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presided as presiding officer, or whether it goes farther back than that, this idea has been here and has been in the South for a long time, and it moves forward step by step and we might just as well recognize it and see if we can not do something concrete with it.

The answer to this question here, Mr. Chairman, I want to submit again. I want to reiterate it. Perhaps I shall become tiresome. The purpose is to create more prosperous, sustaining enduring farm homes. There never was a civilization that endured when its agriculture and rural life declined, and you know it as well as I. It has been the history of all civilization from the beginning of time. You know, every one of you know, that down deep in your heart the trend of things in this country has given you some concern.

Now, I want to say one last word for the South. I don't know how many million acres of land there are in the South unuseda good many more than there ought to be. Sometimes they blame us for it and say that it is no good; if it was, it would have been taken long ago. Those who make that statement are not familiar with the civil and political life of the southern country since the days before the War between the States. We have more opportunities in the South to-day to create the homes that I am talking about and sustain them afterwards, and to sustain this Nation, than any other section of the United States [applause), and I don't care what portion it may be, because nature has been very good to the South. It has given her soil, climate, proximity to market, and people, and it has now put her at the crossroads of the world's roads. When we opened the Panama Canal we changed forever the trade posts. Those markets that stood out for centuries will pass away and others will take their places, and all Southern States lie right at the crossroads.

This is a matter that touches the Nation itself. It is a matter that strengthens the Nation itself, and there ought to be a South-wide movement. Every State should have its committee, and that committee should be a committee that believes in what it is doing, because you will never impress the other man unless you believe in the thing yourself. That South-wide committee ought to be joined together, and then we ought to keep everlastingly at this thing until we do it. As Doctor Branson said, the thing that is worth doing eventually is done. It is done if you put enough purpose behind it to do it.

Now, Mr. Chairman, these are some of the objectives as I conceive them. If you ask me how you are going to do it, into what units you are going to divide them, I would answer those are matters of detail. We are talking about the great, underlying, fundamental principles.

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I am going to conclude by saying to you gentlemen from the South that you are here engaged in a great work for a greater purpose than you think, one from which you should never turn back, because I say to you that bound up in it is the future greatness and prosperity of America. [Prolonged applause.]

Mr. COKER. We have been extremely fortunate in hearing this splendid address from one the major portion of whose life has been given to the questions of these problems and who has contributed in no small measure to their solution. I would like to emphasize the fact that the question we are driving at is not a sectional problem. It is a great problem of the Nation at large. It is a movement for the development of citizenship. If we succeed in our effort to make a start in these six or eight Southern States it will not stop there, it will go to every State in the Union which has not already had a program of this kind launched in it.

The National Government has spent, I believe, about $200,000,000 in reclamation in the West, the proceeds of which, Mr. Ucker said, come from the sale of public lands. We are going to ask for a comparatively small amount of money as compared with that figure. I believe we should go to Congress advocating this proposition as one affecting the very foundations of our Government, the building up of a better citizenship, beginning in the South but going across to all sections of the country.

We will now hear from the man in all the South that can give us the most practical advice and can point the way most safely in this program that we are trying to accomplish. I say so because that man has already done in his own community exactly what we want to spread over these Southern States. He has in his general section of eastern North Carolina spent millions of dollars in the financial economic development of that section, by seeing a vision and spending his life in inflexibly carrying out a set of ideas, learning each year; never becoming discouraged although day after day he has been thrown down, unable to get information in advance, until he has worked it out, but now we have a chart in the work of this man down there. With all due respect to the great Commissioner of Reclamation, I have no doubt he has himself learned a great deal from him.

It is not necessary for me to introduce this man. I wanted to pay this personal tribute to the magnificent work he has done. If he will cooperate with us and help us carry through our plans, this undertaking will be a great success. Mr. Hugh MacRae.



By Hugh Machas, of Wilminglon, N. C.

Mr. Chairman, Doctor Mead, gentlemen, I, like all the rest, have been wonderfully inspired by this meeting. I have never heard addresses bearing so closely and so accurately on the purpose for which we have assembled. Doctor Mead did not limit me as to the subject of my talk, and I have designated it so that the title would, in a way, explain it to anybody that would not care to go any further.

May I go directly to the heart of this subject by quoting four paragraphs from Dr. Elwood Mead's letter of invitation to this conference. This letter gives the picture of present conditions in the Southern States. It recommends an effective remedy. The subject can not have a better introduction. His statement is as follows:

The investigations of this bureau, under authority from Congress, into what is needed to create contented prosperous farming communities, on neglected lands of the South, have proceeded far enough to show that it is feasible and that great local and national benefits would result from such action.

Agriculture in the South is suffering from badly organized farming and a dreary rural life. Large areas are cultivated by negroes, or unskilled white farmers, who as tenants or hired laborers are unsuited to any but the most primitive farm practices. They do not succeed, without careful supervision, in dairying, truck farming, or the use of improved farm machinery. They have no knowledge of the science of soil fertility or more than one crop system. Slovenly cultivation and depletion of soil fertility are causing a decline and decay of rural prosperity and an exodus of farm workers,

To check these tendencies it is proposed to create a few farm communities organized to cooperate in business and in social affairs. The area of land on which a colony is founded should be large enough to give it an agriculture independent of that of the surrounding country. That would mean land enough for at least 100 farms—200 would be better. A development and crop program would be thought out in advance of settlement. An agricultural credit fund would be provided, from which advances would be made to supplement settlers' capital in improving farms and erecting community improvements. The land would be sold and advances repaid in long-time amortized payments. The advantages to settlers in this scheme would, it is believed, attract a superior type of farmers and create a permanent community of tarnest, intelligent people, able to utilize the benefits of scientific knowledge, Divdern farm machinery, and teamwork in selection of crops to be grown and preparation and marketing of products. In other words, it would introduce in farming the benefits of mass production, which have done so much for other American industries in the last 50 years, and which would enable 100 families living on 10,000 acres to operate almost as effectively as a single owner of 10,000 acres.

The time has come when agriculture must change as other industries have changed. It must be done to make the country a stable and progressive part of our political life. It is a task which challenges the attention of our ablest minds. A successful demonstration of the character outlined will go far toward achieving that result. The opportunities and needs of the South make it an appropriate field for these demonstrations.

As a result of 20 years' intensive work in the South, having this general problem in mind, I agree, as I am sure we all do, with what Doctor Mead has so well said.

There are two divergent ideas about reclamation. Either one alone, like positive or negative electricity, is useless. Both ideas relate to engineering, and engineering progresses only by making use of facts in logical sequence. The first idea invariably forms around great projects of engineering-dams, reservoirs, drainage ditches, canals. It is physical engineering constructive.

The second idea forms around social and economic conditions homes, families, crops, markets. It is human engineering—creative.

Under the policy of Doctor Mead the Bureau of Reclamation has developed the element of human engineering to its proper proportions. It may be well to add that the needed proportions vary for different sections of the country. In the West the need of physical engineering naturally predominates. In the South, to human engineering must be assigned the first place.

As side lights on this subject I would like to make certain statements and relate a few incidents with a view to emphasizing the importance of carrying forward, as a national obligation, this idea of re-creating country life.

First, we should emphasize and hold fast to the fact that a nation is built on its agriculture. When we investigate the ultimate effects of agricultural production, we feel safe in saying further that a nation is built by its agriculture. To reach this conclusion requires bearing in mind the great industries of the country which are directly dependent on or served by the farmer, dependent on him for their market, or dependent on the transportation or the use of his products; it requires also adding to these the industries and professions which are in turn dependent upon this primary group. Then, if we give weight to the fact that one-third of the entire population of the United States is engaged directly in farming, we will see that our best efforts must be given to the interests of agriculture if the national economic machinery is to function properly.

If we limit our point of view to the figures of the census and consider only acreage, tonnage, bushels, and dollars, we will form an erroneous estimate and will fail to recognize certain fundamental principles which have an important bearing on the national welfare. It is a fact that the area of land in crops, east of the Mississippi River, has decreased more than 15,000,000 acres in the five years ending in 1924. It is also true that more than 3,000,000 persons have left the farms within a very short period of time. Further, we know that with our present facilities for marketing farm products, the primary markets appear at times to be saturated. For these conditions there are underlying causes, but analysis will reveal the fact that they do not directly touch, in the way of solution, the human problem we are here to consider,

In the early history of the United States the agriculture of the South was preponderant. It is interesting in this connection to follow the effect which the constant inflow of gold due to the production and exportation of cotton has had on the national economic structure. Its importance can hardly be exaggerated. Even to-day, with the Middle West and the far West well developed, and notwithstanding the retrogression which has taken place in southern farming conditions, that section produces, in value, more than onethird of the farm products of the entire country. The South should, therefore, be given proportionate consideration in any governmental program which contemplates the protection, the further development, or the extension of farming interests.

In the South those of us who are not engaged in farming have for two generations been trying to tell the farmer what he should do, and yet at the present time we find farming on the down-grade. Without some change in plan of approach, the conditions of the average farmer in the South Atlantic States will remain serious. I am tempted to say hopeless. There are several conditions, either one of which would warrant this conclusion. One is disclosed in a statement recently issued by one of the large southern banks, as follows:

Georgia and Alabama might just as well face the economic fact that the production of cotton will soon cease to be their main staple erop. Inevitably, under competitive conditions, they will be forced to turn to a type of agriculture in which cotton will be subsidiary.

This refers to competition of Texas, Oklahoma, and the Western States. Then follows the expected typical advice:

The way out is (1) for the farmer to become a business man; (2) to adopt business methods; (3) to adapt himself to the same kind of conditions as the manufacturer; (4) to rely upon individual efficiency; (5) work for cooperative endeavor; (6) use every possible means to increase man-power output by the use of improved methods.

At a glance we see that this requires the farmer, of his own initiative, under heartbreaking conditions, to evolve into a superman. When we recollect that a large percentage of the farmers in the South are negroes, that the colored race supplies from two-thirds to three-fourths of the farm labor, that most of the southern farmers

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