical features of the country him to anticipate an unresisted passage of Bull thus occupied, it must suffice to say that Bull Run.
Run is a small stream running in this locality, As prescribed in the first and second sections nearly from West to East, to its confluence of the paper herewithı, marked "A," on the with the Oecoquan River, about twelve miles morning of the 18th of July, my troops resting from the Potomac, and draining a considerable on Bull Run, from Union Mills Ford to the scope of country, from its source in Bull Run Stone Bridge, a distance of about eight miles, Mountain, to a short distance of the Putomac were posted as follows:
at Occoquan. At this season, habitually low Ewell's brigade occupied a position in vicini- and sluggish, it is, however, rapidly and frety of Union Mills Ford. It consisted of Rhode's quently swollen by the summer rains until un5th and Siebel's 6th regiments of Alabama, and fordable. The banks for the most part aro Seymour's 6th regiment of Louisiana volun- rocky and steep, but abound in long used fords. teers, with four 12-pounder howitzers, of Wal- The country, on either side much broken and ton's battery, and Harrison's, Green's and Ca- thickly wooded, becomes gently rolling and bell's companies of Virginia cavalry.
open as it recedes from the stream. On the D. R. Jones' brigade was in position in rear Northern side the ground is much the highest, of MeLean's Ford, and consisted of Jenkins' 5th and coinmands the other bank completely. South Carolina, and Bunt's 15th and Fether- Roads traverse and intersect the surrounding stone's 18th regiments of Mississippi volun- country in almost every direction. Finally, at teers, with two brass 6-pounder guns of Wal- Mitchell's Ford, the stream is about equidistant ton's battery, and one company of cavalry. between Centreville and Manassas, some six
Longstreet's brigade covered Blackburn's miles apart. On the morning of the 18th, Ford, and consisted of Moore's 1st, Garland's finding that the enemy was assuming a threat11th and Crose's 17th regiments Virginia volun- ening attitude, in addition to the regiments, teers, with two 6-pounder brass guns of Wal- whose positions have been already stated, I ton's battery.
ordered up from Camp Pickens, as a reserve, in Bonham's brigade held the approaches to rear of Bonham's brigade, the effective men of Mitchell's Ford; it was composed of Kershaw's 6 companies of Kelley's Eighth regiment Lon2d, Williams' 3d, Bacon's 7th and Cash's 8th isiana volunteers, and Kirkland's Eleventh regiregiinents South Carolina volunteers ; of ment North Carolina volunteers, which, having Shields' and Del Kemper's batteries, and of arrived the night before en route for WinchesFlooil's, Radford's, Payne's, Ball's, Wickman's ter, I had halted in view of the existing necesand Powell's companies of Virginia cavalry, sities of the service. Subsequently the latter under Co). Radford.
was placed in position to the left of Bonhain's Cocke's brigade held the Fords below and in brigade. vicinity of the Stone Bridge, and consisted of Appearing in heavy force in front of BonWither's 18th, Lieutenant-Colonel Strange's ham's position, the enemy, about meridian, 19th, and R. T. Preston's 28th regiments, with opened fire, with several 20-pounder rifle guns Latham's battery and one company of cavalry, from a hill, over one and a half miles from Bull Virginia volunteers.
Run. At the same time Kemper, supported by Evans held my left flank and protected the two companies of light iufautry, occupied å *ridge on the left of the Centreville road, about hills on which their batteries were planted, and six hundred yards in advance of the ford, with which, it may be further noted, commanded two 6-pounder (smooth) guns. At first the fir- also all our approaches from this direction to the ing of the enemy was at random, but by half three threatened fords. past 12 P. m. he had obtained the range of our Before advancing his infantry the enemy position, and poured into the brigade a shower maintained a fire of rifle artillery from the batof shot, but without injury to us in men, horses, teries just mentioned for half an hour, then he or guns. From the distance, however, our guns pushed forward a colunın of over 3,000 infantry could not reply with effect, and we did not at to the assault, with such a weight of numbers as tempt it, patiently awaiting a more opportune to be repelled with difficulty by the comparamoment.
tively small force at not more than twelve hunMeanwhile a light battery was pushed for- | dred bayonets, with which Brigadier-General ward by the enemy, whereupon Kemper threw | Longstreet met him with characteristic vigor only six solid shot, with the etfect of driving and intrepidity. Our troops engaged at this back both the battery and its supporting force. time were the First and Seventeenth, and four This is understood to have been Ayres' battery, companies of the Eleventh regiment Virginis and the damage must have been considerable to volunteers; their resistance was resolute, and have obliged such a retrograde movement on maintained with a steadiness worthy of all the part of that officer.
praise; it was successful, and the enemy was The purposes of Kemper's position having repulsed. In a short time, however, he renow been fully served, his pieces and support turned to the contest with increased force and were withdrawn across Mitchell's Ford, to a determination, but was again foiled and driven point previously designated, and which com- back by our skirmishers and Longstreet's remanded the direct approaches to the ford. serve companies, which were brought up and
About half-past 11 o'clock A, M., the enemy employed at the most vigorously assailed points was also discovered by the pickets of Long- at the critical moment. street's brigade advancing in strong columns of It was now that Brigadier-General Longinfantry, with artillery and cavalry, on Black street sent for reënforcements from Early's briburn's Ford.
gade, which I had anticipated by directing the At meridian the pickets fell back silently advance of Gen. Early, with two regiments of before the advancing tire across the ford, which infantry and two pieces of artillery. As these -as well as the entire southern bank of the came upon the field the enemy had advanced a stream, for the whole front of Longstreet's bri- ! third time with heavy numbers to force Long. gado_was covered at the water's edge by an street's position. Hay's regiment, 7th Louisi. extended line of skirmishers, while two 6- ana volunteers, which was in advance, was pounders of Walton's battery, under Lieut. placed on the bank of the stream, under some Garnett, were advantageously placed to com- cover, to the immediate right and left of the mand the direct approach to the ford, but with 'ford, relieving Corse's regiment, 17th Virginia orders to retire to the rear as soon as com- volunteers; this was done under a heavy fire manded by the enemy.
of musketry, with promising steadiness. The The northern bank of the stream, in front of 7th Virginia, under Lieutenant-Colonel WilLongstreet's position, rises with a steep slope at liams, was then formed to the right, also under least fifty foet above the level of the water, heavy fire, and pushed forward to the stream, leaving å narrow berme in front of the ford of relieving the 1st regiment Virginia volunteers. some 20 yards. This ridge formed for them an At the same time, two rifle guns, brought up admirable natural parapet, behind which they with Early's brigade, were moved down in could, and did approch, under shelter, in heavy the field to the right of the road, so as to be force, within less than 100 yards of our skir- concealed from the enemy's artillery by the mishers; the southern shore was almost a plain, girth of timber on the immediate bank of the raised but a few feet above the water for sev- stream, and there opened fire, directed only by eral hundred yards, then rising with a very the sound of the enemy's musketry. Unable to gradual, gentle slope, and undulations, back to effect a passage, the enemy kept up a scattering Manassas. On the immediate bank there was fire for some time. Some of our troops had a fringe of trees, but with little, if any, under- pushed across the stream, and several small growth or shelter, while on the other shore parties of Corse's regiment, under command of there were timber and much thick brush and Capt. Mayre, met and drove the enemy with covering. The ground in the rear of our skir- | the bayonet; but as the roadway from the ford mishers, and occupied by our artillery, was an was too narrow for a combined movement in old field extending along the stream about one force, Gen. Longstreet recalled them to the mile, and iminediately back for about half a south bank. Meanwhile, the remainder of Earmile to a border or skirting of dense, second- ly's infantry and artillery had been called upgrowth pines. The whole of this ground was that is, six companies of the 24th regiment commanded at all points by the ridge occupied Virginia volunteers, under Lient-Col. Hairston, by the enemy's musketry, as was also the conn- and five pieces of artillery, one rifle gun and try to the rear, for a distance much beyond the four six-pounder brass guns, including two 6range of 20-pounder rifle guns, by the range of pounder guns under Lieut. Garnett, which had
been previously sent to the rear by Gen. Long- ; ardson, Garnett, and Whittington. At the same street. This infantry was at once placed in po- time, our infantry held the bank of the stream sition to the left of the ford, in a space unoccu- in advance of our guns, and the missiles flew pied by Hays, and the artillery was unlimbered to and fro above them, as, cool and veteranin battery to the right of the road in a line with like, for more than an hour they steadily awaitthe two guns already in action. A scattering od the moment and signal for the advance. fire of musketry was still kept up by the enemy While the conflict was at its height before for a short time, but that was soon silenced. Blackburn's Ford, about 4 o'clock P. M., the
It was at this stage of the affair that a re-enemy again displayed himself in force before markable artillery duel was commenced and Bonham's position. At this, Colonel Kershaw maintained on our side with a long-trained with four companies of his regiment, Second professional opponent superior in character as South Carolina, and one piece of Kemper's batwell as in the number of his weapons, provid- tery, were thrown across Mitchell's Ford to ed with improved munitions and every artil- the ridge which Kemper had occupied that lery appliance, and at the same time occupying morning. Two solid shot, and three spherical the commanding position. The results were case thrown among them, with a precision inmarvellous, and fitting precursors to the artil- augurated by that artillerist at Vienna--effectlery achievements of the twenty-first of July. ed their discomfiture and disappearance, and In the outset our fire was directed against the our troops in the quarters were again withenemy's infantry, whose bayonets, gleaming drawn within our lines, having discharged the above the tree-tops, alone indicated their pres- duty assigned. ence and force.
At the close of the engagement before BlackThis drew the attention of a battery placed burn Ford, I directed Gen. Longstreet to withon a high, commanding ridge, and a duel began draw the 1st and 17th regiments, which had in earnest. For a time the aim of the adver- borne the brunt of the action, to a position in sary was inaccurate, but this was quickly cor- reserve, leaving Col. Early to occupy the field rected, and shot fell and shells burst thick and with his brigade and Garland's regiment. fast in the midst of our battery, wounding in As a part of the history of this engagement, the course of the combat Capt. Eschelman, I desire to place on record, that on the 18th of five privates, and the horse of Lieut. Richard- July not one yard of intrenchment nor one son. From the position of our pieces and the rifle-pit sheltered the men at Blackburn's Ford, nature of the ground, their aim could only bo who, officers and men, with rare exceptions, directed at the smoke of the enemy's artillery ; were on that day for the first time under fire, how skilfully and with what execution this and who, taking and maintaining every position was done c. only be realized by an eye-wit- ordered, cannot be too much commended for ness. For a few moments, their guns were their soldierly behavior. silenced, but were soon re-opened. By direc- Our artillery were manned and officered by tion of Gen. Longstreet his battery was then those who but yesterday were called from the advanced by hand out of the range now ascer- civil avocations of a busy city. They were tained by the enemy, and a shower of spherical inatched with the picked artillery of the Fedcase, shell, and round shot tlew over the heads eral regular army-Company E, 3d artillery, of our gunners; but one of our pieces had be- under Capt. Ayres, with an armament, as their come hors de combat from an enlarged vent. own chief of artillery admits, of two 10-poundFrom the new position our guns fired as be- er Parrott rifle guns, two 12-pounder bowitfore, with no other aim than the smoke and zers, and two 6-pounder pieces, aided by two flash of their adversaries' pieces-renewed and 20-pounder Parrott rifle guns of Company G, urged the conflict with such signal vigor and 5th artillery, under Lieut. Benjamin ; thus effect, that gradually the fire of the enemy matched they drove their veteran adversaries slackened, the intervals between their dis- from the field, giving confidence in and promise charges grew longer and longer, finally to of the coming efficiency of that brilliant arm cease, and we fired a last gun at a battled, fly- of our service. ing foe, whose heavy musses in the distance Having thus related the main or general rewere plainly seen to break and scatter, in wild sults and events of the action of Bull Run, in confusion and utter rout, strewing the ground conclusion, it is proper to signalize some of with cast-away guns, hats, blankets, and knap- those who contributed most to the satisfactory sacks, as onr parting shells were thrown among results of that day. them. In their retreat one of their pieces was Thanks are due to Brig.-Gens. Bonham and abandoned, but from the nature of the ground Ewell, and to Col. Cocke and the officers under it was not sent for that night, and under cover them, for the ability shown in conducting and of darkness the enemy recovered it.
executing the retrograde movements on Bull The guns engaged in this singular conflict on Run, directed in my orders of the 18th of July our side were three 6-pounder ritle pieces and —movements on which hung the fortunes of four ordinary 6-pounders, all of Walton's bat- this army. tery-the Washington Artillery, of New Or- Brig.-Gen. Longstreet, who commanded imleans. The officers immediately attached were, mediately the troops engaged at Blackburn's Cap. Eschelman, Lieuts. C. W. Squires, Rich- Ford on the 18th, equalled my confident expectations, and I may fitly say, that by lis / on Bull Run. Called from the head of his presence in the right place, at the right mo- regiment by what appeared to me an imperament, among his men, by the exhibition of tive need of the service, to take charge of the characteristic coolness, and by his words of en-superior duties of the Quartermaster's Departcouragement to the men of his command, he ment, with the advance at that critical juncintused a confidence and spirit that contributed ture, he accepted the responsibilities involved, largely to the success of our arms on that day. and was eminently efficient.
Col. Early brought his brigade into position, For further information touching officers and and subsequently into action, with judgment; individuals of the 1st brigade, and the details and at the proper moment he displayed capacity of the retrograde movement, 'I have to refer for command and personal gallantry.
particularly to the report of Brigadier-General Col. Moore, commanding the ist Virginia Bonham, herewith. volunteers, was severely wounded at the head It is proper here to state, that while from of his regiment, the command of which subse- the outset it had been determined, on the apquently devolved upon Major Skinner, Lieut. proach of the enemy in force, to fall back and Col. Fry having been obliged to leave the field fight him on the line of Bull Run, yet the posiin consequence of a sun-stroke.
tion occupied by Gen. Ewell's brigade, it necesAn accomplished, promising officer, Major sary, could have been maintained against a Carter H. llerrison, 11th regiment Virginia largely superior force. This was especially the volunteers, was lost to the service while lead- case with the Fifth Alabaina volunteers, Coloing two companies of his regiment against the nel Rodes, which that excellent officer had enemy; he fell, twice shot, mortally wounded. made capable of a resolute, protracted defence
Brigadier-General Longstreet, while finding against heavy odds. Accordingly, on the niornon all sides alacrity, ardor and intelligence, ing of the 17th ult., when the enemy appeared mentions his special obligations to Cols. Moore, before that position, they were checked and Garland, and Corse, commanding, severally, held at bay, with some confessed loss, in a regiments of his brigade, and to their field- skirmish in advance of the works, in which officers, Lieut.-Cols. Fry, Funsten, and Mun- Major Morgan and Capt. Shelly, Fifth regiment ford, and Majors Brent and Skinner, of whom Alabama volunteers, acted with intelligent he says: " they displayed more coolness and gallantry; and the post was only abandoned energy than is usual among veterans of the old under general but specific imperative orders, in service.” General Longstreet also mentions conformity with a long-conceived, established the conduct of Captain Marey, of the 17th plan of action and battle. Virginia volunteers, as especially gallant on Capt. E. P. Alexander, Confederate States one occasion, in advance of the Ford.
engineer, fortunately joined my head-quarters The regiments of Early's brigade were com- in time to introduce the system of new field. manded by Colonel Harry Hays, and Lieuten- signals which, under his skilful management, ant-Colonels Williams and Hairston, who han- rendered me the most important service predled their commands in action with satisfac- ceding and during the engagement. tory coolness and skill, supported by their field The medical officers serving with the regi. officers, Lieut.-Col. DeChoiseul and Major Penn, ments engaged were at their proper posts and of the 7th Louisiana, and Major Patton, of the discharged their duties with satisfactory skill 7th Virginia Volunteers.
and zeal; and, on one occasion at least, under The skill, the conduct, and the soldierly an annoying fire, when Surgeon Cullen, First qualities of the Washington Artillery engaged regiment Virginia volunteers, was obliged to were all that could be desired. The officers remove our wounded from the hospital, which and men attached to the seven pieces already had become the special target of the enemy's specified, won for their battalion a distinction rifle guns, notwithstanding it was surmounted which, I feel assured, will never be tarnished, by the usual yellow hospital flag, but which, and which will ever serve to urge them and however, I hope, for the sake of past associatheir corps to high endeavor. Lieutenant tions, was ignorantly mistaken for a ConfedSquires worthily commanded the pieces in ac- erate flag. The name of each individual medition. The commander of the battalion was cal officer I cannot mention. necessarily absent from the immediate field, On the day of the engagement, I was atunder orders in the sphere of his duti but tended by my personal statt, Lieutenant S. W. the fruits of his discipline, zeal, instruction, Ferguson, A.D.C., and my volunteer aides-deand capacity as an artillery commander, were camp, Colonels Preston, Manning, Chestnut, present, and must redound to his reputation. Miles, Chisholm, and Heyward, of South Caro
On the left of Mitchell's Ford, while no lina, to all of whom I am greatly indebted for serious engagement occurred, the conduct of all manifold essential services in the transmission was eminently satisfactory to the general offi- of orders on the field, and in the preliminary cer in command.
arrangements for occupation and maintenance It is due, however, to J. L. Kemper, Vir- of the line of Bull Run. ginia forces, to express my sense of the value Col. Thomas Jordan, Assistant Adjutantof his services in the preparation for, and exe- General; Capt. C. N. Smith, Assistant Adjncution of, the retreat from Fairfax Court Ilouse l tant-General; Col. S. Jones, Chief of Artillery