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JULY, 1861.

Resoleed, That the present Administration, in | down fore and aft, and put on board of her the high position they have taken to preserve eight sixty-eight pounders, four forward and the integrity of the Government, have our sym- fuur aft. A space of thirty feet on each side pathy and our undivided support, and that with of the wheel-houses is covered with five-eighth the country we will stand or fall; and to this inch wrought-iron plates, and a protection has we pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred also been placed in front of the engine-house. honor.

The floor of the deck is also protected with Resolved, That, in the recent spectacle present- iron, and the pilot is secured as much as possied to us in the so-called Union meetings held ble from danger. But our informant believes throughout the country under the auspices of that, notwithstanding these precautions, a shot Messrs. Wood, Davis & Co., we recognize a fired into the beam will disable the engine. more subtle foe than open hostility, and that This information may be of some service to such enactinents, under the shelter of the Amer- our cruisers near Fortress Monroe and on the ican flag, are only suggestive of a touching in- Potomac, who, we trust, will keep a sharp quiry contained in the Holy Writ, “ Betrayest look-out for the steel-clad Yorktown, and prethou the Son of Man with a kiss?"

pare to give a good account of her. Resolved, That the proceedings of this mieet- The total number of troops on the official ing, together with a copy of the resolutions, be muster-roll of the Confederate army in Virpublished in all the county papers.

gioia a few weeks ago was 180,000, but it must W. II. Scott, Chairman. be remembered that this formidable array emI. P. Bush, Secretary.

braces all those who have arrived from other

Southern States, all the raw militia impressed Doo. 102.

into the service in Virginia, and thousands of

men who are heartily disgusted with, or deadly AFFAIRS IN RICHMOND, VA. hostile to, secession, and who will embrace the

first opportunity that offers to escape from the

secession ranks. We had a very interesting interview yester- It was supposed that at Manassas Gap and day with an intelligent gentleman who was Manassas Junction about sixty thousand troops formerly a resident of Philadelphia, but who has were stationed, at and near Norfolk about been living for some month in Richmond, twenty thousand, in the vicinity of Richmond Virginia. After many unsuccessful efforts, he about seven thousand; that General Johnson was fortunate enough to secure a pass to en- had from fitteea to twenty thousand, exclusive able him to reach the North, and he left the of his recent reënforcement of five thousand; capital of the Old Dominion on the 9th of July. that in the neighborhood of Fairfax Court It was impossible at that time to travel on House there were at the time of his departure either of the direct routes, and he went to not more than froin fifteen to twenty-five hunBristol, Tennessee, where he was arrested and dred. The remaining troops are scattered at lodged in jail overnight, but released the next different points throughout the State, embracing morning, after an examination by the military in part those who are under the command of authorities. He then proceeded to Nashville, Gen. Wise, and those who were recently deTennessee, where a similar fate awaited him; feated in several battles by Gen. McClellan. but, after some difficulty, he also obtained his Our informant visited many of the soldiers release there, and, proceeding direct to Louis- when they were quartered near Richmond, for ville, met no further obstructions on his jour- the purpose of obtaining an insight into their ney, via Cincinnati, Pittsburg, Harrisburg, and real sentiments, and though professing himself, Lancaster, to Philadelphia.

for his own safety, to be a rank secessionist, Among the causes which hastened his de- be found many of them much dissatisfied, and parture from Richmond was the general belief they complained bitterly of the treatment to there that every citizen capable of bearing which they had been subjected. Quite a numarnis would soon be impressed into the mili- ber did not hesitate to declare, when they astary service, and the alternative was presented certained he was from the North, that they to him of soon being subjected to great indig- would embrace the first opportunity to desert nities, bearing arms against the North, or es- into our lines, and that if a great battle occaping.

curred, they would rather fire upon their own Some of the intelligence he communicated associates than upon the Union army. to us was of a very important character, and it In Alabama and Georgia many men were was all full of interest. He informed us, for forced against their will to enter the Confeder, instance, that great pains have been taken to ate army, three alternatives, as they expressed fit out the steamer Yorktown, which was for it, being placed before them—“to enlist, to go merly connected with a line running between to jail, or to be hung.” When it is considered New York and Richmond, so that she may that not a few of them have no sympathy with break the blockade, and commit fearful rav- the secession movement, that they have reages as a privateer. It was supposed that by ceived little or no pay, that their provisions this time she would be finished, and her crew are scant, it is not singular that they are anxis already enlisted. They have razeed her lious to desert. It must not be inferred, how

VOL. II.-Doc. 28

ever, that these feelings are universal. On the , until their last dollar is spent and their last contrary, the prevailing opinion among the man killed. soldiers is that they will bave an easy victory Great pains have been taken to fortify Richover the North, and the officers do all in their mond, and it is the prevailing opinion there power to inspire them with confidence. Gen- that even if our armies should, by any chance, eral Beauregard, about the close of June, in approach that city, they would be unable to addressing his troops, assured them that he had enter it. Several heavy batteries, mounted a strong hope that on the Fourth of July he with a large number of sixty-eiglit pounders, would dine at Willard's Hotel, in Washington; have been erected-one in the direction of that he would then immediately march upon Acquia Creek, another on James River, anPhiladelphia, from which point he would pro- other out by Howard Grove, towards Norfolk; ceed to New York, and there alone, on the and the best pass towards the city, which is banks of the Hudson, dictate terms of peace to from the northwest, is well guarded, and they the Northern army.

believe can be successfully defended against any The cry among all the ultra-secessionists is force we can muster. that they seek no compromise, that they will Many of the negroes in Richmond are at ask for no quarter, and grant none. Their present idle, on account of the tobacco factories troops strive to be armed to the teeth, as if having been closed, and there is considerable they were bent upon a sanguinary contest. uneasiness felt in regard to them by the white Many of thein have good arins; others are population. The patrol and police force, which supplied with ordinary regulation muskots. parade the streets day and night, have always Some still use flint locks, some shot guns, and their guns loaded, so as to be prepared for any about eight or ten thousand have not yet been emergency. The negroes are kept well infurnished with any guns at all. There is an formed of the course of events by the colored immense number of bowie knives and revolvers waiters at the various hotels, where the offiamong them, and an unusually large proportion cers, over their wine and whiskey, discuss of their force consists of cavalry, mounted on military affairs with more freedom than disvery fine horses, branded “Va." on one of the cretion. front shoulders, and they are now taking par- A short time ago three negroes were passing ticular pains to have their cavalry swords made down one of the streets of Richmond, when very sharp.

one of them complained to the others of the Men are found in the ranks of almost every treatment he had recently received from his age from thirteen to sixty, and many of them master, to which one of his companions reare crippled or deformed, as they have no rigid plied, “ Well, never mind; Massa Lincoln will inspection, and gladly accept all whose services be here soon, and den it will all be right." they can obtain. There is no uniformity in their This conversation having been overheard, the clothing, and often members of the same coin- negroes were arrested, and each received thirtypany wear suits of different colors.

nine lashes. On another occasion our inforIn conversing with troops from the South, mant saw a negro drilling, in the outskirts of he expressed surprise that Fort Pickens had the city, after the usual military fashion, soine not yet been captured, but they replied that forty or fifty negroes. He asked him what he was now too strong to be taken, except with was drilling negroes for? to which he replied, great loss of life, and there was little probabil-“ Oh! everybody learnin' to be soldiers now; ity of its soon falling into their hands. Of the why not de darkies too ?" Not satisfied with capture of Fortress Monroe the soldiers seemed this answer, he repeated liis interrogatory, when more sanguine. They said that when they the negro said, Well really, massa, I don't were ready to march against it they would like to say.”. It is a general complaint among soon find means to force our troops to sur- the whites that the negroes are much more imrender.

pudent than usual, and but little disposed to Public sentiment in the city of Richmond cheerfully submit to the restraints which were has recently undergone a very considerable formerly imposed upon them. change. Some five or six weeks ago scarcely Provisions of some kinds are now becoming a man could be found who had not been car- scarce in Richmond, and command high prices. ried away by the secession excitement, but the stock of bacon is very low, but this year's now, among the masses and the working men, crop of wheat and corn is a very fair one, and a Union feeling is rapidly being developed, and there is little probability of any want of these if a fair election could be held at this time, and articles in the South during the coming season. public sentiment truly expressed, a very large In Virginia and Tennessee the yield has been Union vote would be polled. On the other unusually great. Our informant saw in the hand, the politicians and those who at present former State one plantation containing 2,000 appear on the surface to control public senti- acres, and in the other 1,800 acres of first-rato ment are very loud and bitter in their denun- wheat, and many excellent crops of corn, ciations of the North, and declare that they The effects of the blockade are beginning will never be subjugated—that, no matter how to be seriously felt. The stocks of salt and large may be our force, or how many victories leather, and many other articles for which wo may win, they will fight for independence I there is great demand. are very low. Ice is

also very scarce, and can only be obtained at a | machines-two to be used in Virginia and one price ranging from five to fifteen cents per in North Carolina. He is also busily at work pound, and then not without a physician's pre- at an infernal machine, to blow up forts and scription. For a glass of ice-water fifteen vessels. It is connected with clock work, so arcents are charged at some of the hotels. The ranged that, in any period after it is set, from cargo lately taken to that city by the St. Nich-five minutes to twenty-four hours, fire may be olas, after her capture by the pirate Captain communicated to a barrel of explosive matter. Thomas, was disposed of by the State taking It is on an entirely different principle from the half of it, and the other half was obtained by machine recently found by one of our vessels Mr. Crenshaw, the proprietor of the Spotts- floating in the Potomac, and the Richmond sewood House, where Jeff. Davis and family are cessionists seem to entertain great hopes of its quartered. utility in inflicting injuries upon us. At one time, there was a great want of powder in the South, which is now being supplied by manufacturers in North Carolina or Tennessee.

Notwithstanding all the precautions which have been taken, goods of great importance to the insurgents are still occasionally forwarded to them from the North. On the Fourth of July thirty barrels of linseed oil arrived there from the city of Philadelphia, and was of great use to them in the manufacture of oilcloth for haversacks and knapsacks. It was obtained by Purcell & Co., of Richmond; and it might not be amiss for our authorities to inquire what one of our establishments furnished it.

About six weeks ago buckles and sewingthread, for the manufacture of military equipments, became very scarce; but Mr. King, of the firm of King & Lambert, went to Massachusetts, by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and obtained a good supply, which he took back with him by the same route.

There is still plenty of employment for all who understand any trades useful in assisting in the equipment of the army, and they are kept busily at work. The Union Manufacturing Company, which is under the superintendence of G. P. Sloat, formerly of this city, has a contract to alter 5,000 guns from flint to percussion locks, which it is now doing rapidly.

When the war first broke out there was a scarcity of caps in Virginia, and it was estima ed that there were not more than three for each soldier in the Southern army. A Mr. De Bow then commenced to make a machine to manufacture them, and finally succeeded in constructing one capable of turning out 40,000 per day, without the fulminating or detonating powder. The first efforts to make this powder were fatal to those employed. Mr. Finch, a》 chemist, after succeeding in manufacturing it, endeavored to continue the business in his house; but an explosion occurred by which his building was destroyed, his wife and children terribly hurt, his own eyes blown out, and such other injuries inflicted upon him that, after lingering a short time in great agony, he finally expired. Undaunted by this disaster, another man was obtained to continue its manufacture, but in a few days a similar accident occurred. His head was blown off, his arms torn from their sockets, and his assistant was also killed. Notwithstanding this, another manufacturer has since been obtained, and the insurgent army is now being well supplied from Richmond, and it is believed, by an establishment in Memphis, with percussion caps. Meanwhile, Mr. De Bow is making three more cap

The machinery for the manufacture of arms at Harper's Ferry has been removed to Fayetteville, N. C., where two hundred and seventyfive men have been sent to put it into operation. The design is to chiefly manufacture there Morse's breech-loading rifles, for which they have obtained all the necessary patterns.

The Tredegar Works at Richmond are very busily engaged manufacturing arms for the rebel army. They turn out two sixty-eight pounders and two six-pound howitzers, or smooth-bore cannon, and a great quantity of shot and shell every week. Mr. Anderson, who is at the head of the establishment, has formed the operatives into a military organization, called the Tredegar Battalion, of which he is the commander.

The currency of Richmond is in a very disordered condition. On the best bank bills a discount of from fifteen to twenty per cent. must be paid to obtain gold, and of ten per cent. for silver of the denomination of twentyfive cents or upwards, but five and ten cent pieces are very scarce, and cannot be obtained without paying a much higher premium. The chief small currency are shinplasters issued by the corporations, which are worth about twenty per cent. less than the bank notes. The bills of the Government are paid in treasury notes, State scrip, or corporation money. The people of Richmond think it utterly impossible that our Government can obtain a loan of $250,000,000, and declare the effort of the Administration to do so to be absurd.

The public generally know comparatively little of what is transpiring in the North, as their own papers do not attempt to give correct information. Their military officers, however, appear to be well informed, and one of their most important avenues of information seems to be the Baltimore Sun, which is received there with great regularity. There are occasional interruptions of a day or two, but these do not very often occur.

Jefferson Davis takes a ride in the evening through the city on a fine gray horse, and excites considerable enthusiasm among the citi zens, with whom he is rather popular. Alexander H. Stephens was not in the city when our informant left there, but was expected soon. All the secession Cabinet, and a good

here, and I have not been able to communicate with him. I think they are at Sangster's Station. The four men wounded yesterday belonged to Colonel Miles' division, who had some slight skirmishing in reaching the position.

many members of the Congress, which is to | has not reported to me since we have been meet on the 20th of July, had arrived there. The secessionists expressed great indignation at the proposed secession of Western Virginia from the eastern part of that State, and of East from West Tennessee, which they thought entirely unconstitutional and rebellious; but when they heard that there was a disposition upon the part of Western Kentucky to secede from the loyal portion of that State, they declared it to be a very righteous and perfectly legal movement.

Each column encountered about the same obstructions-trees felled across the road-but the axemen cleared them out in a few moments. There were extensive breastworks thrown up at this place, and some of them with embrasures resettled with sandbags. Extensive breast works were also thrown up at the Fairfax railroad station, and the road leading to Sangster's. A great deal of work had been

As an evidence of the aristocratic tendencies of secession, and of the growing unpopularity of it among the working classes, our informant states that the Richmond Dispatch earnestly advocates the establishment of a property qual-done by them, and the number and size of their ification as a condition for the enjoyment of the right of suffrage, so that an aristocratic government may be created.

In many of the camps the measles and mumps were very prevalent, and many men had died of neglect and improper treatment. At one camp in Tennessee he saw two large tents literally crowded with the sick.

camps show they have been here in great force. Their retreat, therefore, must have a damaging effect upon them. They left in such haste that they did not draw in their pickets, who came into one of our camps, thinking, as it occupied the same place, that it was their own. The obstructions to the railroad in the vicinity of the station, including the deep cut filled in with earth, etc., can be cleared out in a few hours. The telegraph poles are up with the wires on them. I hope to have railroad and telegraphic com

Colonel Gregg's South Carolina regiment, whose term of service had expired, had reached Richmond from Manassas on their way home. The colonel tried to get them to reën-munication in a very short time. Much flour, list and go back, but only sixteen out of the whole regiment were willing. The men were nearly all mechanics, and were dissatisfied with the service.

Lieutenant-Colonel Bowman and the other officer of the Pennsylvania volunteers captured on the Potomac, had been at large on parole, in Richmond; but on Monday of last week they were again put in confinement in a tobacco warehouse on Main street, near the Rockets, where about fifty other prisoners from our army are confined.

some arms, forage, tents, camp equipage, etc.,
were abandoned by them. I am distressed to
have to report excesses by our troops. The ex-
citement of the men found vent in burning and
pillaging, which, however, was soon checked.
It distressed us all greatly. I go to Centreville
in a few moments. Very respectfully your obe-
dient servant.
Brigadier General Commanding.

Doc. 104.

In passing through Tennessee our informant learned that General Anderson, in command of THE FIGHT AT BLACKBURN'S FORD, VA.

Nashville, ordered two regiments on Wednesday to East Tennessee, and two more were to go the next day, to overawe the Union men in that region.

-Philadelphia Press, July 18.

Doc. 103.



JULY 18, 1861.

REPORT OF GEN. TYLER. HEAD QUARTERS, 1ST DIVISION, DEP'T N. E. VIRGINIA, WASHINGTON, July 27, 1861. Gen. McDowell, Commanding Department:SIR: On the 18th inst. you ordered me to take my division, with two 20-pound rifled guns, and move against Centreville, to carry that position. My division moved from its en

To Colonel E. D. Tomonsend, Assistant Adjutant-campment at 7 A. M. At 9 A. M. Richardson's General, Washington :

THE First Division, under General Tyler, is between Germantown and Centreville. The Second (Hunter's) is at this place, just about to move forward to Centreville. The Fifth (Miles') is at the crossing of the old Braddock road with the road from this to Fairfax Station, and is ordered forward to Centreville by the old Braddock road. Barry's battery has joined it. One of Colonel Heintzelman's brigades (Wilcox) is at Fairfax Station. Colonel Heintzelman and his other brigade are below the station, but he

brigade reached Centreville, and found that the enemy had retreated the night before-one division on the Warrentown turnpike, in the direction of Gainsville, and the other, and by far the largest division, toward Blackburn's Ford, or Bull Run. Finding that Richardson's brigade had turned the latter point and halted for the convenience of obtaining water, I took a squadron of cavalry and two light companies from Richardson's brigade, with Col. Richardson, to make a reconnoissance, and, in feeling our way carefully, we soon found ourselves

overlooking the strong position of the enemy, situated at Blackburn's Ford, or Bull Run.

A moment's observation discovered a battery on the opposite bank, but no great body of troops, although the usual pickets and small detachments showed themselves on the left of the position. Suspecting, from the natural strength which I saw the position to possess, that the enemy must be in force, and desiring to ascertain the extent of that force and the position of his batteries, I ordered up the two rifled guns, Ayres' battery, and Richardson's entire brigade, and subsequently Sherman's brigade in reserve, to be ready for any contingency. As soon as the rifled guns came up, I ordered them into battery on the crest of the hill, nearly a mile from a single battery which | we could see placed on the opposite side of the run. Ten or a dozen shots were fired, one of them seeming to take effect on a large body of cavalry, who evidently thought themselves out of the range. The battery we had discovered on our arrival fired six shots and discontinued fire. Finding that our fire did not provoke the enemy to discover his force and his batteries, I ordered Col. Richardson to advance his brigade, and to throw out skirmishers to scour the thick woods with which the whole bottom of Bull Run was covered.

was in force, and also as to the position of his batteries, I ordered Col. Richardson to withdraw his brigade, which was skilfully though unwillingly accomplished, as he requested permission, with the 1st Massachusetts and 2d and 3d Michigan regiments, to charge the enemy and drive him out. It is but justice to these regiments to say that they stood firm, manoeuvred well, and I have no doubt would have backed up manfully the proposition of their gallant commander.

After the infantry had been withdrawn, I directed Capt. Ayres and Lieut. Benjamin, who commanded the two 20-pounders, to open their fire both on the battery which enfiladed the road leading to the ford and on the battery which we had discovered in the bottom of Buil Run, which we knew to be surrounded by a large body of men. This fire was continued from three until four o'clock, firing 415 shots. The fire was answered from the enemy's batteries gun for gun, but was discontinued the moment we ceased firing.

The concentrated position of the enemy, and the fact that the elevation of our battery and the range were both favorable, induce the belief that the enemy suffered severely from our fire, and this belief is confirmed by the fact that the ensuing day, until twelve м., ambulances were seen coming and going from and to Munassas, two miles distant.

Loraine, who, I regret to say, was wounded,
Lieuts. Dresser, Lyford, and Fallen, attached
to Ayres' battery, and Lieuts. Benjamin and
Babbitt, in charge of the two 20-pounder rifled
guns, all of whom displayed great coolness, en-
ergy, and skill in the discharge of their official
duties. With great respect, your obedient ser-

Brig. Gen. Commanding 1st Division.
Brig. Gen. MCDOWELL, Commanding N. E. Virginia.


This order was skilfully executed, and the skirmishers came out of the wood into the road, and close to the ford, without provoking In closing this report, it gives me great pleasany considerable fire from the enemy. Desir-ure to call to your attention the gallant conduct ing to make a further attempt to effect the ob- of Col. Richardson, Capt. Britchschneider, who ject of the movement, and discovering an open-commanded the skirmishers, Capt. Ayres, Lieut. ing low down on the bottom of the stream, where a couple of howitzers could be put into battery, I ordered Capt. Ayres to detach a section, put himself on the ground I pointed out to him, and sent a squadron of cavalry to support this movement. The moment Capt. Ayres opened his fire, the enemy replied with volleys which showed that the whole bottom was filled with troops, and that he had batteries established in different positions to sweep all the approaches by the road leading to Blackburn's Ford. Capt. Ayres maintained himself most gallantly, and after firing away all his canister shot and some spherical case with terrible effect, as we afterwards learned, withdrew his pieces safely and rejoined his battery. This attack on Capt. Ayres accomplished the object I desired, as it showed that the enemy was in force, and disclosed the position of his batteries, and had I been at hand the movement would have ended here; but Col. Richardson, having previously given an order for the 12th New York to deploy into line and advance into the woods, in an attempt to execute this order the regiment broke, (with the exception of two companies, A and I, who stood their ground gallantly,) and was only rallied in the woods some mile and a half in the rear. The fire which the regiment encountered was severe, but no excuse for the disorganization it produced. Having satisfied myself that the enemy

CAMP OF THE 4TH BRIGADE, 1ST DIV., GEN. McDowELL'S CORPS, IN FRONT OF BLACKBURN'S FORD, ON BULL RUN, July 19, 1861. GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I left the camp at Germantown at an early hour yesterday morning, my brigade consisting of the 2d and 3d Michigan regiments, the 1st Massachusetts regiment, and the 12th New York. A battalion of light infantry, consisting of 40 men from each regiment-160 in allcommanded by Capt. Robert Britchschneider of the 2d regiment of Michigan Infantry, moved in front of the brigade some 500 yards in advance, and threw pickets still further in advance of the road. A section of 20-pounder rifled guns, commanded by Lient. Benjamin of the 5th Artillery, moved in the rear of the light battalion. The march of the column was slow, so as to prevent surprise. No enemy appeared at Centreville, three miles from camp,

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