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"COMING, now, to the second point to which I have desired to invite your attention-that of the nicety of classification required for giving to each and every branch of manufacture the precise protection that it needs-we find the only case of the kind in the Morrill tariff to be that of cottons, and that even there the discriminations are absolutely as nothing when compared to those of the one to which you point as likely to produce a revolution in the commercial system of the world. Linens are by us disposed of in two short lines, and both of these are ad valorem. Woollen yarns have three lines where you have no less than thirty-six; and the only counting of threads that is required by us is that of four qualities of cotton, with a variety of duties as easy of calculation as is the counting of your fingers. Our whole tariff is, indeed, simplicity itself when compared with the classification of your own, in which there are no less than one hundred and forty kinds of cotton yarn, each with its separate rate of duty! Flax and hemp yarns, single unbleached, single bleached or dyed, and twisted unbleached, twisted bleached or dyed, are put into twenty-four classes, and under as many different rates of duty. Linens have twenty-four descriptions deter

mined by the number of threads, ranging from eight to twenty-four threads to five square millimetres-these varieties being run through the several conditions of unbleached, bleached, printed, and figured, with the duties varied in every case; the lowest at 30 francs and the highest at 535 francs per 100 kilogrammes (220 pounds avoirdupois). Jute yarns and tissues stand in the tables in equally numerous descriptions and varied duties; and in cottons the classification is carried to the extent of providing different rates for fifteen qualities of single unbleached yarns, fifteen of bleached, fifteen of dyed, fortyfive kinds or qualities of twisted in two strands, two kinds of yarn of three threads, and forty-five kinds of warped yarns, with the duties varied, according to fineness, as has been already said, no less than 140 times beginning with ten centimes and rising to no less than three francs per kilogramme, or about one-quarter of a dollar per pound. Of the cotton tissues I have given in the table only the coarsest, the medium, and the finest qualities. In the schedule there are eight qualities, the description of one of which will serve as a specimen of the whole. It reads thus: Cotton tissues weighing 11 kilogrammes, or more than 100 square metres of thirty-five threads or less to the five square millimetres, 50 centimes per kilogramme.' Had any such discrimination been attempted here, we should have been assured that the object of the framers of our tariff had been the utter annihilation of international intercourse, and there would have been a howl among our British free-traders such as could have found no parallel in the history of the world since the establishment of the first custom-house."-Letter to Chevalier, by H. C. Carey, Philadelphia, 28th Oct., 1860.



THERE is one charge brought by Mr. Spence against the United States, which, though not exactly falling within the range of our discussion, we may incidentally be allowed to notice. It refers to the settlement of the north-east boundary, under the treaty of Washington, in 1841, concluded by Lord Ashburton.

Soon after England had recognized American independence, in 1781, she executed a treaty with the United States, wherein that boundary was described as taking the line of highlands dividing the waters flowing into the St. Lawrence from those flowing into the Atlantic. Upon this basis, many ineffectual efforts were made to determine the highlands referred to, England claiming one line, the United States another. The dispute was then referred to the king of Holland, who decided against both claims, declaring a strict compliance with the requirements of the treaty impossible, as no such highlands could be found, and recommending a compromise. To this England consented, but the United States objected. By the year 1841, the growing occupation of the lands on the frontier rendered an immediate settlement imperative; and Sir


Robert Peel despatched Lord Ashburton on a special embassy to Washington for the purpose. Mutual concessions between Mr. Webster and himself soon led to a settlement very much to the advantage of the two countries, but very unsatisfactory to the politicians on both sides. Each of the ministers was accused by his countrymen of sacrificing National claims.

Now Mr. Spence says that, "When the treaty on this subject was made by Lord Ashburton, the Government of the United States was in possession of the map sent by Franklin," who had negotiated the treaty of 1783, "to the French ministry, and deposited in their archives-a map authenticated by a note in his own handwriting. On that map appeared a strong red line drawn by Franklin's own hand and referred to in his note." Mr. Spence goes on to state that the map in question had been discovered by Mr. Jared Sparks (the American historian) in the archives of Paris, and had been forwarded by him to his Government, who had also in their possession another map, from Jefferson's collection, with a similar line-both confirming the British claim; but that all this evidence was suppressed and the compromise accepted.1

Mr. Spence has admitted two errors into his state


First, Mr. Sparks made his discovery after, and not before, the treaty had been concluded.

Secondly, that map is not authenticated by Franklin, nor is there any proof that the red line was drawn by him, but the reverse.

In the House of Commons Sir Robert Peel said :

1 The American Union, 297.


"On subsequent enquiry, at Paris, we found a map, which must be the map referred to by Mr. Jared Sparks. There is placed upon that map a broad red line, and that line marks out the boundary as claimed by the British.

"It is probably a map by M. d'Anville, of 1746, and there can be no doubt but that it is the map referred to by Mr. Jared Sparks; but we can trace no indication of connection between it and the despatch of Dr. Franklin. To say that they were connected is a mere unfounded inference."

And, again, Mr. Disraeli said,-" They had all heard of a map with a broad red line, which map, making out the boundary according to the original claim of the English Government, was discovered apparently in the Archives of the Foreign-Office in Paris, subsequent to the settlement of the question, and had been talked of and written of by many who had never seen it. He, however, perhaps, was in a position to speak of it with more authority than some members of the House, for he had seen it. It was a map eighteen inches square, and was drawn by D'Anville. He believed that it was one of the smallest maps that D'Anville had ever drawn. It was not, by the bye, a map of the disputed territory, nor a map of Canada, but a map of the whole of North America, and, consequently, this strong red line would itself occupy no slight part of the disputed territory. In fact, it blotted out no inconsiderable portion of the state of Maine, which could оссиру but a very small space in a map of North America, eighteen inches


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1 HANSARD, lxvii. 1248.

2 Idem, lxvii. 1304.

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