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and verse. It was reported at the time that John Jay was burned in effigy in Rutland county.

The celebration of the anniversary of the Battle of Bennington, held at Bennington in 1795, took the form of a political demonstration. A procession was formed, led by three aged veterans of the Revolutionary War, carrying the United States flag, the tri-color of France and a liberty cap. Gen. Samuel Safford presided at the after-dinner exercises. Toasts were drunk, expressing hostility to the Jay Treaty and friendship for France. An indication of the spirit of the times is shown in the newspaper account of this meeting, which mentions. "Citizen" Moses Robinson among those present. The application of this title, when its associations with the French Revolution are considered, to this solid and substantial man of affairs, a conservative statesman, and a pious deacon of the local church, seems particularly incongruous.

At a town meeting held in Bennington, August 29, 1795, the Jay Treaty was unanimously condemned. "Citizens" Samuel Safford, Jonathan Robinson, Anthony Haswell, David Fay and Joseph Safford were appointed a committee to propose resolutions, and adjournment was taken to September 1. At that time, a call was issued for a county convention to be held at the house of David Galusha in Shaftsbury to consider the Jay Treaty and to instruct the member of Congress from the Western district. This convention was held on September 30. Delegates were present from Bennington, Dorset, Manchester, Pownal, Rupert, Shaftsbury, Stamford and Sunderland. Timothy Brownson pre

sided, and Moses Robinson and Jonas Galusha were among the members of the convention. The resolutions adopted declared that the negotiation by President Washington of a treaty with the King of Great Britain without the previous advice of the Senate was contrary to the true intent and meaning of the Federal Constitution. The treaty was denounced as “injurious to the interest and derogatory to the honor of the United States," and the assertion was made that it was unconstitutional. A town meeting held in Shaftsbury, by a vote of 224 to 0, declared "that if said treaty is confirmed and ratified it will be derogatory to the honor and dignity of the United States and very detrimental to the interest thereof."

On May 6, 1796, a meeting of citizens held at Windsor unanimously resolved that it was expedient to petition Congress to carry the Jay Treaty into full effect. A respectful address to President Washington was unanimously voted, approving "his wise, uniform and independent conduct in administration, particularly in denying the papers relative to the British Treaty to the call of the House." At this time, great bitterness characterized newspaper discussion of public affairs, and attacks upon President Washington were reprinted in Anti-Federalist journals.

When Edward Livingston of New York offered his famous resolution calling upon the President for the papers relative to the Jay Treaty, Congressman Buck of Vermont opposed the demand, in what appears to have been one of the strongest speeches made in defence of President Washington's policy. The speech attracted

the attention of Albert Gallatin and other supporters of the measure. Both Mr. Buck and his colleague, Israel Smith, voted against the resolution. The former was attacked in the Republican press and allusions were made to his opposition to ratification of the Constitution of the United States. On his way home, Congressman Buck was met at Hanover, N. H., by a delegation of the citizens of that town, who presented an address approving his course in Congress and expressing confidence in President Washington. He was escorted to the Connecticut River by a uniformed company, including members of the Dartmouth College faculty and prominent citizens. At Norwich, Vt., he was met by friends and neighbors, who welcomed him home and in his honor, a feast was served in a public hall.

Moved by Washington's Farewell Address, the General Assembly of Vermont, on October 25, 1796, adopted resolutions, the Council concurring two days later, which expressed an appreciation of "the justice, magnanimity and moderation" which had marked his administration. The address included the following tribute: "Convinced of our true interest, you have successfully opposed faction, and maintained that neutrality so necessary to our national honor and peace-accept, sir, the only acknowledgment in our power to make, or yours to receive, the gratitude of a free people.

"Ardently as we wish your continuance in public office, yet when we reflect on the years of anxiety you have spent in your country's services, we must reluctantly acquiesce in your wishes, and consent that you should pass the evening of your days in reviewing a

well-spent life and looking forward to scenes beyond the grave, where our prayers shall ascend for a complete reward for all your services, in a happy immortality; and we receive your address to your fellow citizens as expressive of the highest zeal for their prosperity and containing the best advice to ensure its continuance.

"We cannot, sir, close the address (probably the last public communication we may have occasion to make to you) without assuring you of our affection and respect. May the shade of private life be as grateful to you as the splendor of your public life has been useful to your country.

"We shall recollect you with filial affection; your advice as an inestimable legacy, and shall pride ourselves in teaching our children the importance of that advice, and a humble imitation of your example."

This address, drafted by Speaker Lewis R. Morris, Amos Marsh and Daniel Farrand, was unanimously adopted, and on December 12 was presented to the President by Senators Elijah Paine and Isaac Tichenor.

In President Washington's reply, received on the same day by the Vermont Senators, he said in part: “With particular pleasure I receive this unanimous address of the Council and General Assembly of the State of Vermont. Although but lately admitted into the Union, yet the importance of your State, its love of liberty and its energy, were manifested in the earliest periods of the Revolution which established our independence. Unconnected in name only, but in reality united with the Confederated States, these felt and acknowledged

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