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much satisfaction that we learn from the highest authority that no new taxes will be requisite for the completion of the payment for this valuable acquisition. Permit us then to tender to you, sir, our warmest thanks for the conspicuous part you have taken in this important arrangement." Reference is made to "the indecent and vilifying expressions too frequently uttered through the medium of the press against the administration of our government." The possibility of a conflict with a foreign foe is reflected in the following paragraph: "From our own feelings, as well as from the general knowledge we possess of the sentiments of our constituents, you may be assured that the hardy sons of Vermont, though earnestly engaged in their peaceable pursuits, will be ready to fly on the call of their country, at the risk of their lives, their fortunes and domestic felicity, to maintain their rights as an independent nation-preferring every consequence to insult and habitual wrong." To this address, the President replied in a cordial expression of thanks.

In its issue of March 15, 1802, the Vermont Gazette gives Judge Chipman's speech in the United States Senate in opposition to the repeal of the judiciary law, in which he defended the courts with much ability. Senator Chipman had supported the Adams policies including the Sedition Act. A few weeks later, the Gazette devoted more than two pages to the report of the speech of Israel Smith, delivered in the House of Representatives, in which he favored the repeal of the judiciary law.

On the fourth day of March, 1802, the first anniversary of the inauguration of Thomas Jefferson, the Vice President, George Clinton, members of the House and Senate, and the heads of departments to the number of seventy, met at the Republican Hotel for dinner. The prominence of Senator Stephen R. Bradley in party councils is shown in the fact that he was the presiding officer and responded to the toast: "Thomas Jefferson, the man whom the people delight to honor."

In 1802, Governor Tichenor was reelected, the vote being: Tichenor, 7,823; Israel Smith, 5,085; scattering, 181. In the Congressional elections, two Republican members, Gideon Olin and James Elliot, and two Federalist members, William Chamberlain and Martin Chittenden, were elected, the last two men defeating Nathaniel Niles and Col. Udney Hay, their Republican rivals.

Gideon Olin was born in Rhode Island, in 1743, and removed to Shaftsbury in 1776. He was a delegate to the convention which met at Windsor, June 4, 1777. He was a Commissioner of Sequestration, and a Major in active service during the Revolutionary War. He served in the General Assembly in 1778, and from 1780 until 1793, being Speaker of the House from 1788 to 1793. He was also a member in 1799. From 1793 to 1798, he served in the Governor's Council. twenty-three years, he was a Judge of Bennington County Court, serving for four years as Chief Judge. He was delegate to the Constitutional Conventions of 1791 and 1793. He died in January, 1823. A son,


Abraham B. Olin, was a member of Congress from New York.

William Chamberlain was born in Hopkinton, Mass., April 27, 1753. At the age of twenty, he removed to Loudon, N. H. He served as Orderly Sergeant in the American army which invaded Canada in 1775, and was one of nine officers and privates in a company of seventy, who survived to take part in the battle of Trenton. He also participated in the battle of Bennington. In 1780, he removed to Peacham, Vt. He was a member of the General Assembly in 1785, 1787-96, 1805 and 1808. He served as Chief Judge of Caledonia County Court from 1787 to 1803, and again in 1814. He was à member of the Council from 1796 to 1803, and a delegate to the Constitutional Conventions of 1791 and 1814, a Presidential Elector in 1800 and Lieutenant Governor from 1813 to 1815. He died September 27, 1828.

James Elliot was born in Gloucester, Mass., August 18, 1775. He entered the employ of Colonel Robinson of Petersham, Mass., as a farm servant, while a young lad. His employer taught him the rudiments of English grammar, but the greater part of his education was acquired as a result of his own efforts. When he was fifteen years old, he secured employment as a clerk at Guilford, Vt. He had military aspirations, and at the age of eighteen enlisted at Springfield, Mass., serving for three years. He aided in suppressing the Whiskey insurrection in Pennsylvania and the Indian uprising in Ohio. He returned to Guilford in 1798, published a volume of political and miscellaneous nature, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and located at Brattleboro

for the practice of his profession. He defeated Lewis R. Morris for Congress and served three terms in that body. After his retirement, he published a newspaper in Philadelphia. He was a Captain in the War of 1812, and after a brief period of service he returned to Brattleboro and resumed the practice of law. He served in the Legislature in 1818 and 1819. Later, he removed to Newfane and again was a member of the General Assembly, in 1837-38. He served as County Clerk, Judge of Probate and State's Attorney. He died November 10, 1839.

Martin Chittenden, second son of Thomas Chittenden, was born at Salisbury, Conn., March 12, 1769. He came to Williston with his parents and was graduated from Dartmouth College in the class of 1789. For several years, he resided in Jericho and represented that town in the Legislature, 1790-98. Later he returned to Williston and for two years was its Representative in the General Assembly. He served as County Clerk for two years, Judge of the County Court for two years, and Judge of Probate for two years. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Conventions of 1791 and 1793. He was a member of Congress for ten years, 1803-13, and Governor of the State in 1813 and 1814. He died September 5, 1840.

Israel Smith, who had served in the national House of Representatives for several terms, a Jeffersonian Republican, was elected to the Senate to succeed Judge Chipman, receiving on joint ballot 111 votes, while Abel Spencer of Rutland, his opponent, received 84 votes. In his inaugural address, Governor Tichenor spoke at



length on the evil effects of extreme partisanship, calling attention to the fact, that even the wisdom, virtue, and lifelong service of Washington "did not shield him and his measures from its malignant effects." He added: "Those men, therefore, who, from a spirit of party or personal aggrandizement, labor to divide and inflame one part of the community against the other, whatever motive and principles they may avow, are the greatest enemies to our republican Constitution and form of government. If under any pretence or violence of parties, the Federal Constitution should be destroyed, perverted or essentially altered, we may discover our error and ruin in the same disastrous period." This was an era of bitter partisanship, and Governor Tichenor's warning of the danger of the Nation and its Constitution was something more than a rhetorical phrase. The Governor, himself, was fiercely attacked by his powerful political enemies, and spoke, no doubt, from personal experience. The reply of the Assembly, controlled by the Governor's opponents, was adopted by a vote of 93 to 85.

The legislative session was held at Burlington, Abel Spencer being elected Speaker. The Congressional districts were divided as follows: the Southwestern to include the counties of Bennington and Rutland; the Southeastern, the counties of Windham and Windsor; the Northeastern, the counties of Orleans, Essex, Caledonia and Orange; the Northwestern, the counties of Franklin, Chittenden and Addison. The act provided that the county clerks should meet at Manchester, Chester, Danville and Burlington, respectively, to sort and

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