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convention, opposes the federal con the New Hampshire troops defeats
stitution, vi. 461.

Baum at Bennington, Vermont, 171,
Spencer, Thomas, heroic death of, in the 172; on the Hudson, at Fort Edward,

fight under Herkimer, in the Mohawk 190 ; named to accompany Lafayette
valley, New York, v. 169.

to Canada, 215.
Spotswood, governor of Virginia, ii. 15, State citizenship, defined (June, 1776),

20; divides the Tuscaroras, 204, 205; iv. 425.
effort to extend Virginia line of set- State rights, force of, v. 10; state pow-
tlement against the French, 225; on ers and prerogatives, 297, 298.
the small number of slaves brought Staten Island, New York, bought by M.
into Virginia, 279.

Pauw, i. 498.
Stair, earl of, proposed as viceroy of States, Constitutions of the American.
America (1721), ii. 249.

See Constitutions.
Stamp-tax, proposed, ii. 264, 353, 374; Stedingk, Baron de, v. 373, 374.

rejected by Pitt, 458; why preferred Stephen, A., at battle of the Brandy.
to other modes of raising revenue in wine, v. 177, 178; at Germantown,
America, iii. 56, 57; adopted by 193, 194.
Grenville, 58 ; opposition to, 70, 71; Stephens, William, ship-builder in Mas
act establishing, debated and passed sachusetts, i. 281.
in both houses, 97–104; small duties Stephenson, Marmaduke, a Quaker,
at first, with bounties, 105; stamp hanged in Boston, i. 314.
officers to be Americans, 105, 106; Steuben, Baron, inspector-general, ex-
how the tax to be collected, 109; cellent service of, v. 220 ; at Valley
colonies resolve to resist, 119; dis Forge, 220; sent to aid General
tributors resign, 138, 139; stamps Greene, 495 ; joins Lafayette, 506.
arrive, excitement produced, 155 ; Stevens, with Virginia troops, at Cam-
stamp masters resign, 159; course of den, South Carolina, v. 386, 387;
the people on (November 1, 1765), troops run away, 388.
159; course of the press, 159, 160 ; Stirling, William Alexander, earl of,
stamps everywhere refused, 161-164; colonel of battalion of East New Jer-
hopes in England that the act will sey, iv. 251 ; ordered to garrison for-
execute itself, 167; null and void, ac tresses on the Hudson river, 311; in
cording to John Adams, 171; repeal fight with the British, v. 30 ; brave
of, moved in parliament, 204, 205 ; stand of, 31, 32 ; made prisoner, 32,
debate on, 210; repeal of, carried, 33; in New Jersey, 84, 85 ; at Tren-
211; the king called it “fatal re ton, 99; Washington's request to,
peal,” 212; rejoicings in London, 102 ; at Matouchin, New Jersey, 154;
212; the stamps carried back to Eng. at battle of the Brandywine, 177,
land, 213; joy in the colonies, 213, 178 ; at Germantown, 193; at Mon-
214; reaction against the stamp-act, mouth, 274-277.
215, 216.

Stockbridge Indians, iv. 240,
Standish, Captain Miles, i. 209; exploits Stone, Thomas, of Maryland, in congress,
of, 212.

vi. 114.
Stanhope, earl of, wishes parliamentary Stone, William, appointed governor of

reform, iii. 384, 385 ; with other peers, Maryland, i. 168; action against, 171;
protests against the “temcrity” of restored, 171; gives up, 173; arms
the ministry (1774), iv. 92.

again and is defeated, 173, 174.
Stanley, Hans, sent to Paris, ii. 538, 539, Stony Point, New York, abandoned by

541; in parliament, speech against the Americans, v. 329; retaken under
the colonies, iii. 322, 323.

Wayne, 331; works at, razed, 331.
Stanwix, General, ii. 491.

Stormont, Lord, ambassador to France,
Stark, John, ii. 370, 435; at Lake George, and Vergennes, iv. 283 ; demands of,

459 ; captain, 436; chosen colonel as to prizes, v. 127; on Pulaski, 133;
of regiment, iv. 169; post of, at bitter against American “rebels,"
Chelsea, 169, 170; at Battle of Bun 139; minister to Holland, 357; course
ker Hill, 221; fought on the flank, of, as minister, 362, 364, 365.
220, 225, 228; protests against aban- Stoughton, William, i. 396 ; character
doning Crown Point, v. 15; with of, ii. 67, 58; deputy governor of
Washington, 96; at Trenton, 98; Massachusetts, 68; chief judge, 61,
pledges his fortune, 103; unfairly 63, 66 ; never repented of his share
used by congress, retires, 148; with in the witchcraft murders, 66.

on, 150.

Strachey, Henry, joins Oswald at Paris, Sumner, General, at battle of Eutaw

v. 573, 574; course of, with Oswald Springs, South Carolina, v. 503.
and Fitzherbert, 578, 579 ; treaty of Sumter, Thomas, Colonel, v. 382, 383;
peace signed by, 580.

successful attack of, on British post,
Stratford, earl of, death of, i. 327.

383; with a detached force, 386;
Strong, Caleb, in the federal convention, caught napping by Tarleton, 389, 390 ;

vi. 268 ; able member of the conven routs Tarleton, 402; a plague to the
tion, 268, 269 ; on the clectoral col British, 394; humanity of, to the en-
lege, 329; in the Massachusetts state emy, 402, 478; in South Carolina with
convention on the federal constitution, General Greene, 493; excellent ser-
898.

vice of, 500, 501.
Stuart, John, negotiates boundary with Superior, Lake, ii. 142; Jesuit missions

the Cherokees, iii. 320, 321 ; ordered
by General Gage to spare no expense Susquehannahs, Indians, war with, i. 457.
in rousing the savages against South Sweden, aspect of, toward the United
Carolina, iv. 256, 257.

States, v. 227; agrees to the league
Stuarts, the, in England, fall and resto of neutral nations, 346; asked to join

ration of, i. 325-344 ; fortunes of, ii. Russia in declaration of rights, 356;
3; their work in America, 3.

treaty of, with the United States (1783),
Stuyvesant, Peter, governor of New vi. 54.

Netherland, i. 507; subdues New Swe. Swedes, in America. See New Sweden.
den, 509, 510; administration of, 510, Swift, Dean, said to wish to be a bishop
511; goes to Boston, 516; forced to in Virginia (1703), ii. 19
surrender, 519.

Swiss emigrants, settle New Berne,
Sucingerachton, king of the Senecas, v. North Carolina, ii. 16; colonists, on
279.

the Savannah river, 280.
Suffolk, Lord, secretary of state, iii. 397; Switzerland, aspect of, toward the

urges coercion and forcible measures, United States, v. 228.
iv. 104; tries to get Russian troops to
serve in America, 276, 277; instruc-
tions to Faucitt in Brunswick, 350;

T.
approves employing the savages, de-
nounced by Lord Chatham (1777), v. Talbot, Silas, and the fire-ship, v. 46.
159.

Tallmage, Major, brave course of, v.
Suffrage, universal in Virginia first, i. 434.

151; qualifications of the voters in Talon, intendant of France at Quebec,
the several states, v. 114, 115; elec ii. 153; design of, to open the way to
tion for office, 119; qualifications of the western ocean, 154; gets Jolliet
electors under the federal constitution, employed for the purpose, 155, 156.
vi. 297.

Tarleton, and his cavalry, attack Buford,
Sullivan, John, elected brigadier-general, and massacre Americans, v. 378; in

iv. 235; in Canada, mishaps of, 380; pursuit of Marion, 402; routed by
retreats before the British army, 381; Sumter, 402, 403; ordered to go after
reaches Crown Point, 381; on Long Morgan, 480, 481; routed at the Cow-
Island, New York, v. 30, 31; a pris pens, 481-485; on raiding expedi-
oner, 32; exchanged, used as a go-bc tions, 510-512.
tween by Howe and congress, 39, 40; Taxation without representation, debated
at Trenton, 97, 98; retires from in parliament, iii. 97-101: opinions
Princeton to the Delaware, 153; ex of the people, 115; virtual represen-
pedition of, to Staten Island, 170; tation, 119; great speech and argu.
blundering of, at the Brandywine, 177; ment of Pitt, 176-184, 186; the peo-
at Germantown, 193, 194; on Con ple of America will never submit in
way's merits, 211; in Rhode Island, any case whatever (Franklin), 202,
not overwise, 285 ; censures d'Esta 203; parliament affirms the right to
ing, takes it back, 286; in command bind America in all cases, 208; views
of the expedition against the Senecas, of Lord Camden agreeing with Pitt,
332, 333; returns to New Jersey, 188, 209; view of Lord Mansfield ad.
333.

verse to Camden's, 190-194, 209, 210.
Sullivan's Island, Charleston, South | Tea, the cabinet retains duty on (1769),

Carolina, fort erected on, iv. 394, 398. iii. 346; the colonies resolve not to
Sulpicians, at Montreal, ii. 140.

import, 347, 348; preamble to the act

and the duty on tea retained by Lord : treasonable, 150; prosecutes Horne
North, 381, 387. See East India Tea Tooke (1775), 187; supports the slave-
Company.

trade, v. 405 ; leader of the new tory
Telfair, Edward, with Jones and Haber.

party (1782), 532.
sham, seizes powder (1775), iv. 181. Ticonderoga, Fort, Lake Champlain, large
Temple, John, one of commissioners of force against, ii. 487; attack repulsed

customs, iii. 290; accuses Ilutchinson by Montcalm, 490 ; abandoned by the
and others in America, and is accused French, 502; taken by Ethan Allen
in turn, 424; accused of stealing let by surprise (1775), iv. 182, 183; gar-
ters, is exculpated by Franklin, 459, risoned, 194; cannon taken from, to
460.

the siege of Boston, 326 ; St. Clair in
Temple (Richard Grenville), brother-in command at, v. 157; taken by the

law of Pitt, ii. 536, 543; dispute of, enemy, 161; loss of, deplored, 165,
with Pitt, iii. 128; speech of, in house 167.
of lords, 188; on repcal of the stamp- Tilghman, on Washington's staff, in the
act, 210, 211; refuses Pitt's offer, skirmish at Manhattanville, New York,
224.

V. 47.
Tenbroeck, Abraham, in the New York Tobacco, use of, learned by the English,
assembly, iv. 109.

i. 75; price oi, 113; tax on, 116,
Tennessee, origin of, iii. 392, et seqq.; 133; monopoly in, granted to Vir-

emigration to, across the Alleghanies, ginia, 135 ; debts paid in, 139; used
402, 403; republic of Watauga found. as coin, 150; a staple in Maryland, ii.
ed in, 403 ; east Tennessee attacked 22 ; legal currency in Virginia, iii. 65;
by the Indians, v. 62-64; east Ten British raid upon plantations of, in
nessee named Washington, 64.

Virginia, v. 327, 328.
Ternay, de, Admiral, brings French ships Tonti, H. de, with La Salle, ii. 162, 163,
to Rhode Island (1780), v. 426.

167; ever faithful, 174 ; descends the
Texas, La Salle occupies (1685), ii. 172. Mississippi again, 186, 188.
Thacher, Oxenbridge, ii. 532; on writs 'Tooke, Horne, and the “Public Adver-

of assistance, 547; on colonial rights, tiser,” iv. 187; fied and imprisoned,
iii. 82, 83; on the effect of the stamp-

187.
act, 109; on the noble patriots of Tories, in America. See Loyalists.

Virginia, 113 ; death of, 115, 147. Tories, in England, sneer at notion of a
Thayendanegea. See Brant, Joseph. general congress in America, iii. 113;
Thayer, Colonel E., of Braintrec, Massa the modern tory party, King George

chusetts, iv. 52; in the expedition III. at the head, with Burke and Rock-
against Quebec, 298.

ingham founders, 196 ; creed of, 196,
Thayer, Major S., at the fort on Mud 197; rules the cabinet, 367; Thurlow

Island, v. 198 ; brave defence of fort leader of the new tory party, v. 532.
by, 198, 199.

Townshend, Charles, in the board of
“ Thirteen United Colonies," iv. 244. trade, ii. 350; advice of, 374 ; in
Thoinas, John, and troops at Cambridge, parliament, 409 ; plan of, as to

iv. 173 ; elected by congress brigadier New England, 412; retires from
general, 235 ; on Dorchester Heights, office, 442; secretary of war, 536,
326 ; goes to Canada, 377; dies of 656; secretary of plantations, etc.,
small-pox, 380.

560 ;- first lord of trade, 564 ; in the
Thompson, Colonel William, and Penn cabinet (1763), iii. 30, 31 ; policy to-
sylvania riflemen, iv. 248.

ward the colonies, 31, 32; taxation
Thomson, Charles (1774), in Philadel. of America proposed, 33, 34; rc-

phia, iv. ll; secretary of congress, signs, 35 ; advocates large army and
62; elected a burgess of Philadelpbia, navy for America, 95, 96 ; threatens
70.

coercion, 218; wars against the char
Thomson, William, at Fort Moultrie, iv. ters, 218, 219; usurps the lead in the
403; vigilant, 405.

commons, 236, 237; browbeats the
Thorne, Robert, and Eliot, visit New. cabinet, 238, 239; Americans are to

foundland (1502), i. 60 ; proposes to be in subjection, 243 ; dismissed, but

search for north-east passage, 60. stays, 244; character of, 245; rules
Thurlow, solicitor-general, character of, in the ministry, 245, 246 ; unfit to

iii. 384; opinion of, as to colonial conciliate, 250 ; speech of, 250, 251;
rights, 482 ; opinions of (1774), iv. carries his measures, 256; course of,
20; calls the Massachusetts coagress in the cabinet, 200; death of, 262.

Townshend, George, “universally able," pedition into Connecticut, burns New

elder brother of Charles, ii. 409, 410; Haven, etc., 329, 330.
commands brigade under Wolfe, 503 ; , Tryon county, New York, begs aid
his report of the taking of Quebec against the enemy, v. 165, 166; brave
impudent, 513; returns to England, efforts in, 167; fight in the woods,
inimical to the colonies, 513; colo and victory, 168, 169.
nial system of, iv. 266-268.

Tucker, Josiah, advises to make America
Townshend, Thomas, in charge of the free and independent (1774), iii. 472,

home department, v. 546 ; letter to 473; iv. 290 ; favors independence
Oswald (1782), 563, 564 ; instructions of the United States, v. 22; on the

to the commissioners, 576, 577. future growth and power of the re-
Trade and taxes, American, new combi public, vi. 50.

nations of, proposed by Grenville Tucker, Samuel, v. 83; in the first con-
(1764), iii. 73, 74.

gress (1789), vi. 468, 469.
Transylvania, Kentucky, iv. 195; joins Tupper, Major B., in the West, vi.

with the colonies to secure rights and 283.
liberties, 414.

Turgot, prior of the Sorbonne, ii. 357;
Treat, Robert, governor of Connecticut, minister of finance under Louis XVI.,

i. 588; resumed position as governor iv. 41; plans reforms, 42, 43; op-
(1689), ii. 47.

posed to war with England, 364;
Trecothick, interview with Townshend, able reply of, to paper of Vergennes,

iii. 250; friendly to America, 326, 366-369; is feared and disinissed,
344 ; proposes repeal of duty on tea, 370; on Burgoyne's surrender, v. 244.
385; advice as to the duty on tea, Turner, William, gallantly attacks and
439.

routs the Indians on the Connecticut
Trenchard, counsels moderation by the

river, i. 393.
home government, ii. 249.

Tuscany, grand duke of, refuses to have
Trenton, New Jersey, declaration of in anything to do with the United States,

dependence received in, v. 3, 4; vic V. 292.
tory of Washington at, 98, 99; spe- Tuscaroras, Indians, ravages of, in Caro
cial honors to Washington by, vi. lina, ü. 203, 204 ; joined to the Iro-
470.

quois, making the Six Nations, 303.
Trevor, solicitor-general, ii. 22.

“Twelve United Colonies,” the, iv, 204,
Trumbull, Jonathan, deputy governor 237; Georgia joins, and henceforth

of Connecticut, iii. 255, 256, 264 ; there are Thirteen United Colonies,
governor, summons the legislature, 244.
iv. 170; generous promise to Wash “ Two-penny Act," in Virginia, iii. 65.
ington, 239; sends aid to the com- Tyler, John, in the Virginia state con-
mander-in-chief, v. 25, 26; good cour vention, supports the federal consti-
age of, 84 ; recognizes the hand of tution, vi. 432-435.
Providence, 287; cheers Washing. Tyler, in Boston, remarks of, to Hutch-
ton, 509 ; urges the federal constitu inson (1770), iii. 577, 378.
tion and power on the people (1783,

1784), vi. 90, 91.
Trumbull, Colonel Joseph, son of Jona-

U.
than, commissary-general of the Amer-
ican army, v. 36.

Uchees, southern Indians, ii 96; join
Tryon, William, governor of North other tribes in a massacre, 214.

Carolina (1766), iii. 233, 303–305; Ulloa, A. De, Spanish governor of Louis-
iniquitous riot act of, 395, 396; iana, iii. 316-318.
marches against the regulators, 400; Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans, i. 266;
infamous conduct of, 401, 402; gov puts Miantonomoh to death, 295.
ernor of New York, 396, 402; urges Underhill

, John, in the expedition against
on the ministry to use great force, iv. the Pequods, i. 266; conducts war
27; enters New York, 236; Mont against the Indians in New Nether-
gomery advises to send him away, land, 506.
293; foments a secret and deadly United Colonies of America, early meas-
plot against Washington, 430, 431; ures toward union (1643), i. 291-293;
expedition of, against Danbury, Con. vi. 7; concert of action (1684), vi. 7;
necticut, v. 151, 152; favors using attempt at consolidation, 7, 8; Will-
the savages, etc., 827; pillaging ex iam Penn's plan of union (1697), ii.

74, 75; vi. 8; Franklin's plan (1754), of commercial treaties, 113; cost of
in. 386; vi. 8; Lord Halifax's plan the war for independence, 119; com-
(1754), ii. 411; vi. 8, 9; first Ameri mittee of states, 123; land laws of,
can congress (1765) to this end, iii. as settled upon (1784-1788), 135; ex-
113; vi. 9; first continental congress cessive importations, injury to trade,
(1774), iv. 61; vi. 10; the confedera. remedies proposed, 137, 138; south-
tion (1776) imperfect, vi. 10; the ern states object to the navigation act,
convention at Boston (1780), 11; 144; efforts of, for treaties with Eng-
measures of New York (1780), 11, land and France, 148–152; treaty with
12; Ilamilton's effort in this line, 12; Russia, 152, 153; treaty with Moroc-
Thomas Paine's idea, 12; New York co, 153; obstacles to union through
and New England convention at Ilart religious and other differences, 154,
ford (1780), 13; action in congress, etc. ; religious freedom in the new
13, 14; the confederation adopted, nation, 158; anxiety and hope from
14; Washington's views, 14-16; the federal convention, 202; anxiety
strong letter of, etc., 16-19; Madi. of the country as to the new consti.
son's able report on the subject (1781), tution, 276; individuality of Ameri-
19, 20; Barton's views, 20; report of cans as a people, 442; value of the
grand committee of congress, 21; mother tongue, 442; a continental
Hamilton's appeal through the press, republic, 447; a federal republic, with
21; report of the committee of three, complete powers of government, 448;
22; coercion impossible, 23; a new powers of the states by right, 448;
constitution the remedy, 23. Sce who are “the people" of the United
United States of America.

States ? 449; their power, 450 ; ne-
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, a new na cessity of revolution provided against,

tion in the world, v. 3, 8; gloomy 450 ; extending influence of the re-
outlook (1776), 7; impossibility of public, and philosophy of the people,
England's conquering, 22, 23; aid re 450, 451; the nation enters on its
ceived from France, 130; want of career under happy auspices, 474.
general government felt in, 199; citi. United Provinces, the, v. 131. See Hol.
zenship in, 200; disposition of Euro land.
pean states toward (1775–1781), 226; Ursuline convent at Quebec, ii. 140.
Austria, Italy, Turkey, 226; Russia, Usher, John, lieutenant-governor of
Sweden, Denmark, 227, 228; Swit New Hampshire, ii. 56.
zerland, Netherlands, 228; Germany, Utrecht, peace of, and results, ii. 206–
230; treaty of, with Spain and France, 211.
244, 245; money promised to, 245;
provisions of the treaty, 246; finally

V.
announced by Louis XVI., 248, 249;
name of, not in favor, 297, 298 ; ques. Vaca. See De Vaca.
tion as to boundaries of (1779), 322, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, winter at
325; treaty with Spain proposed, 326 ; (1777, 1778), v. 209, etc. ; sufferings
views of Russia, 342, 343; the Neth of the troops, 212–214; alliance with
erlands refuse to treat, 345; the prin France celebrated at, 269.
ciples of armed neutrality approved Van Berckel, envoy from the Dutch re-
by, 358; first steps toward a national public (1783), vi. 104.
bank, 445; bank chartered, 556, 557; Van Rensselaer, K., buys domain about
deplorable condition of the treasury, Albany, New York, i. 498.
561; importune for a French loan Van Twiller, governor of New Nether.
through Franklin, 572; the prospect land, i. 500, 501.
before the nation, 580, 581.

Van Wart, Isaac, one of André's cap-
At peace with England, vi. 36 ; ces tors, v. 433, 434; annuity voted to,
sation of hostilities, 37; shipping of, by congress, 438.
excluded from the West Indies, 48; | Vane, Sir Henry, in Massachusetts, i.
a national spirit roused, 49; news of 258; governor of Massachusetts, 260;
peace received, 68; debt and re pleads for toleration, 261; returns to
sources of, 79; opportunity and duty England, 262; kindness of, toward
of, as urged by Washington, 83-86 ; Roger Williams and Rhode Island,
universal love of union in, 89; inter 298; represents the principles of the
citizenship, 90; voted by congress to independents, 331; trial of, last days,
be“ one nation,” 112, 113; principles and death, 348-350.

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