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the benefits of your cooperation. Their mutual safety and advantage duly appreciated, will never permit this union to be dissolved."

When relations with France made war seem unavoidable, the French partisans in the State, as in other States, earnestly protested against hostilities. At a town meeting held at Shaftsbury, April 28, 1798, a petition was adopted, urging Congress not to grant merchants authority to arm their vessels; and expressing the hope "that Congress will take such other measures as they in their wisdom think best, consistent with the honor and interest of the United States, to prevent a war with the Republic of France, which of all calamities we most dread." This petition was signed by Jonas Galusha, Gideon Olin and others.

A different note was sounded at a meeting of the Democrats of Underhill, as they styled themselves, held on May 31, 1798. Resentment was expressed at the treatment accorded the American envoys in France. If forced to engage in war, the terms Democrat and Aristocrat should be forgotten and union should become the countersign. It was declared that in that event "Americans will combat their old friends with regret, but without fear." The bitter newspaper controversy waged over the Jay Treaty was continued over American relations with France.

In 1796, Governor Chittenden was reelected, but there was no choice for Lieutenant Governor, and Paul Brigham of Norwich was elected by the Legislature. No candidate received a majority for member of Congress in the Western district. Matthew Lyon led, with

1,783 votes. Israel Smith received 967, and the scattering votes numbered 1,534. Among the candidates receiving from fifty to three hundred votes each were Samuel Williams, Nathaniel Chipman, Enoch Woodbridge, Isaac Tichenor, Gideon Olin, Jonas Galusha, Daniel Chipman and Samuel Hitchcock. There being no choice, a second election was held on the first Tuesday of December, and again there was no clear majority. A third election, held March 9, 1797, resulted in the election of Lyon. After repeated attempts his ambition was gratified.

In the Eastern district, Lewis R. Morris of Springfield defeated Daniel Buck by a small majority. Lewis R. Morris was born in New York, November 2, 1760, being the son of Chief Justice Richard Morris and a nephew of the eminent statesman, Gouverneur Morris. At the age of seventeen, he entered the American army, serving as aide to Generals Schuyler and Clinton. Under the Confederation, he was First Secretary in the office of Foreign Affairs under Robert Livingston. He came to Vermont about 1786, clearing a fine tract of meadow land in the Connecticut River valley in Springfield. Here he erected a handsome residence, which was his home during the remainder of his life. He was Clerk of Windsor County Court, 1789-96; Judge of Windsor County Court, 1796-1801, and as such officer, supervised the taking of the first census; Clerk of the House of Representatives, 1790-91; member of the Legislature, 1795-96, 1803, 1805-06, 1808, and Speaker in 1795 and 1796; member of the Constitutional Con

vention of 1793 and its Secretary; Congressman, 17971803. He died December 9, 1825.

Moses Robinson resigned the office of United States Senator on October 15, 1796, circumstances relating to his domestic affairs, being the reason given for his retirement. His term would have expired March 4, 1797. Isaac Tichenor of Bennington was elected to fill the unexpired term and for the full term of six years. In the Council, Nathaniel Chipman had a majority for the short term, but on joint ballot, Tichenor was elected. The Presidential Electors chosen were Elijah Dewey, Elisha Sheldon, John Bridgman and Oliver Gallup. Vermont cast four votes for John Adams for President, and four for Thomas Pinckney for Vice-President. The session of 1796 met in Rutland and Lewis R. Morris was reelected Speaker. Contrary to his usual custom, but feeling, no doubt, that his official career was drawing to a close, Governor Chittenden addressed the joint assembly on Tuesday, October 18. This proved to be his last speech to the people whom he had led wisely and successfully for so many years. Had he known that the end was coming so soon, he could not well have composed a more fitting valedictory. Like a faithful public servant giving account of his stewardship, he said, in part: "I would therefore only observe that but a few years since we were without constitution, law or government, in a state of anarchy and confusion, at war with a potent foreign power, opposed by a powerful neighboring State, discountenanced by the Congress, distressed by internal dissensions, all our landed property in imminent danger, and without the means of defence.

Now, your eyes behold the happy day when we are in the full and uninterrupted enjoyment of a well regulated government, suited to the situation and genius of the people, acknowledged by all the powers of the earth, supported by the Congress, at peace with our sister States, among ourselves and all the world."

After expressing his gratitude to God for his mercies, and urging the legislators "to encourage virtue, industry, morality, religion and learning," he gave this advice, which reads like a benediction:

"Suffer me, sir, as a leader, as a father, as a friend and lover of this people, and as one whose voice cannot be much longer heard here, to instruct you in all your appointments to have regard to none but those who maintain a good moral character, men of integrity and distinguished for wisdom and abilities. In doing this, you will encourage virtue, which is the glory of a people, and discountenance and discourage vice and profaneness, which is a reproach to any people."

During the legislative session of 1796, the Constitution, as revised in 1793, was made the supreme law of the State. The common law of England was formally adopted. An act was passed enabling certain towns in the western and northwestern portions of the State to subscribe for the shares of the Northern Inland Lock and Navigation Company. This was a corporation chartered for the purpose of opening lock navigation from the navigable waters of Hudson River to Lake Champlain. The enterprise was considered "laudable and beneficial to mankind" and also "highly beneficial to the State." Salaries of members of the Council were

fixed at $1.45 per day, and of members of the Assembly at $1.25 per day. Gen. Roger Enos, Ira Allen's fatherin-law, and a Revolutionary officer, was ordered released from Woodstock jail, where he was held for debt. The attitude of the legislative body toward the judiciary is shown in acts directing the Clerk of the Supreme Court to enter new trials in certain cases.

At an adjourned session of the Legislature, held at Rutland, February 14 to March 10, 1797, Lieutenant Governor Brigham presided over the meetings of the Council. It is evident that Governor Chittenden's failing health prevented his attendance. In July, 1797, the Governor issued a statement to the effect that owing to impaired health, he would not be a candidate for reelection. It has been stated repeatedly that Governor Chittenden resigned his office during 1797, but the records of the Secretary of State's office do not verify such a statement. His health began to fail in the summer of 1796 and some of the duties of the Governor's office apparently were assumed by Lieutenant Governor Brigham. Governor Chittenden died August 24, 1797, and was buried in the cemetery at Williston, where, a century later, the State erected a handsome monument of Vermont granite to mark his grave.

The Vermont Gazette, commenting on the death of Governor Chittenden, said: "With a numerous and growing family, in mind formed for adventures, and a firmness which nothing could subdue, he determined to lay a foundation for their future prosperity by emigrating on to the New Hampshire Grants. He removed to Williston in 1773, part of the way through a trackless

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