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ammunition had been spent. To continue the fight another day meant annihilation or surrender. Arnold, therefore, determined to risk the attempt of a retreat, although the chances were heavily against success. The channel close to the west shore, however, had not been carefully guarded.

The darkness had fallen early on that October night, and with it came a mist that aided the American plans for retreat. At seven o'clock Colonel Wigglesworth, with the Trumbull, led the way, with no lights visible save a stern lantern, so masked that it could be seen only by the ship immediately in her wake. The Enterprise, the Lee, and the gondolas followed. At ten o'clock General Waterbury, with the Washington, and General Arnold, with the Congress, brought up the rear. Silently and successfully the crippled American fleet slipped out of the net drawn around it by the enemy; and on Saturday morning, to his surprise, the British commander found no ships to fight or capture. In a report to the President of Congress General Waterbury said of this escape that it "was done with so much secrecy that we went through them entirely undiscovered." Sir Guy Carleton was in a rage, and the pursuit was begun in haste.

Arnold had proceeded nine miles up the lake, as far as Schuyler Island, not far from the present location of Port Kent. Here he was compelled to repair his shattered fleet; otherwise, as a result of his brilliant manœuvre, he might have reached Crown Point in safety. Two gondolas or armed barges were so badly damaged that it was necessary to sink them.

The British ships did not discover Arnold's position on the morning of October 12, and returned to Valcour Island, remaining there until night, when scouts reported that the American fleet had been sighted. Having stopped the worst leaks and made other necessary repairs, under adverse conditions, Arnold set sail for Crown Point at two o'clock on Saturday afternoon, October 12. A south wind was blowing and Arnold's ships when at their best never made good progress in beating against the wind. Although the oars were used, the crew, wounded and weary, made slow progress.

Tradition says that on the morning of October 13, in the mist of the early dawn, an object was sighted near Providence Island which was supposed to be one of Arnold's ships and one or more of the British vessels opened fire. It proved, however, to be a large rock, and thereafter, in derision, it was called Carleton's Prize.

The fog lifted on Sunday morning and about noon Arnold's fleet was overtaken a little to the south of the point where the Boquet River empties into the lake, and not far from Split Rock.

The Washington, badly damaged in the first battle, was limping along in the rear and was the first of the American vessels to be overtaken by the Maria and the Inflexible. After a few broadsides she was compelled to strike her colors. Then for two hours and a half a running fight was waged, round and grape shot being hurled into Arnold's flagship, the Congress. A spirited defence was made by the Americans as they endeavored to reach the protection of the guns at Crown Point. The Inflexible and two schooners paid special attention

to the Congress, two under her stern and one on her broadside. The sails and rigging were torn to pieces and the hull was shattered. That she remained afloat, and able to fight for several hours against such terrible odds is one of the wonders of American naval history. A First Lieutenant and three men on the Congress were killed. Fighting desperately, with splendid skill and courage, Arnold almost reached his desired haven, but when ten miles north of Crown Point he saw that further resistance was impossible with his riddled, sinking ships. Determined that he would not surrender he ran the Congress and four gondolas into the mouth of a creek, flowing into a bay on the Panton shore, on the east side of the lake, known thereafter as Arnold's Bay. The water was too shallow for the larger British craft to pursue. Here the small arms were removed and the ships were set on fire, their colors still flying, and were burned to the water's edge. Arnold was the last man to leave the fleet. Staying on board until he was sure the flames would do their work he climbed along the bowsprit and dropped to the beach. The flag borne by the American fleet in this contest consisted of alternate red and white stripes like those of the present flag, and the British Union Jack on a field of blue.

Leading his men through the forest, Arnold arrived at Crown Point at four o'clock on Monday morning, October 14, where he found the sloop Enterprise, the galley Trumbull, and one gondola, which had arrived there the day before. The galley Lee had been run ashore and blown up near Split Rock, on the west side of the lake. The British had captured only the galley

Washington and the gondola Jersey, although the Americans had lost one schooner, two galleys and seven gondolas, ten vessels out of a fleet of fifteen. The killed and wounded numbered between eighty and ninety, more than twenty of the casualties being on Arnold's flagship. In a letter describing Arnold's conduct, Gates wrote to Schuyler: "Few men ever met with as many hairbreadth escapes in so short a space of time." The British loss, according to their own estimate, was forty, although their opponents placed the figures considerably higher. Lieutenant Dacres, who commanded the Carleton, was accorded the honor of bearing news of the victory to Lord George Germaine.

General Carleton ordered his surgeons to treat the American wounded with great kindness. The prisoners were brought on board his flagship, where he praised their bravery, treated them to grog, and sent them to Ticonderoga in charge of Captain, afterwards Sir James Craig, on giving their parole that they would not bear arms against Great Britain again until they should be exchanged. The prisoners were so enthusiastic over Carleton's humane treatment that it was not considered wise to allow them to land and sound the praises of the British commander in the ears of the American troops; therefore they were hurried on to Skenesborough the same night.

On the same day that Arnold reached Crown Point the works at that place, by no means formidable, were destroyed and troops and stores were removed to Ticonderoga. Carleton landed a force immediately, occupying both the east and west shores of the lake. He had

planned to proceed at once against Ticonderoga, but on the next day, October 15, a strong wind sprang up, and for eight days blew so hard that the British ships were windbound. These days were invaluable to the Ameri

can cause.

General Gates, commanding the army at Ticonderoga, had assembled about twelve thousand men. While Carleton was delayed at Crown Point, the troops surrounded the American works with a strong abatis, and made carriages for and mounted forty-seven cannon.

Carleton repaired the fortifications at Crown Point and anchored three of his largest ships near Putnam's Point, in the vicinity of which a body of light infantry, grenadiers, and some Canadians and Indians were encamped. The woods were filled with reconnoitering parties of British troops, some of them going as far south as Lake George.

Between eight and nine o'clock on Monday morning, October 27, a few of the British boats, crowded with soldiers, approached Ticonderoga, and shots were exchanged with the shore batteries. Five large transports landed a detachment at Three Mile Point, and two armed boats approached the east shore. They were fired upon by a row galley, and retired. Another party of British troops was sent into a small bay about four miles below. the works.

General Gates ordered the American defences to be manned, and directed that the three regiments from Mount Independence should reinforce the main garrison.

Col. John Trumbull says of this episode: "Ticonderoga must have had a very imposing aspect that day,

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