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and were in correspondence with the notorious Turnbull, thus render. ing them odious in the eyes of their fellow citizens, whose liberation alone they were plotting.'
What the pretence might be on which an irresponsible authority expelled from the country one or more citizens, is of little import. That an American traveller should affirm that they were plotting the inde. pendence of the country, is very reprehensible. It is an undeserved and dishonorable attack by enemies, whose echo our author usually, perhaps unconsciously, has the misfortune to be. Had there been the Jeast ground of accusation other than their reproof of abuses and opposition to the slave-trade, false pretences would have been unnecessary. Their case would have become notorious, and themselves have been subjected to the cognizance of a tribunal whose decision would have received unbounded applause. No: the Creoles, while keenly alive to the wrongs they have suffered at the hands, not of the generous Spanish nation, but from that of her rulers, well understand that their fate depends on the system which the Court of Madrid may hereafter establish. The barbarous and warlike slaves in the island, whose num. bers fill the most courageous with dismal forebodings, the vicious cha. racter of the white, and the heterogeneous composition of the free popu. lation, the sad effects of political changes in all Spanish countries in both hemispheres, and the remembrance of the prosperity of the island under the mild and liberal administration of government during the absolute reign of Ferdinand, incline the natives to turn their eyes, as their last hope, to the land of their fathers, similar in habits and religion, rich with pleasing associations, and to expect from the young Queen a renewal of that connection of the mother country and its colonies which can be productive of good only when it is founded upon reciprocal advantages and based on justice.
Such a system, which it is not my part to delineate, would produce an immediate augmentation of the white population, forever quiet the aspi. rations of the blacks, lessen the burdens to which commerce is subjected, and interpose between the slave states of the American republic and the emancipated West India Islands a powerful European domination, which would serve as a bulwark against the future attempts of the blacks. An island fertile to excess, of which but one-fifth is under cultivation, needs only the fostering care of a liberal government, to call to its shores a flood of immigration.
I have extended my review of the · Notes on Cuba' to a greater length than I at first intended, and must therefore defer to another occasion the promised general information, some part of which has, incidently and at unawares, found its way into the preceding pages.
Tur young and unpractised writer who sends us the following lines, accompanies them with the expression of a doubt whether or no they may be deemed worthy of insertion in the pages of this Magazine. He intimates that they are the simple record of a few natural thoughts which arose in his mind upon taking leave of an esteemed female friend, with whom he had passed many agreeable and guileless hours. There are certain hieroglyphic characters, known to the initiated, which Illuminato our correspondent's nom de plume; and we have felt too forcibly the pleasant esprit de corps' which they awaken, not to take his maiden communication under favorable consideration. If the lines be not very vigorous, they are mainly musical; and experience, we cannot doubt, WILL Dable the writor better to satisfy himself and his readers in his future effusions.'
When Fate relentless bids my footsteps roam
How oft sweet visions of my far-off home
Think not, sweet coz. ! that I, with fickle mind,
Was it too brief to prove how void of art
With such experience is my memory fraught -
But 't were a weakness farther to prolong
As oft the sun looks on some scene of love,
As, lingering, I pronounce a fond FAREWELL! (New-York, December 26, 1844.)
AN INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE ON MEDICAL EDUCATION. Delivered to the Students of Geneva
Medical College, October 1, 1844. By CHARLES A. LEE, A. M., M. D., Professor of General Pathology and Materia Medica in Geneva College. Published by the Medical Class. pp. 40. Geneva: IRA MERRELL
We desire to record in these pages our thanks to Dr. Lee for the many important truths, of interest not only to medical students and practitioners, but to the public at large, which he has condensed and insused into the discourse before us. We shall best evince our appreciation of the merits of the production, by asking the reader's attention to a few extracts, which we indicated with our pencil as we ` intentively' followed the writer in his arguments and illustrations. In treating of the various incentives to the study of medicine which are supposed to actuate those who engage in it, Dr. LEE takes occasion to remark, that many do so because they esteem it more honorable and dignified than mechanical or agricultural pursuits; a view, he contends, which is altogether erroneous : “Here, where we have no nobility but that of the mind, no immortality but that which springs from worthy thoughts and noble deeds, such a claim can no more be conceded than that of the divine right of kings, or the expediency of a hereditary nobility.' Is not the following well put?
"THERE is reason to suppose that some engage in the study of medicine, because they believe it will afford an easier mode of support than agriculture or the mechanic arts. But those who have been engaged for any time in the practice of our profession, whether in the city or country, will tell you that this is altogether a mistake; that there is no calling in which the body and the mind are so severely tried; none in which more arduous Jabor is demanded. Where is the trade or profession that requires more unremitting toil? in which the mind is so often painfully exercised ? in which anxiety and responsibility are so constantly experienced? in which there is such frequent deprivation of rest and sleep? and where the duration of life is so uniformly shortened in consequence of the hardships, mental and corporeal, to which we are exposed, as that of medicine? There is perhaps no profession with which ours may, in this respect, with more justice be compared than that of
The trials and the hardships of both are very similar. The soldier and the physician are equally exposed to atmospheric vicissitudes — to all kinds of weather: storm and wind, heat and cold, sunshine and tempest, come alike to both: marching and counter-marching, by night and by day; the former at the command of his superior officer, the latter self-moved at every summons of suffering humanity ; through miry swamp or tangled forest, following an Indian trail or on the macadamized road ; it is all the same to both. Sleeping upon their arms, ready at the first alarm to seize their weapons and encounter the enemy, whether at a distance or in close, mortal combat; promptness, energy, courage and decision, alike necessary to both; 10 both a mind fertile in expedients, rich in the treasured resources of recorded experience, and actuated by the conviction of right, and the desire to discharge their whole duty; there would really seem but little difference between the two professions, and that so far as mere worldly ease and comfort is concerned, a man might as well be enrolled among the followers of Mars, as the disciples of Æsculapius. But here the similarity ends. If you follow the soldier into the practical application of his art and science, and the physician in his errands of mercy, you find them engaged in a very different manner; the one brings all his resources, his skill, his courage and his strength to bear upon the destruction of life, the other to preserve it: the one seeks to mar and destroy God's image, the other to build up and to save. The one racks his invention to contrive weapons of a more destructive kind; the other, the true conservative, to find means to prolong human existence. They are in short the antipodes of cach other in every thing except toil and hardship, which are equally the heritage of both.
After a merited castigation of those persons who engage in medical study from mercenary motives, with the view of merely acquiring wealth, and such poor distinction as it con
fers, our author proceeds to show that there is no other profession that promises such extensive opportunities of being useful to one's fellow men, and that too in the hour of their greatest need :
• To the benevolent mind, to the heart that sympathises with human sorrow, what employment can possibly afford a more sincere delight, than that of binding up the broken heart; ministering to the body and the mind diseased ; watching the returning glow of health, as it mantles over the lately pallid and suuken cheek; seeing the smile once more light up in the countenance; strength again invigorating the limbs; hope reanimating the breast; while joy and gratitude warm the heart? How paltry and insignificant do pecuniary considerations appear, when viewed in comparison with such rewards as these! And as we pass along through life, and feel that the time may be at hand when we shall need the same services and the same attention that we have bestowed upon others, how cheering the reflection that, in the hands of Providence, we have been instrumental in relieving the distresses of our fellow men; of following, though at a distance, in the footsteps of our divine MASTER; whose earthly mission was devoted to the cure of moral and physical disease. It will be a consolation, at such an hour, to know and to feel, that we have not lived altogether in vain; that we bave been useful to mankind; that the world has been made happier through our humble efforts; that when we shall have passed away, and bid a last farewell to earthly scenes and earthly sufferings, we shall leave behind us a name and an example, of which our friends need not be ashamed.'
The extent and variety of attainment, the union of qualifications, necessary to the formation of an accomplished physician, are well set forth. “The physician of to-day is not the physician of the last century, nor even of fifty years ago. What would then have served to qualify for the practice of the healing art, would now scarcely fit one for the office of an intelligent nurse. The starting-point of to-day was the goal of our grand-fathers. Pathological and general anatomy have been created; methods of diagnosis have been improved ; analytical and pathological chemistry have sprung into existence; numerous useful collateral sciences have arisen, and all have advanced with giant strides, under the guidance of the inductive philosophy. In treating of the more important preliminary branches of education which should be pursued by the medical student, Professor LEE pays a noble tribute to the value of classical attainments. When we consider,' he says, "that the technology of our art has been chiefly derived from the Greek; that it has served for the formation of the different compound terms employed in science; that the ablest medical works of antiquity are locked up in it; that many thousand words in English are derived from the Latin through it; that the prescriptions in our medical works are generally written in Latin; that most of our anatomical terms are derived from this language; that the diplomas of our Colleges and Universities, (which those who receive certainly ought to be able to translate,) are couched in it; that it is a universal language with the learned, and one in which has been written a greater number of medical works than perhaps any other, it would certainly seem that medical men should acquire, if not a critical yet at least an adequate knowledge of these tongues.' Yet not only for their immediate practical utility, but for their influence in disciplining the faculties to persevering and patient inquiry, is the study of the Greek and Latin languages recommended. By their study the mental faculties are so disciplined and brought under control, that the individual can better apply them to advantage in the investigation of any other subject that may come before him. The subjoined remarks are worthy of especial heed :
" It may be said, as it has been, that there have been great men, men of eminent usefulness, who knew nothing of Latin and Greek, and yot who have distinguished themselves not only in the walks of science, but of polita literature. Ben Jonson tells us that SHAKSPEARE had 'small Latin and less Greek;' and WASHINGTON, FRANKLIN, RITTENHOUSE, WATT, ARKWRIGHT, HUTTON, BRINDLEY, LESLIE, STEVENSON, PERKINS, Fulton, BUFFON, Davy and Cuvier, had no knowledge of these languages. The celebrated Dr. ARMSTRONG was rejected by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of London, for his ignorance of Latin and Greek: and yet these are names that will ever shine on the scroll of fame, as brilliant examples of intellectual greatness, and as benefactors of their race. This is true; but yet who can say that even these men, eminent as they were, and useful as their lives have proved to mankind, might not have accomplished still more, had they enjoyed the advantages of early mental discipline, through the study of the classics ? Beside, these and other similar instances should be regarded rather as exceptions to a general rule. A comprehensive survey of our species shows us that some men are born to greatness: that is, they have such an organization impressed on them by nature, as easily to surmount all difficulties, and rise, as SAUL stood among the Israelites, head and shoulders above ordinary men. Such a man, preeminently, was WASHINGTON. He would have achieved greatness under almost any circumstances. His noble intellect would have shone forth oven amidst the back-woods of Western Virginia, had not the blackness of war furnished such a favorable back-ground on which, as on a canvass, might flash forth the splendor of his genius.