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her troops against the Americans, iv. ! Sagadahock, i. e., Maine east of the Ken.
275-279; rejoices over alliance of nebec river, protected, i. 576.
France with the United States (1778), Sag Harbor, New York, Meigs's expe-
v. 255; policy of, 342; neutral pow dition to, v. 152.
ers look to, for protection, 347; re- : Saint Augustine, Florida, founded by
bukes the conduct of the British, 348; Melendez and the Spaniards, i. 56; the
asserts neutral rights in every sea,
oldest town in tbe United States cast
353; empress of, declares neutral of the Mississippi, 56; expedition
rights, and invites other nations to against, from South Carolina, ii. 194.
join, 355, 356; service of, to the Saint-Castin, Baron de, ii. 178; takes
United States, vi. 56.
fort of Pemaquid (1696), 183; thwarts
Rutherford, of North Carolina, against Massachusetts expedition against Aca-
the Indians, v. 64.
dia (1704), 198.
Rutledge, Edward, in congress, iv. 70, Saint Clair, general narrative of, criti-
73, 74; moves exclusion of negroes cised, v. 105; at Ticonderoga, 157;
from the army, without success, 261, retreats, the fort lost, 160, 161; re-
262; gets Charles Lee sent to the treats to Fort Edward, 163.
South, 385; opposes declaration of Saint Clair, Lake, ii. 163.
independence, 423; on confederation Saint George, Fort, at the mouth of the
and union, v. 11; one of committee Kennebec river, i. 90.
to meet Ilowe, 41, 43; on constituent Saint John, Lord Bolingbroke. See Bo
congress, vi. 11.
Rutledge, John, in South Carolina legis Saint John's, Canada, citadel of, iv. 294;
lature, iii. 121; in congress, 149, 150; invested by Montgomery, 294 ; taken
president of South Carolina, iv. 395 ; after siege, 296.
address of, 395, 396; on approach of Saint Lawrence, gulf and river, discov.
British ficet, active in defence, 398; ered by Cartier, i. 15, 16.
course of, with the troops, 400; sends Saint Leger, Colonel, and Indian war-
powder to Moultrie, 407; visits and riors, against Fort Stanwix, v. 167,
thanks Moultrie and the rest, 410,411; 168; runs away, 170.
governor of South Carolina, v. 368; Saint Louis, on the bay of Matagorda,
convenes the assembly, 556; in con-Texas, founded by La Salle, ii. 172.
gress, views on revenue and credit Saint Louis, Missouri, date of, iii. 152;
systems, vi. 68; in the federal con- importance of, 319.
vention, 217, 219, 256; one of the Saint Mary, bay of, Spanish name for
committee of five, 257; proposition of, Chesapeake bay, i. 50, vl.
as to New Hampshire members, 259; Saint Mary's, on the river Wye, Michi.
chairman of committec of detail, 274, gan, central Roman Catholic mission
275 ; on assumption of state debts, station, ii, 140.
311; in debate, on the slave-trade, Saint Matthew, Spanish name for the
316, 319; on election of the president May river, or St. John's river, Flori-
of the United States, 332; on im da, i, 53, 57.
peachment, 347; on the supreme Saint-Pierre, at Fort Le Bouf, Water-
court, 350, 351; on ratifying the con ford, Ohio, visited by Washington
stitution, 355; speech of, in South (1754), ii. 380.
Carolina assembly, 419.
Saint-Simon, French commander with
Ryder, Sir Dudley, opinions of (1749), Washington and Lafayette, v. 516.
Salem, Massachusetts, founded by En-
Ryswick, peace of, ii. 185.
dicott, i. 223; Skelton and Higginson
elected by the people pastor and
teacher, 228; dispute in, with Roger
Williams, 249, 250; Williams elected
teacher in, 251; town disfranchised,
Sackville, George, viscount, ii. 446 ; dis Williams exiled, 262; witchcraft de-
obedient, court-martialed, disgraced, jusion in, and result, ii. 58–66; named
499, 500; ii. 132; nevertheless re to take the place of Boston, iv. 5;
stored and put in office, as Lord Ger firm in support of Boston, 8; legisla-
main. See Germain.
ture meets in, 22; generous to Bos.
Saco, Maine, in 1636, i. 221.
ton, 25; British expedition to, 132.
Sacs and Foxes, Indians, ii. 93, 94, Salem, New Jersey, on the Delaware, L
Salem, North Carolina, Moravian settle West, leads colonists to South Caro
ment, v. 487.
lina, i. 429.
Salle, La. See La Salle.
Scammel, of New Hampshire, does good
Salmon Falls village, burned, ii. 180. service with Gates, v. 184.
Saltonstall, Sir Richard, i. 223; at Schenectady, New York, burning of, and
Watertown, Massachusetts, 237; op massacre by the Indians, ii. 180.
poses a magistracy for life, 259; in Schiller, the German poet, v. 283.
England, defends Massachusetts, 273; Schuyler, Peter, reproof to Vaudreuil,
complains of Massachusetts intoler: ii. 198; takes five Iroquois chiefs to
Salzburgers, Lutheran emigrants, in Schuyler, Philip, in the New York as-
Georgia, ii. 284–259.
sembly, iv. 109; elected by congress
Samoset, sent by Massasoit to welcome major-general, 234; in command in
the pilgrims, i. 210.
the North, 237; report of, as to the
Sandusky, Fort, iii. 43, 44.
army and Canada, 243 ; hesitates,
Sandwich, Lord, abuses the Americans, 281, 292; ordered by Washington to
iv. 93; abuses Franklin, 116; calls advance, 293 ; short service of, in
the Americans cowards, 137, 138; Canada, 294 ; sends help to Mont-
madly bent on coercion, 188.
gomery, 294; disarms the Highland-
Sandys, Sir Edwin, treasurer of the Lon ers at Johnstown, 311, 312; disputes
don Company, i. 111; firmness of, 113, of, with Wooster, 376; sends troops
114; aids the colonists in Virginia, to Washington, v. 84; rivalry with
133; also the fishermen in New Eny Gates, 149; in congress, 150; ap-
land, 215, 216.
pointed to command at Albany, etc.,
Sandys, George, resident treasurer in 151; at Ticonderoga, 157; position
Virginia, i. 114.
of, lack of ability, etc., 164; further
Saratoga, New York, Burgoyne's sur retreat, begs for help, 165; super-
render at, v. 189-191.
seded by Gates, 173 ; spirit of, 173;
Sargent, W., an agent of the Ohio Com important steps of, in New York
pany, vi. 290.
legislature (1782), 659 ; proposes
Sartine, French minister of marine, sus union of New England and New
tains Vergennes, iv. 361, 364 ; favors York, vi. 24; elected United States
war with England, 370.
Sassafras root, cargo of, carried by Gos- Scioto river, Ohio, ii. 363.
nold to England, i. 80.
Scot, George, and others, emigrate to
Sault St. Marie, oldest European settle New Jersey, i. 578, 579.
ment in Michigan, ii. 162; French Scotch-Irish colony in South Carolina, i.
mission at, 153, 154.
431; ii. 266; Scotch-Irish Presby-
Saunders, Sir C., in command of British terians emigrate, iii. 28, 29.
fleet, ii. 499, 503, 505.
Scotch Presbyterians, in New Jersey, i.
Sauvolle, brother of Iberville, ii. 189, 578.
Scotland, insurrection in, indirect effect
Savannah, Gcorgia, founded, ii. 282, upon New England, i. 279.
283 ; taken by the British under Scott, John Morin, a New York lawyer,
Colonel Campbell (1778), v, 367; at iii. 93; loses his election to the as
tacked by Lincoln and d'Estaing, sembly, 331; proposed for congress,
373; failure of attack, 373, 374 ; iv. 31, 32; moves for association for
evacuated by the British, 555.
aid and defence, 176, 177; opposes
Saville, Sir George, noble speech of, in separate declaration” (1775), 311;
the commons, iii. 364; on American joins with John Jay in patriotic reso-
resistance, iv. 126.
lutions, 429; in the army, with Wash-
Saxe Weimar, refuses to hire out troops ington, on Long Island, v. 36.
against the United States, v. 234. Screven, an American officer, murdered,
Saxony, refuses subsidiary troops against
America, iv. 349; v. 233, 234. Sears, Isaac, and stamp riots in New
Say and Seal, Lord, friend to the Puri. York, iïi. 161, 162; one of the “Sons
tans, i. 258; one of Warwick's assigns of Liberty," iv. 9; removes cannon,
for the valley of the Connecticut, 311; demolishes Rivington's printing-
26+; gives aid to Winthrop, 336, 357. office, 317; appointed by Charles Lee
Sayle, William, proprietary governor in assistant adjutant-general, 384; arbi-
Carolina, in company with Joseph trary powers of, 385.
Seas, freedom of the, asserted by Fred. ment, 532; secretary of state in a new
eric II. of Prussia, ii. 312.
ministry, 534; communications to aud
Sedgwick, Theodore, in the Massachu from Franklin, 534, 535; at the head
setts state convention on the federal of the ministry (1782), 545; princi-
constitution, vi. 396.
ples and course of, 546, 547; letter
Seminoles, Indians, in Florida, ii. 99. of, to Oswald, 547, 549; interview
Senat, Jesuit missionary, martyred, ii. with Rayneval, 565, 566; desires for
England peace, friendship, and com.
Senecas, Indians, in Virginia, i. 457; merce with France, 568; on treaty of
ravages of, 457, 458; conference of, peace with United States, 573, 574;
at Albany, New York, 474; one of moderation of, vi. 36; defends the
the Five Nations, 583; in Pontiac's treaty in parliament, 40, 41; modifies
war, iii. 49; under Butler, massacre the navigation act, 42; takes leave of
by, at Wyoming, v. 279, 280; expedi- 1 the ministry, 42.
tion against, under Sullivan, 332, 333. Shelby, Evan, iv. 86, 87; captain of
Sergeant, of New Jersey, in congress troops, routs the Indians, v. 314.
(1776), iv. 337.
Shelby, Isaac, iv. 87; v. 314; at King's
Sessions, Darius, deputy governor of Mountain, 397, 399.
Rhode Island, iii. 434.
Sherman, Roger, of New Haven, Con-
Sevier, Colonel John, v. 397, 399.
necticut, elected representative, iii.
Sewall, J., in converse with John Adams, 140; views of, iv. 50 ; denies parlia-
ment's right to tax, 293; in the first
Sewall, Stephen, chief justice of Massa American congress, 64, 65 ; on the
chusetts, death of, ii. 531.
articles of confederation, v. 14; in
Shaftesbury, earl of, one of the pro the fourth congress, vi. 113; on the
prietaries of Carolina (1663), i. 408; evils of paper money, 176 ; in the
character of, 412-415; employs John federal convention, 215, 217, 220, 222,
Locke, 415, 416; political career of, 223, 231; character of, 240; farors
691-594 ; the fourth earl of, in the two houses, 243, 244; on the com-
council of Georgia (1732), ii. 282. mittee's report, 257; on the western
Shakespeare, quoted, i. 105.
states' representation, 264; on laws
Sharp, Granville, iv. 186.
made by the general government, 270,
Sharpe, H., lieutenant-governor of Mary. 271 ; on the militia, treason, etc., 313,
land, ii. 412, 415; on parliamentary 314, 320; careful for the smaller
interference, 413; urges a poll-tax, states, 334, 337; on the power of the
president of the United States, 342,
Shawnee town, council at, ii. 371-373. 344; on bankruptcies, 354; letter of,
Shawnces, Indians, in the basin of the to the governor of Connecticut on the
Cumberland river, ii. 92, 94; on the new constitution, 393.
Ohio river, 224; prisoners delivered Ship-building, in Massachusetts, i. 280,
up by, iii. 88; fierce and bloody, iv. 281; by La Salle, on Lake Erie, ii.
86 ; defeated near Point Pleasant, 87; 163 : in Boston, 264 (see Stephens);
treaty of peace with, 88; treaty with, in Philadelphia and Boston, vi. 48.
vi. 277; give up title to lands, 280, Shirley, William, governor of Massa-
chusetts, ii. 305, 334 ; advises coer.
Sheffield, on American commerce, vi. 50, cion by parliament, 337, 338, 342;
plan of frontier fortresses, 319; goes
Shelburne, earl of, head of board of to England, 350; course of, there,
trade, iii. 40; course of, in the house 553 ; advice as to taxing the colonies,
of lords, 194; friendly to the colo 382, 383; plans of, 413, 417; on
nies, 231, 234, 236, 237; colonial Franklin, 415; expedition against
policy of, 240; opposed by the king western New York, 438; fails to
and others, 242; fair and just toward reach Niagara, 438; opinion of, as to
the colonies, 297; dismissed from of. independence, 439 ; at head of forces
fice, 315; opposes the Boston port in America, 443; urges a general
bill, 475; supports Chatham, iv. 104; fund " in the colonies, 443, 444; su-
admires Virginia state paper, 203 ; perseded, and recalled to England,
pleads for conciliation, 283, 284; on 446, 447.
the affront of France to England, v. Shute, governor of Massachusetts, tries
250 ; opposes American independ. to muzzle the press, ii. 245; fight of,
cnce, 288; leader of party in parlia with the legislature, 246; runs away
to England and abuses the colony, respecting, in Pennsylvania, 412; in
249, 250; gets a pension, 251.
Massachusetts, 412-415 ; how dis-
Sidney, Algernon, i. 561.
posed of in Massachusetts, 418;
Silleri, near Quebec, ii. 140.
clause in the convention of Paris as
Sioux or Dakotas, Indians, west of the to ' negroes and other property,"
Mississippi, ij. 94, 151.
579, 580; how rated for taxation
Six Nations, ii. 303, 333, 335, 337 (see (1783), vi. 79; Jefferson's ordinance
Tuscaroras and Iroquois); give up against slavery in the north-west ter-
title to western lands, vi. 283. See ritory, 116, 117; how it was lost,
117, 118; bindrance to union, 166 ;
Skelton, Samuel, i. 226 ; reordained after abolition of, in the North, 260; two
the congregational form, 228, 219. classes of slave states, 261; strife on
Skepticism of the age, results (1776), iv. representation for slaves, 264 ; slaves
counted as three fifths, 266 ; slave
Skinner, Cortland, of New Jersey, raises representation, 299; fugitive - slave
troops for the British army, v. 142. law, 309, 310; doom of slave-hold-
Slavery, spread of, in early times, i. ing, 321; limits on taxation, 325.
119, 120 ; in the Middle Ages, 120; Slave-trade, and sale of negroes in New
censured by the Church, 121; prac Netherland, i. 513; pretence for this
ticed by Christians and Saracens, 121, traffic, 612; fostered by the English
122; Louis X. and French jurists op government, ii. 77; assiento with
pose, 122 ; red men enslaved, 123, Spain, 209, 280; England and the
124; slavery in Spain and Portugal, slave-trade, 271; slave coast in Af.
123, 124 ; conditional servitude in rica, 271; horrors of the passage,
Virginia and New England, 125, 126 ; 272; colonies opposed to, in the ab-
white servants in Maryland, ii. 23. stract, 276; carried on hugely by the
Negro slavery, originated in Africa, English, 277; opinions against, 277,
i. 122; in the West Indies, 124; 278; dominated legislation, 278, 279;
views adverse to, 125; in United opened to all Englishmen, 355, 356;
Colonies of New England, 293; in Virginia opposes, 549; South Caro-
South Carolina, 430; in Virginia, 444; lina wishes to restrain, 550; in New
in New Netherland, 513; in New England's hands, 562; opposed by
Jersey, 520; William Penn's views Virginia, iii. 248; protest against,
and practice, 572 ; ii. 29; slaves in 409, 410; George III, orders its con-
the northern provinces, ii. 273; nu tinuance, 410; address of Virginia to
merous in South Carolina and Vir the king, 411; denounced by Virginia,
ginia, 273 ; numbers of, brought to iv. 34; to be abolished, resolve of
America, 274 ; life and work of, at congress (1774), 74 ; Dunmore's veto
North and South, 274, 275; merchan. in favor of (1776), 202; resolve against,
dise only, 279; forced on the colonies by Georgia, 244; condemned by con-
by England, 279, 280; none to be in gress, 338; branded as piracy, 446;
Gcorgia, 287; Oglethorpe opposes forbidden by Virginia (1779), v. 329;
introduction of, 292; slavery in the king of England and parliament
Georgia, 299; denounced by Wool-
protect the trade, 405; states refuse
man, 398 ; Jefferson's bill to emanci. to give it up, 408; John Jay's appeal
pate the negroes, iii. 410; Patrick respecting, vi. 46; movement against,
Henry on, 412; Franklin's views on, 261; discussed in the federal conven-
412; George Mason's address to the tion, 316-320; to cease in 1808, 320;
legislature of Virginia respecting, discussed in Virginia state convention,
413, 414 ; denounced by Virginia, iv. 431.
34 ; denounced in Georgia, 107; re- Sloughter, Henry, governor of New York,
solve against, by Georgia, 244; slaves ii. 36; gets Leisler and Milborne
as property, v. 12; forbidden by Ver. hanged, 37, 38.
mont, 162; proposal to enlist in the Smallwood, and Maryland troops, v. 181.
army, South Carolina, 369, 370 ; Smilie, John, in the Pennsylvania state
large number of, carried off by the convention (1787), opposes the new
British, 371 ; sold in the West Indies, federal constitution, vi. 386, 387.
374, 375; divides the southern from Smith, Adam, views as to the struggle
the northern states, 406 ; semi-tropi. between England and the colonies, iv.
cal states stronghold of, 409; in vari 289, 290.
ous states, 411, 412; course pursued | Smith, Captain John, i. 85; in Virginia,
92; early life, 92; taken prisoner by ginia liberties, i. 114; elected treas.
the Indians, 93; services to the col. urer of the London Company, 114,
ony, 93, 94; explores Chesapeake 115.
bay, 94, 95; ascends the Potomac, Spaight, R. D., in congress, opposes ex-
95; enforces industry and order, 96 ; clusion of slavery in north-west ter-
returns to England, 96; spirit and ritory, vi. 117, 118; in the federal
ability, 96, 97; explores coast of New convention, 216; in North Carolina
England, 97; taken by French pirates, state convention on the federal con-
escapes, 98; admiral of New England, stitution, 461.
98; with others in the second charter Spain, early efforts in North America, i.
of Virginia, 99.
22, et seqq. ; in Florida, etc., 22; es.
Smith, Joshua H., with Major André, v. plorations west of the Mississippi, 29-
34; on the coast of the Pacific, 37;
Smith, Melancthon, in congress, opposes in the Mississippi valley, by De Soto,
the constitution, vi. 373 ; in New York etc., 38-47; on the Red river, 48;
state convention continues a moderate holds on to Florida, 56-58; extent of
opposition, 456, 459, 460.
dominions round Gulf of Mexico, 59;
Smith, Samuel, of Maryland, in com jealousy toward Virginia, 104; sla-
mand of fort on Mud Island, v. 193 ; very in, 123, 124; mercantile system
is wounded and retires, 198.
of, ii. 88; at war with England, 295,
Smith, Thomas, governor of South Caro 296 ; affairs of, 541; treaty with
lina (1693), ii, 10.
France against England, 542; at peace
Smith, William, historian of New York, with England, 562, 563; sides against
pleads for an American union and English colonies in America, iii. 337;
parliament (1756), ii. 449 ; one of a resolves to recover New Orleans, 338,
committee, proposes a congress (1774), 340; contrast of, with England, 340,
iv. 12, 13; hopes for union under the 341.
auspices of the king, 51.
King of, head of the Bourbon
Smith, Lieutenant-Colonel, in command family, iv. 38; the king joins Louis
of British expedition to Concord, iv. XVI. in furnishing money to help the
152 ; retreat of, from Concord, 162; Americans, 371 ; opposed to open
chased through Lincoln, 162, 163 ; hostilities against England, v. 21;
hasty retreat of, 165.
condition of (1777), 137; leans to
Smyth, chief justice of New Jersey, iii. France against England, 138; gives
money, through France, to help the
Smythe, Sir Thomas, first treasurer of United States in their struggle, 138,
the London Company, i. 87; sends to 139; course of action of, 245; the
Virginia code of laws, 103 ; policy of, king's desire and policy, 260; ill dis-
109; resigns, 111.
posed toward United States, 292; re-
Sokokis, Indians, ii. 90.
fuses to acknowledge the United
Somers, Sir George, on the way to Vir. States, 307; war treaty with France,
ginia, wrecked on the rocks of Ber. 308; declares war on England, 338;
mudas, iv. 100.
joins with France, to invade England,
Somers, Lord John, leader of the Whigs 340; disaffed ion colonies of, 462;
in England, ii. 4, 13; opposes restora. feebleness and fears of, 536; proba-
tion of Massachusetts charter, 55. ble design of, 563; feeling of, to-
“Sons of Liberty," Barré's words, iii. ward the United States, and their
100, 112; organize in the colonies, prospective growth and power, vi. 57;
198, 199, spirit of, 207; propose sends an agent to congress about com-
general congress (1774), iv. 9.
mercial relations, 153.
Sothel, Seth, governor in North Caro- Spencer, Joseph, general of Connecticut
lina, i. 426, 427; mean character of, troops at Roxbury (1776), iv. 213;
deposed, 427; again in office, ii. 9. elected by congress brigadier-general,
Soto, F. de. See De Soto.
235; too old for much activity, 238;
South Sea, expedition to find the way to, with Washington in New York, v. 41;
sent by the governor of Virginia, i. at Hart's Corner, near White Plains,
New York, 73.
South Sea Company, ii. 270; assiento as- Spencer, Oliver, and New Jersey militia,
signed to, 270, 271.
attack body of Waldeckers at Spring.
South Carolina. See Carolina, South. field, and drive them, v. 108.
Southampton, earl of, defender of Vir. Spencer, Samuel, in North Carolina state