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the surplus is being made available for the stocking of game refuges on other national forests in cooperation with the States. During the past season a dozen fawns were captured, reared, and sent to two national game refuges on the Ozark National Forest. The preceding year four fawns were reared and sent to the Cherokee National Game Refuge No. 2. This work should be stimulated. The surplus deer can serve no higher use than forming the nucleus of herds elsewhere. Wild turkey from the Wichita have been successfully transplanted to the Ozark.
The State game departments are becoming aggressive in dealing with game problems. On the White Mountain, two State game refuges have been established in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture during the past year. In Alabama, the absence of necessary State legislation still prevents the creation of State game refuges but the State game officials have purchased and liberated 107 deer on the Alabama National Forest. The State Game Department of North Carolina will create an extensive refuge on South Toe River. The game departments of Georgia, Tennessee, and South Carolina are seeking suitable sites for game refuges on the national forests.
In this connection, it is essential that the creation of game refuges be coordinated with the acquisition policy as it has been found that where a game refuge is successfully stocked that the adjoining privately owned lands are difficult to acquire.
Game and wild life generally will be an important by-product of our purchased forests and will do much to promote their popularity.
Other uses of the eastern purchased national forests. There is a widespread demand for legitimate uses of the purchased lands, besides timber production, recreation, hunting, and fishing. The grazing of livestock is a small but still an important use of lands to local residents. There are many small isolated areas of cultivated land which are acquired with the larger tracts. Often these agricultural units have houses fit for habitation and the lands are in demand for farming purposes. Since some of these fields will not restock to trees of valuable timber species until planted, it seems a wise policy to continue these areas in cultivation until they may be planted. A forest is not necessarily a large depopulated area and the presence of people on the forest is an advantage in work of controlling forest fires and as a source of nearby labor. As the timber resources of the forest become more important larger numbers of woods workers should be provided for on the forests.
A cycle of dry years has brought to many communities the realization that their water supplies were inadequate to meet the growing demands for domestic supplies. It has happened in two instances that rivalry has developed between communities for the same sources on the national forest and in each case appeal has been made to the Secretary of Agriculture for settlement of the controversy.
This competition for water from the national forests reflects the good opinion of the petitioners of the sources involved. The Forest Service now studiously avoids removing the lands involved in watershed agreements from the principal types of forest use. Timber sales of mature and decadent timber will be made as on other lands. It is a fallacy to consider that a virgin forest cover is essential to a pure and safe water supply, as the virgin forest will in the absence of fire become a jungle, subject to windfall, insect and fungus attack, and exceedingly high fire risk. Moderate grazing may be permitted on city watersheds and such units form ideal game refuges. The use of such area for recreation except in a limited way and at points distant from the intake is not advisable.
From time to time applications are made for prospecting and mining purposes on the acquired lands. As yet no important mineral developments are being made on the acquired lands but a quantity of minerals exist on these lands. The economic conditions, however, do not favor development at present. Other forms of use are rights of way for railroads, highways, toll roads, telephone lines, sawmills, manufacturing plants, gravel pits, etc.
APPROPRIATIONS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT
The appropriation of $1,000,000 for the fiscal year 1927 brings the total amount which has been appropriated and made available for use to $17,335,860.76, the appropriations being as follows: Act of March 1, 1911, $11,000,000, of which $2,982,679.24 reverted to the Treasury on account of the fact that $1,000,000 was for the fiscal year 1910 and did not become available, while of the $2,000,000 appropriated for the fiscal year 1911 only $17,320.76 could be economically expended.
The Agricultural appropriation bill of June 11, 1916, made $3,000,000 available. The act of July 24, 1919, provided $600,000, and that of March 3, 1921, added $1,000,000 for the fiscal year 1922. The act of May 11, 1922, carried $450,000 for the fiscal year 1923. By the act of February 26, 1923, $450,000 became available for the fiscal year 1924, and an appropriation of $818,540 was made for the fiscal year 1925 and $1,000,000 for 1926. For the year 1927 an appropriation of $1,000,000 was made, while the appropriation for 1928 was for the same amount. The tables which follow show the financial situation at the close of the fiscal year 1927.
Expenses, National Forest Reservation Commission, 1927 Appropriation, "National Forest Reservation Commission,
1927”. Expenses for fiscal year ended June 30, 1927, stationery and printing
Unexpended balance June 30, 1927.. Outstanding obligations June 30, 1927
24, 632. 06
Balance to revert to Treasury---
24, 632. 06
EXPENDITURES FOR PURCHASE OF LANDS
Appropriation, “Acquisition of lands for protection of watersheds
Cong., 2d sess.) - -
Total available during fiscal year 1927.
Unexpended balance to revert to Treasury..
447, 175. 35
4, 807, 54
451, 982. 89 451, 978, 79 Appropriation, “Acquisition of lands for protection of watersheds of navigable streams, 1926"; balance obligated but unexpended at close of fiscal year 1926 (see report of National Forest Reservation Commission for fiscal year 1926, S. Doc. No. 171, 69th Cong., 2d sess.)--
$664, 984. 28 Expenditures during fiscal year 1927
298, 788.00 Balance obligated but unexpended July 1, 1927
366, 196. 28 Appropriation, “ Acquisition of lands for protection of watersheds of navigable streams, 1927"
1, 000, 000.00 Expenditures during fiscal year 1927
366, 041. 67 Balance obligated but unexpended July 1, 1927
633, 958. 33 Appropriation, “Acquisition of lands for protection of watersheds of navigable streams"; unexpended balance at close of fiscal year 1926, available July 1, 1926 (see report of National Forest Reservation Commission for fiscal year 1926, S. Doc. No. 171, 69th Cong., 2d sess.)
112, 027. 13 Expenditures during fiscal year 1927.
922. 85 Unexpended balance available for further disbursement July 1, 1927.--
111, 104. 28 Total unexpended balance of all appropriations July 1, 1927. 1, 111, 268. 89 This unexpended balance is encumbered in the form of
appropriations for “Acquisition of lands for protection of water-
451, 978, 79 Appropriation for 1926.
298, 788.00 Appropriation for 1927...
366, 041. 67 Appropriation without year..
922. 85 Total disbursements from all appropriations during the fiscal year 1927.-
1, 117, 781. 31 Analysis of expenditures during fiscal year 1927
$87, 217.17 $43, 476.51
. 50 3.82
$130, 693. 88
57. 21 961. 96
2. 10 4, 432. 79
257. 65 4, 208. 99
5. 06 85.06 6. 47
1, 949. 43 3, 481. 03
.80 13. 50
4. 13 227. 77 408. 46 615. 40
75. 16 233. 60
158. 50 1, 596. 46 238. 80 68. 69
28. 00 1,340.69
9, 111. 98 12, 356. 19 1, 655. 94 18. 01
.80 13. 50
4. 13 255. 77 1, 749. 16 637.95
75. 16 374. 20
165. 38 1, 596. 45 948, 226. 21
$947, 987. 41
118, 267. 57
51, 476. 83 947, 987. 41
1, 117, 731. 31
The general policy in the conduct of purchase work which it is planned to follow in the immediate future is to endeavor to secure consolidation of lands upon existing national-forest purchase units. Table 6 shows the stage of consolidation within these units. Although there is much local demand for an expansion of the purchase program through the extablishment of national forests in the pine belt of the Southern States and elsewhere, it does not seem desirable to authorize any material broadening of the field of purchase until more ample appropriations with assured continuity are available for carrying forward such work in an economic manner. In 1921 the Secretary of Agriculture was requested to examine lands within the southern pine region and make tentative locations for national-forest units. This has been done and a number of areas have been selected in the pine region of the Southern States which seem to offer conditions suitable for the establishment of national forests. There are similar tentative locations in the mountains of Oklahoma and Kentucky, which, on account of their influence upon stream flow and flood control, seem to warrant prior consideration whenever the appropriation situation seems to justify the location of new purchase units.
In the Lake States a like policy looking primarily toward consolidation will be followed. The Tawas purchase unit, in the State of Michigan, and the Superior in Minnesota, still contain large areas of privately owned lands which are available for purchase. . The acquisition of these lands will promote more economical administration and will round out forest working circles. Two other areas in the upper peninsula of Michigan, the Marquette area, and the Mackinac area south of Munising have been examined and will be ready for early consideration by the commission. In Wisconsin, where there is no national forest, the enabling act, allowing purchase by the Federal Government of lands for this purpose, has been modified, broadening its provisions so as to allow, subject to the approval of designated State officials, the acquisition, within that State, of an area not exceeding 500,000 acres. Prior to this amendment the area acquired could not exceed 100,000 acres. Areas have been located within both the sandy-soil pine belt of the northwestern portion of the State and within the hardwood lands which offer suitable conditions for the location of national forests whenever adequate appropriations seem to justify the establishment of such new units.
Although at the present time money is not available to finance an extensive program of acquiring lands for the production of timber either in the southern pine belt or in the lake region, there is within certain portions of the southern pine belt to-day an important field for the establishment of small national forest units primarily for demonstrational purposes. Within this region many owners of pinetimber lands are attempting to place their holdings upon a sustained yield basis-looking toward successive cuts of timber from the same land. The primary object in the management of such forests would be to develop and then to demonstrate, for the benefit of these private owners, the more profitable methods of handling timberlands in this region. Since these units would be not extensive in area, their establishment would require only a limited amount of money and would
not materially interfere with carrying forward the plans for consolidation within the national forests already established in the White Mountains, in the Appalachians, and in Arkansas.
The appropriation of $1,000,000, which has been made for several years, is inadequate to maintain the purchase work upon a plane necessitated by the forest situation in the United States. The report of the select committee of the Senate which investigated the subject of forest devastation urged an appropriation of $3,000,000 a year for the purchase of lands for national forests. This commission has for several years recommended an appropriation of $2,000,000 a year, and again urges that an annual appropriation of not less than this amount be made for the conduct of this work. Not only is it uneconomical to handle it upon a lower basis, but the forest situation, the rapid exhaustion of the supply of mature merchantable timber, especially in the Eastern States, demands that the work of acquiring lands for public forests as a source of future timber supply and as a means of demonstrating to the private owner practical methods of management, shall be carried forward at an accelerated rate.