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ment, this would indicate that one hundred and eightythree was rather a low estimate of the British losses, including both dead and wounded. The Earl of Balcarras, testifying before the House of Commons, without remembering exactly, thought about one hundred and fifty of Fraser's corps were killed and wounded at Hubbardton. This estimate does not include the German losses. In writing to Washington, July 17, St. Clair fixed Warner's loss at Hubbardton at about fifty killed and wounded. Adding to this number the two hundred and thirty prisoners which Fraser claimed, would give an American loss of two hundred and eighty. Warner's force was so completely scattered that an accurate estimate of his losses is difficult. It has been stated that many of the wounded perished miserably in the woods, and such losses naturally would not be included fully in estimates made immediately after the battle. It is probable, judging from the most reliable information to be obtained, that the British lost in killed and wounded approximately two hundred men, while the Americans lost more than three hundred in killed, wounded and prisoners. The prisoners included a portion of Colonel Hale's regiment and a considerable number of stragglers picked up on the march from Ticonderoga. Eliminating the American prisoners from the list of losses, the figures would indicate that the British suffered more heavily in killed and wounded than did the Americans.

A few local incidents of the battle are worthy of preservation. The population of Hubbardton at this time consisted of nine families, occupying as many log

houses, all of them being located in the portion of the town in which the engagement was fought. On the day preceding the battle, Sunday, July 6, the same detachment of British Tories and Indians commanded by Captain Sherwood, that engaged in a skirmish in Castleton, appeared in Hubbardton, and made prisoners of Benjamin and Uriah Hickok, Henry Keeler and Elijah Kellogg. Benjamin Hickok managed to escape, and returning home he conducted his own and his brother Uriah's families to Castleton.

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On the morning of the battle Colonel Warner warned the family of Samuel Churchill of the danger that threatened them. This family consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Churchill, their sons, John and Silas, each of the sons being married, and having children. The women and children were placed on three horses and started for a place of safety, accompanied by the men on foot, but they had proceeded only a little way, when the battle opened and they found themselves in the firing Two of the horses on which the women rode were wounded. When Madam Churchill, an elderly woman, saw that her horse had been shot, she sprang to the ground in great excitement, exclaiming: "I wish I had a gun, I would give them what they want." The sons remained to take part in the battle, while Samuel Churchill and the women and children returned to their home. Silas was taken prisoner, but John returned home. On the way he laid his gun, cartridge box and bayonet in a crevice in the rocks, but never was able to locate the place thereafter. More than sixty years later the weapons were found.

Soon after the battle Captain Sherwood and his detachment appeared on the scene, made prisoners of the family, plundered the house, and threatened to burn it, but yielded to the pleadings of the women that it should not be destroyed. Samuel Churchill was taken some distance from the house by Indians, bound to a tree, dry brush piled around him, and threatened with burning alive if he did not tell where his flour was concealed. After threatening him for three or four hours, the savages were preparing to set fire to the brush, when Sherwood appeared and gave orders that the torture should cease. Mr. Churchill, his two sons, and three other residents of Hubbardton were taken to Ticonderoga as prisoners.

The women and children were left in a destitute condition and were compelled to seek relief and safety elsewhere. In this emergency Grandmother Churchill, a sturdy and forceful woman, took command. The party consisted of four women, one boy of thirteen and one of eleven years, one small child three years old, and a babe only a few months old. It was determined that they should return to their old home in Sheffield, Mass. Not daring to take the direct route, on account of the presence of British troops to the south, with two horses they proceeded to Pittsford, thence to Rutland and across the Green Mountains by the Military Road to Number Four, camping one night in the woods on a mountain, and staying two nights at Captain Coffein's at Cavendish. Going down the Connecticut River, they arrived at their destination in about three weeks.

One of the Churchills and one of the Hickoks escaped from Ticonderoga. Hickok found his family at Castleton, but Churchill was unable to locate his family and went on foot to his old home at Sheffield, Mass., where he found them.

John Selleck, on whose farm the battle was fought, with his family left their home the day before the engagement; but a Mrs. Boardman and two small children were left in the house, and remained there during the battle, taking refuge under the bed, as there was no cellar. After the firing ceased this woman went to Castleton on foot with her children.

In the spring of 1784 the people of Hubbardton made a general search of the battle ground and the adjoining forest region, and gathering a large number of the bones of those who had perished, and had not been interred, they buried them. On the eighty-second anniversary of the battle, July 7, 1859, a monument was dedicated on the battle field.

St. Clair had left orders at Castleton for Warner's troops to join him at Rutland, and his correspondence with Hancock and Washington shows that about two hundred of the men who fought at Hubbardton did join his force there, and that two days later Colonel Warner, with about ninety men, joined him at Manchester. Others came straggling in for days thereafter. St. Clair was of the opinion that some of the men who fought under Warner at Hubbardton had "gone down into New England by way of Number Four," without asking permission.

Before St. Clair left Castleton, an officer from one of the boats that left Ticonderoga with Colonel Long's party of Americans, arrived, bringing the news that the British were pursuing in force and that they would reach Skenesborough ahead of him. This compelled him to change his route, and marching by way of Pawlet, Dorset, Manchester and Bennington, he reached the Hudson River at Battenkill, and joined General Schuyler at Fort Edward on July 12.

St. Clair's retreat was a difficult one. The night following the battle of Hubbardton was rainy and very dark, and travel through a wooded country, unfamiliar to most if not all of St. Clair's troops, was beset with difficulties and dangers. During the night a guard brought in a young man, suspected of being a spy, who claimed to be familiar with the region, and able to guide the army to Bennington. Colonel Wilkinson recognized the young man as Lieut. Matthew Lyon, who had served under Warner in the battle of Hubbardton. His services were gladly accepted and proved to be of much value. As a reward for his efforts, Lyon, who had been censured for his part in the retreat from Jericho the previous year, was appointed a Continental Paymaster, with the rank of Captain.

Immediately following the battle of Hubbardton, General Reidesel stationed Barner's light infantry on the left wing of the English troops, while Reidesel's own regiment, and the battalion of grenadiers were posted on the right wing of the English forces, to guard the Skenesborough road. That night the British troops lay on their arms. The next morning Reidesel astonished

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