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The following additional improvements have been provided, primarily for the more efficient handling of the protective and administrative activities of the forest: 52 dwellings for firemen, lookouts, and guards; 7 barns at stations for firemen; 105 dwellings for administrative use; 71 barns at administrative stations, 2 office buildings, and 26 miles of pasture fences.

The protection system is not yet complete. Approximately 500 additional miles of telephone line must be constructed to complete the communication system. Many miles of trails are needed to give entrance to regions now difficult of access; 30 lookout towers, 10 lookout houses, 38 cabins for firemen, and as the units are enlarged by additional purchases these needs will be increased.

Roads and trails on the eastern purchased forests.--In 1912 legislation was passed providing that 10 per cent of the gross receipts from the use and sale of national-forest resources should be expended on the construction and maintenance of roads and trails within the forests. The Federal-aid road act approved July 11, 1916, provided direct appropriations for construction of roads in cooperation with the States and counties; and the Post Office appropriation act of February 28, 1919, carried further appropriations for road and trail work. The Federal highway act of November 9, 1921, appropriated additional funds for the construction of roads and trails within and adjacent to the forests, and provided that a certain amount be expended for roads and trails primarily for the administration, development, and use of the forests, called forest-development roads; the remainder to be expended on forest highways which are forest roads of primary importance to the State, county, or communities. Forest highways also serve important functions in connection with forest administration.

The so-called 10 per cent fund, being 10 per cent of the nationalforest receipts, increasing from year to year with the increased sale of timber and use of other resources, has totaled to date $97,600 for these forests. It is estimated that $11,330 more will be made available from the fiscal year 1927 receipts. The total money made available to date for road and trail work on the purchased forests is as follows: From the Federal-aid road act, $259,000; from the Post Office appropriation act, $475,000; from the Federal highway act, $410,700 for forest highways and $712,000 for forest-development roads.

The important forest highways are being constructed or improved as rapidly as funds and facilities will permit. In addition to providing as rapidly as possible an adequate system of roads and trails to facilitate proper administration and protection of the timber and other resources, roads are being constructed in order to make accessible timber which is mature and ready for cutting. A third and still less important use of both classes of roads is for motor tourists and campers who wish to enjoy the national forests.

The Government has constructed and improved 550 miles of roads within and adjacent to the purchased forests. Funds have been allotted for 300 miles of additional roads, and an existing system of 610 miles is being maintained in serviceable condition. On a number of these projects cooperation was received from the States, counties, and communities.

Among the more important roads which have been constructed or improved, or on which work is being done, are the Three States Road, which is a section of the road leading from Walhalla, S. C., to Highlands, N. C., and the Dillard-Highlands Road, both in the Nantahala Forest; sections of the Pinkham Notch Road in the White Mountains, including a bridge over Peabody River to the Dolly Copp Forest camp site; the Pisgah Motor Road, affording a delightful one-day tour from Asheville across the Pisgah Ridge, and the Marion-Micaville Road, both in the Pisgah Forest; the Toccoa Basin Road, leading from the Atlanta-Asheville Highway into the Toccoa River Basin; the Unicoi Gap Road, which is a section of the road between Cleveland, Georgia, and Hiwassee, Ga.; the Kimsey Highway, which crosses the mountains at an elevation of approximately 3,000 feet; and the Tellico River Road, which extends up the Tellico River gorge from Tellico Plains, Tenn., to the North Carolina State line, all in the Cherokee Forest; the Bristol-Mountain City Road in the Unaka Forest; the James River Road, which is a section of the road leading from Lynchburg, Va., to Natural Bridge, Va.; and the Jordan Road, crossing the Blue Ridge at White Gap, both in the Natural Bridge Forest; the Briery Branch Road leading from Harrisonburg, Va., to Sugar Grove, W. Va.; the Lebanon-Green Valley Road and the Fort Valley-Luray Road in the Shenandoah Forest; the Elk Mountain Road, crossing the Allegheny Mountains from Thornwood to Circleville, W. Va., in the Monongahela Forest; and the Cheatham Road in the Alabama Forest leading from Double Springs to Moulton, Ala.

Special attention has been directed toward the construction of utilization roads necessary for the salvaging of the chestnut timber in the blight-stricken regions. Noteworthy among these are the Nantahala River Road in the Nantahala Forest, the Jennings Creek Road in the Natural Bridge Forest, and the Beaverdam Road in the Unaka Forest.

A system of 2,600 miles of trails has been constructed, funds have been allotted for an additional 40 miles, and an existing system of 2,400 miles is being maintained in serviceable condition. The primary service of these mountain trails is to facilitate proper protection of the timber stands from fire by rendering them more readily accessible to fire-suppression forces with their supplies and equipment. At the same time these trails place within ready reach of the outdoor enthusiast the most delightful sections of the mountain forests.

To provide a reasonably complete system of roads and trails for the purchased forests, there is needed to be constructed or improved an additional mileage of approximately 2,900 miles of roads and 800 miles of trails. A large portion of these roads was built before the land was acquired, but through neglect had become practically impassable.

Timber sales and forest management on the eastern forests.--During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1927, the purchased forests under administration yielded, excluding the Ozark and Ouachita, a gross revenue of $113,296, of which $100,582 represents receipts from the sale of forest products, including saw timber, chestnut tannic-acid wood, pulpwood, tanbark, telephone poles, posts, ties, and fuel wood, the balance being miscellaneous receipts from grazing, special use, and fire trespass.

The following table shows, by years, the acquired areas and the corresponding receipts from the acquired land.

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The continued depression in the lumber industry, especially the hardwood industry, has been reflected in the sales of national-forest timber during the past fiscal year, and receipts have not returned to the high point reached in 1924. This is a temporary condition which is already changing to some extent and which will no doubt be evidenced by the close of the next fiscal year, and it is confidently expected that within a reasonable number of years the purchased forests will be self-supporting; i. e., cost of administration and receipts will balance.

While it is desirable from the financial standpoint to increase the receipts, especially since 25 per cent of the receipts is returned to the road and school fund of the States and an additional 10 per cent is spent on roads, nevertheless this is by no means the prime consideration. On the purchased lands there is estimated to be a stand of saw timber and other products of nearly 5,000,000,000 board feet. The chief object in selling timber is to improve the condition of the forest. To this end much time during the past and preceding years has been devoted to the preparation of cutting plans. Such plans outline how much timber may be cut, where sale areas may be located, which areas should be cut first, etc. In preparing these plans the needs of local industries dependent on the forests are always kept in mind, and it is the aim, as far as possible, consistent with the annual growth of a forest, to assure industries an annual supply of timber with a view to their permanent operation.

In the management of the forests there are many problems which require wise planning and good business judgment. The majority of the lands have been acquired in a cut-over condition or else have been culled of the choicest timber. It therefore becomes necessary to dispose of a large amount of comparatively low-grade old-growth timber in order to liberate the young timber replacement already established and permit its rapid development.

On White Mountain National Forest, in New Hampshire and Maine, for example, there is a stand of some 300,000,000 board feet of mature and overmature hardwoods, the permissible annual cut from which far exceeds the total requirements of existing wood-using plants tributary to the forest. A market must be developed for this material. In the southern Appalachian the situation is complicated by the presence of the chestnut-blight disease, which is rapidly eliminating chestnut from consideration as a timber-producing tree. Large quantities of chestnut on the various national forests must be salvaged, if possible, before being completely killed, meanwhile providing for a future stand of the most valuable remaining species.

As a result of the policy followed, the condition of the purchased lands is continuously improving after cuttings designed to remove defective, mature, and overmature timber, thereby releasing thrifty young timber and by creating conditions favorable for restocking. As a result of preventing fires, the acquired lands are rapidly being stocked with seedlings, assuring not only a second crop of timber but a much more even run-off of water and reduced erosion.

Recreation on the eastern purchased national forests.--The extension of good roads built by Federal, State, and county funds through the eastern national forests has actively stimulated their recreational uses. Each year virgin areas, hitherto inaccessible, are opened to automobile traffic and these roads are eagerly traversed by the vacationists from far and near. These tourists are thus brought into close contact with the national forests and the numerous activities which are conducted upon them. There are as a result of Government protection extensive areas of land which have not been burned for 10 years or more. The means of fire preparedness, such as telephone lines, fire observation towers and tool boxes may be seen from practically any road on the national forests. The methods of cutting under approved forestry principles may be seen, and the system of brush disposal designed to lessen the fire risk may be studied. The close observer will note the kind of trees which have been left for seed supply and will be able to contrast the improved close utilization of forest products with cuttings elsewhere. The eastern national forests will thus afford an object lesson to those who seek information as to the protection and management of woodlands. The use of national forest lands as sources from which domestic water supplies are drawn is a matter of some interest, and is, of course, a vital matter to the communities affected.

It is not necessary to open formally the national forests to recreational use. The public does not now look upon them as "reserva

" tions” but as places where rest and recreation plus a feeling of ownership in the property may be enjoyed. In order to promote the use of the forests it has been necessary to further study the needs of the summer visitors from an aesthetic as well as a hygienic standpoint. During the summer of 1926 a competent landscape architect and a member of the Federal Public Health Service inspected the public camp grounds in the southern Appalachian forests and made many helpful suggestions in their reports. During the spring of 1927 an experienced recreation engineer made a detailed examination of the shady district of the Ouachita National Forest and submitted plans for the development of a number of camp grounds, resort sites, summer-home sites, and bathing pools. The complete execution of this plan will depend quite largely upon the amount of cooperation which can be had.

Of all the camp grounds, the Dolly Copp on the White Mountain is the most popular and fortunately there is ample area for the physical expansion of the facilities. The provision of adequate sanitary conveniences is a severe tax on our limited funds for the purpose. Beyond certain limits simple toilet facilities are impracticable, and the spring, a splendid source of water supply for nearby campers, is at an inconvenient location for the more distant occupants of the grounds. As the use of this and other popular camp grounds increases it is imperative for the sake of health and safety to provide complete water and sewage systems.

The lack of commercialization of these camp grounds is an attractive feature to many visitors. They seek relief from the ordinary type of private camp and welcome a policy which is aimed to provide rest and recreation on the national forest devoid of the catchpenny devices encountered elsewhere.

The demand for summer-home sites on the national forests has not developed so rapidly as was expected. It is desired to place congenial groups in the same unit as far as possible, and this involves some delay in the program. It is believed that the term “permitees" will be a staunch advocate of fire prevention and will be a positive asset in the make-up of users of the forest. Summer-home sites are now available in one unit on the Cherokee, two in the Nantahala, two on the Pisgah, two on the Natural Bridge, one on the Shenandoah, and two on the Ouachita. Land may be leased for a period of 15 years or more if the character of the building to be erected seems to justify a longer term. It is natural that to the public mind the sort of recreation to be supplied varies with individuals. To some, intensive city park developments seem suitable and on the other hand there are those who seek solitude and would keep the improvements down to a minimum, and not destroy the last vestiges of primitive conditions. They would travel by trail, or in the Superior Forest in Minnesota by canoe. The Forest Service recognizes the so-called “wilderness idea" and is striving to retain primitive conditions and is refraining from building roads on certain areas where the economics of the situation make the adoption of such a policy tenable.

The Forest Service must in the administration of the forests have a well-balanced program to provide for the needs and so far as possible meet the ideals of those who seek the national forests for rest, recreation, and the development of sturdy qualities of citizenship.

Fish and game on the eastern purchased national forests.—There is a keen realization that the abundant wild-life resources of by-gone days can be replaced in the southern mountain regions only by persistent cooperative effort. Private fish and game clubs, some national in scope, the general State game departments, and the various Federal bureaus are stressing earnestly to restock the woodlands with game and the streams with fish. There is being driven home to the local population the facts that forest fires, indiscriminate hunting, and the use of dogs for running deer, means the decimation of game, that annual burning of the woods destroys the nests of wild turkey and other game birds and hastens erosion to the detriment of trout and other fish.

All this augurs for vastly improved conditions as to wild life in the forests. With self-restraint, obedience to the laws, the public may again enjoy an abundance of game as did the pioneers, and this despite the improved firearms and the ever-present automobile.

On the Pisgah National Game Refuge, the deer population has now reached approximately 3,200 and is equal if not in excess of the number for an equal area of the Kaibab National Forest in northern Arizona, where it is considered that an unmanageable surplus exists. The local situation is being carefully studied and

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