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wilderness. He settled on fine lands and assisted and encouraged many new settlers. War obliged him to remove in 1776, and he purchased an estate in Arlington, returning to Williston in 1787.

"During the American Revolution, while Warner, Allen, and many others were in the field, he was assiduously engaged in the Council of Safety at home.

"From a little band of associates, he saw his government surpass an hundred thousand souls in number.

"That Governor Chittenden was possessed of great talents and a keen discernment, none can deny. His conversation was easy, simple and instructive and, although his enemies sometimes abused his open frankness, yet it is a truth that no person knew better how to compass great designs with secrecy than himself. His particular address and negotiations during the late war were master strokes of policy. His talents at reconciling jarring interests among the people were peculiar.” Reference is made to his benevolence, and it is said that "his granary was open to all the needy." He was a man of earnest religious faith and kindly disposition.

The changed attitude of New York sentiment is reflected in the comment of the Albany Gazette, which said at the time of Governor Chittenden's death: "He and the beloved Washington were born in the same year, and seemed to vie with each other in love of liberty and universal emancipation of mankind."

In the journal kept by John Lincklaen, agent of the Holland Land Company, he tells of a visit made to the home of Governor Chittenden in 1791. It gives a little picture of his home life, which is like a photograph not

retouched. The visitor says he was received in country fashion. His host was a man destitute of all education, but possessing good sense and sound judgment. "Born in the State of Connecticut," says the journal, “he still retains the inquisitive character of his compatriots, and overwhelms one with questions to which one can scarcely reply. He is one of the largest and best farmers of the State and is believed to own forty thousand acres beside a considerable number of horned cattle. His house and

way of living have nothing to distinguish them from those of any private individual, but he offers heartily a glass of grog, potatoes, and bacon to anyone who wishes to come and see him."

Hollister, in his "History of Pawlet," describes a visit made to Governor Chittenden's home by one of his townsmen. After the Governor's wife had prepared the evening meal, and later had cleared the table, she took her place by the kitchen fire and carded wool until a late hour. During the evening the Governor divided. his time between the transaction of State business and waiting on his tavern customers at the bar.

Governor Chittenden had a family of four sons and six daughters. Noah was a farmer, who lived in Jericho, on the intervale of the Winooski River, opposite his father's home. He was the first Sheriff of Chittenden county, a Judge of the County Court, Judge of Probate and member of the Governor's Council. Martin lived in Jericho, near the home of his brother Noah, and was Governor of the State and a member of Congress. Giles settled on a farm in Williston on the intervale below his father's home. The only offices he

held were Town Representative and Colonel of Militia. Truman, the youngest son, settled on a farm west of that occupied by his father. He was a Judge of Probate, Judge of the County Court, a member of the Governor's Council, and, for twenty-six years, a member of the corporation of the University of Vermont. The eldest daughter, Mabel, married Truman Barney, a prominent farmer of Williston. Betsey was the wife of James Hill, one of the leading citizens of Charlotte. Hannah married Col. Isaac Clark of Castleton. Beulah married Elijah Galusha of Arlington, who died soon after their marriage. Her second husband was Col. Matthew Lyon. Mary became the wife of Jonas Galusha, afterward Governor of the State. It is worthy of note that Martin Chittenden and Jonas Galusha, his brother-in-law, were political rivals in several campaigns. The youngest daughter, Electa, married Jacob Spafford of Richmond, son of Jonathan Spafford, who was Governor Chittenden's companion in the early settlement of this region.

A strong, wise leader of his people, one of the principal founders of Vermont, a tower of strength in the perilous years when the ownership of homes and the existence of the State were threatened, his passing marked the end of the formative period of the Green Mountain Commonwealth. If he lacked the benefit of education and the graces of polite society, he possessed in abundance the qualities needed among pioneer people who were compelled to fight for their existence. First of Vermont Governors, holding office longer than any of his successors, not one of the men who have followed

him in office has surpassed Thomas Chittenden in service rendered to the State.

Among the Vermont leaders who were prominent during the early period of its history, none was more vigorous or forceful than Matthew Lyon. The story of his life reads like a romance, and affords another illustration of the old adage that "truth is stranger than fiction." Born in the county of Wicklow, in Ireland, July 14, 1750, his father died while the boy was young. His mother married again and the story is told that the stepfather was not kind to Matthew. The lad learned the trade of printer and bookbinder in Dublin and at the age of fifteen emigrated to America. One sketch of his career says that he was deprived of his passage money and was bound out as a servant, ostensibly to pay for his trip to America. His services were sold to Jacob Bacon of Woodbury, Conn. Later, he was transferred to Hugh Hannah of Litchfield for the remainder of his term of service, the compensation being a pair of steers valued at twelve pounds. One of Lyon's favorite expressions was "by the bulls that redeemed Before the expiration of his term of service as a redemptioner, as such servants were called, he was able to buy his freedom. His natural abilities enabled him to gain the friendship of the active men of Litchfield and vicinity. Soon after he attained his majority, he married a Miss Hosford, a niece of Ethan Allen. In 1774, he emigrated to the New Hampshire Grants, settling in Wallingford. He was a member of Ethan Allen's little band of Green Mountain Boys, which captured Ticonderoga in 1775, and later in the year, he


accompanied the American army to Canada as Adjutant of Col. Seth Warner's regiment. He was stationed at a little fort in Jericho when the garrison mutinied, and, although Lyon is said to have protested against the action of the soldiers, he was cashiered by General Gates. Soon after this episode, he was elected a member of the Dorset Convention of 1776. Lyon led a detachment of Vermonters into the battle at Hubbardton and was of great service to General St. Clair in guiding the retreating army to a place of safety. General Schuyler, with the approval of General Gates, restored Lyon to his rank in the army and he was made Paymaster of Colonel Warner's regiment.

Lyon removed to Arlington during the Revolutionary War, where his wife died in 1783. His second wife was Beulah, daughter of Governor Chittenden, and widow of Elijah Galusha. For several years, he represented Arlington in the General Assembly. Soon after the death of his wife, he removed to Fair Haven, and he has been called the founder of that town, being one of its grantees. Here he established a paper mill, a sawmill, a grist mill, an iron furnace, two forges, a slitting mill for making nail rods, and a printing office. He represented Fair Haven in the Legislature, in 1783-84, and 1787-96. Matthew Lyon took his seat in Congress about the middle of May, 1797, and a letter written after he had been a member of the House of Representatives three weeks voices a protest against the Congressional custom of proceeding to the Executive Mansion to deliver a formal reply to the President's Speech. On June 3, 1797, Lyon moved "that such members as do


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