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EMIGRATION.

him her hand, with the half-serious condition that he are already sufficiently alive to emigration, and only advise each to start on its own account in the first would behave better another time. Before they re want some practical advice, assurance of good treat- place. It will be observed that we say nothing of turned home she had promised to be his wife, if her aunt ment, and assistance.

paying for transmission; that must be left to the approved of their union. Mrs Medcalf did approve of The inhabitants of Montreal, greatly to their honour, capacity of the colony for raising funds. Very distant it ; and before another month was passed, William was have, it seems, organised a humane system of assist- colonies, possessing means, miglit instruct their agent pleased because he had won Harriet for his wife; Har- ing the poorer class of emigrants ; but who in Great to pay the whole, the half, or the quarter, of passageriet was pleased because she was married to the man Britain knows that such is the case? In this as in money, according to circumstances. Canada, in our she loved ; Charles was pleased because he now had every thing else, the colonists appear to labour under opinion, could get an abundance of hands, merely by Aylmer House to himself, without fear of intrusion; an impression that what they do is heard of through the organisation we point out, because numbers of Mr and Mrs Aylmer were pleased because their the medium of their newspapers, which, we can assure men are able to pay for themselves, and many in daughter had married a man with L.5000 per annum; them, is a fallacy. The people of Great Britain and a state of destitution would be assisted by parishes, and the good aunt was pleased because evil had been Ireland seldom, by any chance, see a colonial paper, subscriptions, and private friends. As government, changed into good.

and know nothing of what is going on in the colonies. according to all accounts, is about to establish a betThe home newspapers, they must know, seldom notice ter system of marine transport for emigrants, it can

any colonial movement unless it be of a warlike or po- not be doubted that, by the simple plan we have OCCASIONAL NOTES.

litical character. The opening of new ports and roads, hinted at, the colonies would speedily be in possession public improvements, establishment of societies, pro- of labourers commensurate with their capital. Those

gress of cultivation and agriculture, and such matters, states, likewise, in the North American union, which We are constantly receiving newspapers from the remain unnoticed, from an idea, perhaps, that the quot- are at present desirous of procuring free labour (Virdifferent colonies, and also papers respecting the ing of paragraphs on these points would excite little ginia, we believe, for one), might advantageously folcolonies published in London, and the great broad interest in British readers. For example, in the speech low the same method, which, by proper management, fact appears on the face of all, that the colonies, with of Dr Rolph, above alluded to, we observe a number of would, we seriously believe, be successful beyond any scarcely an exception, are greatly in want of labourers. interesting particulars respecting the social progress assignable limits. “ Send us labourers," is the cry of the Canadians, the of Canada within the last two years, but we doubt if a Australians, and the settlers of the Cape and of New single newspaper, not expressly colonial, will notice

ANAGRAMS. Zealand. The demand is heard from one end of the them. This remarkable silence of the general newscolonial world to the other, and the most flattering paper press on colonial matters was exemplified on the An anagram consists in the transposition of the letters temptations are held out for complying with it. At occasion of the outbreak in Canada a few years ago. of any word, or set of words, so as to form, by a new a meeting held at Niagara-called in the Niagara Nobody had been prepared to hear of any such up arrangement, some other term or terms, having an Chronicle “ The Great Emigration Meeting”—which roar ; and while civil war was raging in a department application, of one kind or another, to the sense of took place on the 7th of January last, a long speech of the empire, the people of the home country could the original words. The art of forming anagrams was delivered on the subject by Dr Rolph, in which not comprehend what it was about. We mention was a species of literary trifling so much in fashion in he speaks of the exertions made by the inhabitants this only to show that the colonies should adopt some the days of Elizabeth and her successors the Stuarts, of Montreal to render emigrants comfortable on more effective means than now exists of making all that the learned Camden did not disdain to compose their arrival, to relieve them if sick, or in a state of reasonable complaints and demands heard in this an essay on the subject, in which he lays down the destitution, and to forward them to districts where country. Whenever they have a desire to operate laws to be followed in the composition of the anagram. their labour is required. He adds, that at the many distinctly on public opinion, they must appeal directly The precise in practice, he says, changed not one public works now in a state of advancement in the to the people through the medium of our newspaper letter, with the exception of the aspirate h alone, provinces, there is a steady demand for mechanics and press.** But to make their designs respecting emigra- which, like the Greeks, who merely symbolised it by labourers; and that as many as “one thousand able- tion known, something more is desirable. The great a comma, they conceived to have no proper title to be bodied labourers are at this moment urgently re mass of persons whose services are most required in called or used as a letter. The less strait-laced apaquired on the Welland Canal.”

the colonies, sce no newspapers. Ploughmen, shep- grammatists, however, took other liberties, such as Of the demand for labourers at Sydney we need herds, day-labourers, men with families living in re that of substituting u for v, c for k, s for z, and the here say nothing, as we lately gave publicity to the mote situations, and female domestic servants, form like. Camden himself liked the anagram exceedingly, letter of a “Magistrate of the Territory,” mentioning an understratum in society into which the products as yielding“ a delightful comfort and pleasant motion that the demand was excessive. We turn, then, to of the daily press do not commonly penetrate. The to honest minds;" and the more difficult the anagram the Cape of Good Hope, which, from all we have persons in such situations are thrown entirely on their the better, as it is then, he says, a whetstone of heard, has been steadily but unostentatiously advan- own glimmering conceptions of what they have to patience to them that shall practise it; for some have cing in a career of prosperity. Such, we are informed, expect by emigration, or they rely on the advice of been seen to bite their pen, scratch their

heads, bend is the demand for labourers at the Cape, that the such individuals as they imagine will set them on the their brows, bite their lips, beat the board, tear their inhabitants are thankful to receive and hire African right track.

paper, when the names were fair for somewhat, and slaves, who have been liberated by British cruisers

Do not let it be supposed that we advocate a sweep- they caught nothing therein." All this seemed to our while on their way to America. But they tell us they ing system of emigration. We advise every man to antiquary a very charming sort of perplexity. would infinitely prefer white and trained servants stay at home who possesses a decent livelihood, or the Anagrammatising is of very ancient date, having from the home country. At a late public meeting on intrepidity to push his way by skill and industry. Our been one of the ways by which the mystical relithe subject at Cape Town, it was resolved to raise observations are directed to the colonists, who are gionists of old locked up their secrets, and endeavoured funds by subscription to defray the expense of bring- making such an incessant clamour about the want of to throw a sanctity around the names of peculiar pering emigrants from England. The temptations held | labourers, and to the great number of labourers who sons and things. The Jewish cabalists directly proout aro—a delightful climate, meat at 2d. a-pound, feel desirous of emigrating. We have thought con fessed the art of themura, that is, of changing or transand a hearty welcome to all steady and respectable siderately on the subject, and it appears to us that posing terms to discover a hidden signification in persons willing to make themselves useful.

the process of emigration will never be any thing them. This is precisely the art of making anagrams. We have thus sufficiently drawn attention to the else than the scramble it now is, until arrangements From Noah's name they made grace, for example, in circumstance of the colonies being, according to their of the following nature are organised, and fully and Hebrew; and in Messiah they found he shall rejoice. own showing, in want of labourers ; and the point to fairly acted upon :

In the Cassandra of Lycophron, a poem written about which we now advert is the extraordinary degree of 1. Every colony which wishes labourers must, on 300 years before Christ, we find the prst name of negligence on the part of the colonists themselves, in its own side of the water, organise means to receive Ptolemy Philadelphus transposed from Ptolemais into actually making known and getting what they want. and employ all who arrive seeking employment-have | Apo melitos, "from" or "out of honey;" in which case If they wish to see a host of working men with their plenty of lands ready surveyed for emigrants to buy the second o would be obtained by placing 'O before families arrive on their shores, why do they not take in lots, if they want to settle in that way—and, above the name, making it “the” Ptolemy, as being a genesome trouble to make working men acquainted with all, have a person in waiting on the arrival of every ric appellation. The name of the same king's wife, that important fact, and also tell them how they are slip, to tell the people what they are to do ; so that, Arsinoe, was anagrammatised into Eras ion, “ Juno's to get out? If every thing be true that the colonial in short, a man would arrive with a perfect confidence violet.”' Other ancient writers, Eustachius among the and emigration journals say, the case stands thus : as to his being at once satisfactorily provided for. There, at a distance of a few thousand miles across the

rest, give examples of the art as used among the

2. Each colony must organise means equally as sea, are immensely large countries, as fertile as the effective here. It must send a properly commissioned past time, we find Friar Bacon, according to a com

Greeks. To come a little farther down the mount of heart of man could desire, yet comparatively destitute agent (who should be backed, or recognised as trustof persons to work upon them; and here, on the other worthy, by the colonial and home government), to dients, charcoal, under an anagram. As might be

mon custom, concealing one of his gunpowder ingrehand, is a country overcrowded with population, with establish an emigration office in every large town, as expected, the French were early and long attached to a redundancy of labourers, almost starving for lack of for instance, in London,

Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liver- this sort of badinage; so much so, that Louis XIII. employment. Does it not, then, appear somewhat pool, Cork, &c. This office should resemble an open had a regular anagrammatist pensioned at 1200 livres strange that the colonists should take no intelligible shop, be furnished with maps and plans of the colony, means of supplying themselves with these spare la. and descriptive pamphlets and papers explaining what a-year. In France, a man sometimes even made his bourers ? Every colonial newspaper teems with ac- classes of emigrants are required. The keeper of the of a king's or great man's name. Thus, all France counts of great emigration meetings," at which office should be an intelligent and conversable person, rung with the anagram on the monarch, François de resolutions are passed declaring that thousands of who would take pains to explain, in a friendly way, men are required, and in some instances arrangements every desired particular-tell exactly how the pro

Valoys, whose name was converted into De façon suis seem to be made for paying the passage of individuals ; posing emigrant should proceed, which port he should ronal, indicating him to be indeed of regal strain.” but beyond these public declamations little seems to sail from, and, if possible, put him in communication allow the lucky fellow to go unrewarded who disbe accomplished, and the process of emigration remains year after year in the same meagre, unsatisfac- might be opened in connexion with these principal covered her fascinations to be indicated in the very tory condition. We dare say the “Great Emigration establishments.

name which she bore, and which says, Je charme tout, Meeting" at Niagara thought it had done a vast deal, 3. It should be part of the office-keeper's duty to

“I charm all;" and a vacant clerkship, a sinecure by its powerful resolutions and speeches, to promote publish advertisements in the newspapers, and also by

without doubt, would to a certainty fall to the no less emigration from the United Kingdom ; and yet, we handbills, defining the objects of his mission, and fortunate man who found the chancellor Louis de ask, what labouring man here knows any thing at all stating his readiness to furnish every species of infor

Boucherat to have been baptismally and patronymiof the matter, except perhaps what we are now telling mation to applicants. The landbills should be posted told that he est la bouche de roi, " is the mouth-piece

cally designated for his high office, because his name him? Three years ago, we copied into our paper the up in most towns and villages throughout the country; account of a similar meeting at Montreal, at which it and the language employed in them ought to partake of the sovereign." seemed to be the resolution to establish agents in this of the simplicity of cominon speech.

Even Calvin deigned to anagrammatise. His country for the purpose of receiving and landing for

If the various colonies could unite to appoint a adopted Latin title, Alcuinus, is a very simple transward emigrants. Our brief notice brought dozens of common agency, much expense might be spared; but position of Calvinus. Nor did the grave reformer letters from poor people, inquiring where these agen- we fear that is quite hopeless, and would therefore disdain to enter into an anagrammatical contest with cies were situated. We could not tell; and are pretty

Rabelais, in whose Latinised name Rabelaesius, he certain that no such agencies were ever established.

found the words rabie laesus, “ bitten by madness." This is a sample of the slovenly manner in which the colonies has called into existence a class of periodical publicae Rabelais was not the man to let a shaft of this kind colonies set about the great business of helping them- tions, chiefly newspapers, in London, which are devoted cither be aimed at him without a return, and accordingly, selves to servants. Instead of opening fixed establishi to colonial topics generally, or to the concerns of single colonies using some liberty with the lexicographically-jumbled ments in this country, to advise and help forward in particular among these we may notice, as standing at the letters i, j, e, and u, he found in Calvin's name the emigrants, they perhaps send a person to lecture on

heard, has been of considerable use in schooling the colonists with old French vulgarism jan-cul, which casts a disthe subject. We do not want lecturers. The public regard their political and social relations.

agreeable reflectio

he person of the Reformer

on

LUCERNE TO BERNE.

It was one of the weaknesses of this age to imagine a fact, son.” Perhaps, however, the subjoined ana- | the streets are open to the adjoining country, and we that, from a transposition of the letters of names, grave gram, with which we shall come to a close, is better

were pleased to see various symptoms of improvement and important indications of the truth might some than any of these.

in the environs. times result. Thus, when it was found out that James

“ When I cry that I sin is transposed, it is clear,

In the course of our rambles we ascended, by a figlit Charles Stuart, the baptismal designation of James I.,

My resource, Christianity, suon will appear." was convertible into “claims Arthur's seat," it was se

of steps of uncommon length, from the main street to riously said, that “this shows his undoubted rightful

Though anagrammatising be unquestionably the the summit of a huge knoll, on which stands, with claim to the monarchy of Britain, as successor to the veriest trifling, it may, like the composing of Bouts

some other buildings, the old castle of Thun and the valorous King Arthur.” The anagram in question was Rimés, serve very well to pass a social evening; and, the production of a Welshman named Owen, famous being so far an exercise of the intellect, it is certainly church of the town. The view from the walls of the for these sort of things, and was prophetically made preferable, as an occupation for such hours, to many churchyard is picturesque and grand beyond descripbefore James came to the English throne. Another with which even cultivated circles have long been in tion. Looking in a southerly direction, we have the on Jacobus Steuartus, “ James Steuart,” runs thus :- the habit of employing themselves.

magnificent range of the Bernese Alps, covered with Tu es ob justa carus, that is, “ For thy just acts art

snow, and among which the Jungfrau rises conspicuous thou beloved." Another, and really a happy and

A FEW WEEKS ON THE CONTINENT.

with its rugged glaciers, the whole fronted by a range simple one, makes out of plain James Stuart the words

of dark rocky mountains, including the Stockhorn and “ A just master.” James's favourite, the noted Vil

Niesen, both of which are remarkable peaks. Then, liers, had an anagram of rather an appropriate kind male on his name, while he was an earl. George, HAVING satisfied our curiosity at Lucerne, we moved beneath these, we have the Lake of Thun with its wild Earle Buckinghame, was transposed into Oh, grare, able en route to Thun,* a distance of between fifty and romantic shores ; and following the Aar, to where it king, grace me ! a prayer which the monarch, for flat: sixty miles, and therefore too great a stretch for Louis passes us, and rolls away to the right, there is spread teries much akin to that conveyed in the anagram, to perform with his cattle in the compass of a single out a country rich and beautiful in the extreme. was pleased to listen to most graciously, as was not day. But we were in no hurry; our object being to From the beauty of its environs, and its suitableness unfelt by the national purse.

Elizabeth had her full share of this species of see, saunter, and inquire, not hasten over a certain for the retirement of foreign families, Thun has behonours. The two following transpositions are among space of ground in a given period of time. The road come a place of considerable resort of late years, and the most apposite made on the name of the maiden which we pursued lay in a westerly direction from we found its hotels crowded with visiters. These queen: Elizabetha Regina was found convertible to Lucerne, and was one of the wildest we had traversed. establishments are situated most advantageously a Angliae eris beata, that is, “ A blessing shalt thou be The weather, also, had all at once changed, though short way east from the town, in the midst of fine pleato England ;" and Elizabetha Regina Anglorum was turned to Gloria regni salva manebit, or “ The glory of fortunately only for a day or two, to gloom, mist, and sure-grounds, at the base of a woody hill, and close on the kingdom shall remain intact."' Lord Chancellor drizzle ; and the face of nature was altogether dismal. the banks of the Aar. The houses, three in number, Ellesmere might have taken a family motto from an Proceeding by a hilly path across a limb of the Bra- and capable of accommodating at least a hundred anagram made on his name, Thomas Egerton ; namely, meg, the torrents were seen dashing furiously in foam individuals, independently of lodgings for servants and Gestat honorem, " He is arrayed in honour.” When from the lofty summits of the mountains, and the coachmen, are conceived on a most superb scale, yet the vile assassination of Sir Thomas Overbury took river Emme, a tributary of the Reuss, swept impe- are not dearer than establishments of an ordinary kind, the title, which Sir Simonds d'Ewes speaks of as not trously onward, carrying rubbish and all the loose and certainly far less so than any third-rate inn in unworthy to be owned by the first wits of the age objects it could collect in its headlong course. At England. In one of the edifices is a salle de lecture, or It was, O! 0! base murthyr.

different points on the journey, the waters from the reading-room, in which we found an English newsCollet, whose curious Relics cf Literature contain hills had brought down great masses of sand and paper for the first time since entering Switzerland, much information on this subject, informs us that one gravel, which lay scattered over the little patches of and also an old friend—a copy of our own Journal. ** Mistress Mary Fage,” in the time of Charles I., de field occupied by a pains-taking peasantry, ruining The keeper of these hotels is a singularly enterprising voted a whole volume to the publication of anagrams their crops for the season, and levelling their hedge- person. To accommodate the English, a handsome and acrostics composed by herself. Mistress Fage was indeed a mistress of the art.

Princes, peers,

rows and bushy enclosures. Thus, however, from the chapel, in the Gothic style of architecture, was finishand prelates, to the number of four hundred and deposits of mountain debris, have the lower arable ing on the face of the hill, within the pleasure-grounds. twenty, are both anagrammatised and acrosticised in lands of Switzerland been originally formed; and, And to bring and carry away customers who may visit her “ Fame's Roll,” in the subjoined fashion. John more wonderful still, thus have been created the broad his establishment, he keeps a small steam-boat conWeymes, Earl of Weymes, was one of the parties whom territories of the Netherlands, which are in reality stantly plying to and from the upper end of the lake. she delighted to honour ; and she makes of his name the really good transposition, “ Shew men joy." The composed of particles of mud floated by the Rhine

An excursion to the farther extremity of the Lake acrostic commences thus:

from the higher grounds of Switzerland. The flat of Thun and the country beyond, including Unterseen “ In your great honour, free from all alloy,

green polders of Holland were once rocks on the Alps and Interlaken, formed a chief object of our visit; and O truly noble Weymes, you show men joy;

of the Grisons, Glarus, and Berne. Having your virtues in their clearer sight,

as two or three days would be spent in our examinaNothing there is can breed them more delight."

About mid-day, in a tempest of wind and rain, we tions, we here found it necessary to dispense with And so on with Weymes. What honours, and rewards were ushered into the large roadside inn of Entlebuch, Louis's services, or at least to leave him free to seelt

. more tangible than honours, fell to the ingenious where, though apparently out of the world, we were another engagement. This was sad news to the kind. Mistress Fage, history faileth to record. Some pecu- served with a dinner of first-rate character, and, as hearted lohnkutscher. He belonged to Lausanne, and liarly happy anagrammatist made out of General usual, at a very moderate charge. Our place of lodg- had built himself up in the hope that we should proceed Monk's name a chronogram, marking a date as

ment for the night was farther on, at Langnau, a vil- thither; he was right so far, but we had resolved to well as an anagram. Thus, Georgius Monke, Dur de Aumarle, was found to form Ego regem reduci, Anno lage somewhat different in appearance from places we spend a few days in Berne besides those in Thun, and Sa. MDCLVV.; in English, “ George Monke, Duke had formerly seen. We had got out of the Roman the expense of detaining him seemed to be unnecesof Albemarle," " I restored the king, in the year of Catholic and somewhat stand-still cantons which sary. It is true, I afterwards repented not retaining safety (Sa. for Salutis) 1660.” border on the Lake of Lucerne, into the plain, com

him for the whole journey, for though well enough Owen, the learned Welsliman, has been referred to. He had a happy knack of making his anagrams epi- is as much hard work, and as few holidays, as any wished a bon voyage to les dames, to whose fears in mon sense, Protestant canton of Berne, in which there served, we never again procured so honest and joyous

a soul. Louis received his fees with a downcast air; grams, and sometimes, in two lines, contrived to turn one word half a dozen ways. As he wrote in Latin, political economist could well desire. Langnau is si- descending the mountains he had always been inost and as, in translation, the anagrams are necessarily tuated in the midst of a fertile vale, and seemed to be attentive ; said he was sorry we could not take him lost, we content ourselves with giving an humble imi- occupied by an industrious rural peasantry. All the home to Lausanne, where his family resided, and to tation of one; in which, with the help of a so, something like his plan will be made manifest.

houses are of wood, unpainted, and generally of such which all other Swiss scenery was a mockery; and, with a size as to accommodate perhaps five or six families to proceed back to Zurich, but at what time he might

many adieus, we parted. Next morning he was hired “ Since brevity of speech so charms the ear,

each ; the various entrances being by different flights regain his home it would be difficult to say ; the proLet no verbosity in thine appear." But Owen could manage the matter without coupling

of steps and half-pendent galleries. Some are distin- fession he followed might keep him wandering about two words, and all due laud be accordingly given tó guished by texts of scripture, carred in the beams the country for months. A poetic friend, to whom him for his ingenuity. running along the front, and from dates also carved Louis, and his melancholy parting, bas thrown the

we mentioned the little story of our intercourse with By anagrammatising his name, Sir Thomas Wiat over the doorways, we saw that several were two cen- lohnkutscher’s sentiments into the following random was found to be “ A wit;" Waller had the “Lawrel” turies old—a great age for a merely wooden house ; versification :in his patronymic; and Vernon was baptised to “ Re but the fabrics are greatly preserved, I should think, noun.”. Crashawe, the poet, had a beloved friend of by the large overhanging roofs, and by the practice of

THE LOHXKUTSCHEN's song. the name of Car, and having found out that his own

The strangers summon me now to the route, designation was convertible to “ He was Car," he fumigation from the wood fires, the smoke being often

They come to visit our lakes and rills, made the circumstance the basis of some affectionate left to ooze out by the doors, windows, and other To see our snow-fed cataracts spout lines bearing on the friendly union which their names casual openings.

In benuty from a thousand hills.

My charge is ready, my honcs ncigh, showed to exist between them.

A forenoon's ride through a country of low green In modern days we have had no lack of anagrams, hills and well-cultured dales, reminding me, in many

And I must mount as soon as I can;

Yet, ere I depart, will n fond thought stray though no hidden virtue can now be found in them.

To sweet Marie and pretty Lausanne. Three of the most noted men of recent times have particulars, of Scotland, brought us to Thun, which

Now, now we are pacing along the road; been each the subject of good anagrams. One of the was to be our head-quarters for a few days. Thun

Gaily les Anglais are chatting behind; best made on Napoleon Bonaparte is in Latin, being is a substantially built old-fashioned town, situated

While at times I point to some fair abode, Bona rapta, leno, pone ; which, Englished, signifies, chiefly on the right bank of the large river Aar,

Or spot made famous by valour or mind. · Rascal, yield up your stolen possessions.” Arthur about half a mile below the point where it issues from

Kindly they question--I quickly reply ;

Poor though I am, they esteem me as man; Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, is transposable to “ Let

Yet still and anon will remembrance fly well foil'd Gaul secure thy renown.” Better still than the Lake of Thun; but the river here parts into three

To sweet Marie and pretty Lausanne. these is that which makes of Horatio Nelson, Honor est channels, again uniting a short way down, and there At night in a friendly home we stay, a Milo; meaning, “His honours are from the Nile." fore the town is a good deal cut up into separate sec

And off on each morrow we jog again; The following are amusing and apt general anagrams. tions, connected by wooden bridges. A large volume

The freshening breeze of the early day

Brings lightsome spirits and health in train. What is Revolution ? “Love to ruin.” A Telegraph ?

Lo! in the distance our Alps arise ! “ Great help.” What are Lawyers? “Sly ware.' of water, one way and another, possessing a beautiful

Barely their ever white sumınits we scan; What comes from a Dispensatory? "O! I send green tinge like the Limmat and Reuss, rushes past

Ah! much less dear are these hills to my eyes pastry.” Is the Assembly composed of good men ? and turns several large mills for the inhabitants. Like Than sweet Marie and pretty Lausanne.

Yes, lambs.” Who moved the Amendment ? " Ten Zurich, the town has got rid of its ancient gateways; mad men.” What do the Catholic Representatives ?

Hlow at these sounds doth my bosin glow! “Serve Sai

Now, could I die, 'mid the wabres' clash, ter.” Got you Satisfaction ? " It is

For my own, my cherisli u Cantca ve Yauc.

Hark! from the mountains the Rans de vaches!

* Pronounced Toon.

THE MOCK KING OF MUNSTER.

Canton de Vaud, so lovely, so fair,

that Interlaken has become the home of self-expa- | Thun. Tourists who are desirous of exploring the Ilow oft 'midst your vineyards my young foot ran; triated English.

country beyond have now an opportunity of doing so And oh! what dear ones this moment are there With sweet Marie in pretty Lausanne!

The shop-system of Interlaken may be said to be by a small steamer, which daily navigates the lake

that of a perpetual fancy fair. On every hand there from Interlaken. Our return to Thun offered nothing Kind strangers, I fain would pursue your way

is something pretty and characteristic of the country worth mentioning; and I may add, that neither did But longings for home are astir in my heart; Oh! bend to Lausanne your footsteps, I pray;

for sale. The staple commodity is articles carved out of our journey to Berne, our visit to which will form the You cannot--you ought not-thus to part.

a pure whitish wood, for which the Swiss are celebrated. subject of next article. Delightedly hoped I to reach my dear home

How pleasing is it to find a small community taking With you in your tour over hill and champagne ; up some branch of trade for which its habits and tastes But you go whither Louis too far would roam

adapt it, and positively making wealth out of next VULGAR HALLUCINATIONS. From sweet Marie and pretty Lausanne.

to nothing! We had found a population drawing a Departing by the morning steamer from Thun, we subsistence at Spa from wooden painted boxes, another were in a few minutes on the lake-a sheet of water at Wiesbaden from the carving of deers' horns, and As happens in the case of all great changes affecting about half the dimensions of that of Lucerne, and now we had one living by that simple manufacture the social framework, the unsettlement of the longmuch more regular in outline. From one extremity which consists in shaping bits of wood into small established form of clerical polity in Europe during to the other, it may measure about twelve miles. The objects of fancy and domestic use. shores are lofty, and in some places precipitous, over honoured be the spirit of honest industry wherever it the sixteenth century was attended with popular hung by huge piles of hills, partially wooded, and here is found ; but doubly blessed be the industry which commotions equally extensive in their amount and and there dotted with chalets, or rude mountain cots. bears up against the influence of untoward circum- destructive in their effects. Such consequences are, With the exception of one or two small villages, the stances, personal and local. Once I visited an humble indeed, more peculiarly inseparable from revolutions scenery is all still nature, and, on the whole, is neither cot in a country part of Scotland, the inhabitant of in the religious world. Except in extreme cases, picturesque nor interesting. But we were now be which was a poor lad, who for some years had been secular authority may be transferred from one body coming fastidious.

At the farther extremity of the lake, the passen- limbs. Was that young man repining at his melan. to another without the reins of governmental discipgers were disembarked, and immediately commenced choly lot, and wasting his faculties in idleness ? Not line being relaxed in any great degree ; but it is not à scramble for hackney-caleshes, voitures, and chars, at all. He was sitting up cheerfully in his couch, so as respects clerical affairs. When the European the latter what we should call four-wheel gigs, with carving small boxes and card cases, while all around princes judged it right, at the era of the Reformation, folding-up hood, drawn by one horse, and very sorry him were spread the instruments and half-finished affairs. Some were going to explore a waterfall ten objects of his labour. A spectacle of industry like

to leave their subjects free to quit the pale of the old miles off, and be back in time to return with the this, sets to flight all notions of inapplicability of any church, they were also left free, upon the same prinboat; some were bound for the Oberland; some for person or place for any kind of manufacture. As in ciples, to select for themselves a new spiritual path. Brienz. Not one was going to stay and see what the case alike of this poor Scotch lad and the Swiss Wild were the delusions and appalling the errors could be seen in the very interesting spot of ground cottagers, all difficulties melt away before a willing which resulted, in that comparatively barbarous age, on which we were now landed, except ourselves. But heart ; and where that is wanting, every advantage of from this unfortunate but unavoidable necessity. it is always so with the English tourists. During our situation is useless. whole journey we never saw any one looking con I confess I was interested in the manufactures of Madmen, fanatics, and impostors, with persons in tentedly at what happened to be at the time before Interlaken, and took much more pleasure in learning whom, perhaps, all three peculiarities were mixed up, him-every body was hurrying forward to see some something of them than I should have been with the bad here an ample field for their operations, and they thing somewhere ; and if it was at the top of a hill, or view of a waterfall. The articles are not made here left not the opportunity unused. Intending to notice across a precipice, where there was some chance of only, but in other parts of the country, and chiefly by personal danger, so much the better. The glory of persons in the intervals of labour in the fields, and, popular hallucinations of various kinds in succession, - saying they had seen so and so, appeared in most in consequently, for the most part during winter. It is a

we conceive that we may, without quitting our path, stances the prevailing object of ambition.

universally recognised principle in Switzerland never give some account here of one extraordinary instance That part of Switzerland in which we had now to be idle, if any thing can be done, or unless there is of the kind springing from the source described. arrived, is a little secluded world in itself. A plain of some decided festive sport to attend. Every district The modern sect of Anabaptists use, in consequence about three miles in length, and from a quarter to has some kind of article which it is the hobby of the half a mile in breadth, is bounded on both sides by people to make. I believe they do not try their hand

on of their adoption of a peculiar custom, a denomination lofty rugged hills, above which, on the south, towers wooden clocks, these being the staple of the hills of the which was made odious in Germany in the sixteenth the sublime summit of the Jungfrau ; while at one Black Forest, in the grand dukedom of Baden-a dis- century by a set of impostors and fanatics of the most extremity is the Lake of Thun, and at the other the trict, however, which is territorially adjacent to Swit- depraved description. In 1533, there came to MunLake of Brienz. Originally, I daresay, these sheets of zerland, and from which ship-loads of these articles are ster, in Westphalia, a Dutchman named John Bockwater had been one, but soil from the mountains has exported annually to England and America. At the holt, a tailor by profession, and a native of Leyden. formed an alluvial vale, and narrowed the water present moment, the cottages of Scotland are supplied course to the neck of river, the Aar, which is now the with clocks from this quarter, through an extensive He was a ringleader of a fanatical party in his own only bond of union between the two lakes. The vale, ramification of agents and venders. Complaints have country; and, with the aid of a John Matthison, one sunk among lofty heights, flourishes a green paradise sometimes been lieard from hand-in-pocket out-of-the- Gerhard, and some others, began to spread his misin the wilderness. It is richly clothed with verdure, way towns, that they are languishing for want of some chievous principles in Munster. The time was, unornamented with forest and fruit trees, and the seat species of manufactures. Here is one I can see no happily, but too favourable for such an attempt in of a numerous population, composed of Swiss and reason why they should not take up: An Englishman Germany, where the ancient religious customs of the foreigners, the latter being principally English, who should surely be as able to make a clock as a German, people were torn up by the roots, leaving them imhave made the discovery that the situation is at once cheap, agreeable, and salubrious. There are two vil- from a very humble to a high order, from an article pressed with vague notions of an approaching new lages. The first we come to is Unterseen, a surpris- of the value of a penny to that of a pound—the better era, and ready to listen to the wildest speculations on ingly old-fashioned place, situated on the Aar, at the class of objects being beautifully carved vases, baskets, the subject. distance of a mile from the hamlet at which we were and other things of a funciful kind, well known to This was fully shown in 1525, twenty years before landed. persons of taste.

this period, when a fanatic named Munzer had the Unterseen consists entirely of wooden houses, tho Ascending by a winding path the picturesque hill art to raise a numerous army of Suabian, Franconian, roughly Swiss in shape-great overhanging roofs, which bounds the vale of Interlaken on the east, and and Saxon peasants, and took the field with the inoutside stairs and galleries, casement windows, and leading towards the Lake of Brienz, we had an opportu- tention of overturning all governments and laws, all ornamented with long inscriptions of a consider- nity of enjoying a very delightful walk and seeing the under the pretence that the world was now to bé able age. On one house we observed the date 1614, Swiss cottage manufacture in active progress. As we governed by the Founder of Christianity in person. and a beam over the gateway at the entrance to had remarked a hundred times before, many of the The Saxon Elector, and other princes, raised an army, the village was marked 1654. The leading street, at houses were intolerably dirty, and a small village, which however, and routed the insurgents. Immense numthe centre of which is the open market-place, is mean we attained at the nearest point of the lake, was, with-bers were slain in battle and executed. John Bockand tortuous, without the slightest vestige of modern out exception, the most odious in this respect we ever holt soon gathered a party in Munster, whom he improvement or taste ; while the general aspect of beheld. But, at the same time, the spectacle of industry persuaded that a new spiritual kingdom was to be affairs, though not indicating positive poverty, or the was equally extreme. Before almost every door was a established, and that Munster was to be its capital, squalor one sees in the large Scotch towns, is slovenly, woman, brown and skinny, working as if for a wager under the title of the New Jerusalem, whence the and I should scarcely think wholesome. The antique at skutching hemp, by means of a wooden apparatus novel doctrines were to be disseminated over the houses are hives of population from the ground to which made a loud clacking noise; the place being earth. This idea was flattering to the mob, and the the garret, and I can only say that those who imagine seemingly in the possession of a set of female furies, Leyden tailor gained continual accessions of adherents. that living in cellars is only found in England, have every one of which would have answered to act the As he went on, even the learned, including some never seen the dingy dens of Unterseen. As dirt is part of a witch in Macbeth without painting or dress- monks, joined his sect, until at length he found himnot usually put into pictures, the place, I have no ing for the character. Within doors, industry of self powerful enough to venture on his great project. doubt, with its romantic environs, will look extremely another sort was exercised by children and old people. His followers rose suddenly in arms, attacked and beautiful and picturesque--on paper.

Some were carving fancy objects, and in one house deposed the magistrates, and became masters of the From Unterseen to Interlaken, the road is almost a about a dozen children were engaged in making small city. Immediately afterwards, John of Leyden was continuous avenue, lined by tall bushy trees, here and toys, such as horses, sheep, and dogs, some cutting proclaimed king of the New Jerusalem. there varied with an ornamental villa or boarding the pieces of wood, and others painting them. One We have said nothing of the doctrines or personal house ; and at length we have such a mixture of trees little fellow was very seriously engaged in putting doings of the man who thus got the sway of a great and houses as to make it difficult to say where the leaves of green paper on stumps to form trees; city, containing many thousands of people. His exvillage begins or ends. The greater part of this rural and another was painting a row of toy soldiers three travagances are almost incredible. He married eleven retreat appears to consist of houses of a superior order, inches high. This we found was a place of manufac- wives, to show his approbation of the polygamy which devoted either to casual lodgers or stranger residents ture for the foreign market. The children of an in- prevailed in the times of other kings of Jerusalem ; of longer standing; and we can testify to the village significant Swiss village were working at something and to assimilate himself to a particular king of the numbering among its larger establishments an inn of like a penny a-day, to furnish means for amusement Hebrews, he ran or madly danced, without apparel, immense size, and possessing all the qualifications to the more fortunate children of England and other through the streets of Munster. Other most offenthat any body could desire. The ladies were charmed countries. The juveniles of younger growth, who sive and pernicious acts were daily committed by this with Interlaken. Never was there such a pretty were not yet in harness in the workshops, also were mock-monarch, whom it is too much charity to set place. It was like a scene in a theatre. Neat pavi- not idle. A number seemed to be loitering out of down as insane. He of course saw visions, and dreamt lions filled with Swiss toys exhibited their attractions doors on the outlook for strangers; and on our making dreams in abundance. In one dream it was commuunder great spreading trees; long shady walks, with our appearance, we were beset by offers of egg-shells nicated to him, he said, that the cities of Amsterdam, seats, invited the visitant to loiter away the lazy decorated with the pith of rushes, and other trifles. Deventer, and Wesel, were given to him as his own. hours, and from over the bounding enclosures came The practice, as may be supposed, is little else than He accordingly sent disciples or bishops thither, to the perfume of flowers and orchards. The adjacent a disguised beggary, but the disguise at least assumes spread his new kingdom. In the state of the public hills—the Silver Horn, the Monk, Mount Eiger, and, the semblance of virtue, and is less reprehensible than mind at the period, these pseudo-embassies were not, as above all, the brilliant white Jungfrau piercing the positive alms-seeking.

they appear now, ridiculous. The Amsterdam envoy blue firmament-contribute at once shelter and pic But I must bring my paper to a conclusion. We gathered so many proselytes that he attempted to seize turesque beauty to the scene. With these attractions, visited the shores of the Lake of Brienz, which appeared on the city. He marched his followers to the town. and, as is said, cheapness of living, it is not surprising to be much more savage and desolate than those of | house on a given day, with drums beating and colours

flying. Having seized on the house, he fixed his of the subsoil must be stirred in the operation of We will now proceed to show what may be efhead-quarters there ; but the burghers rose, and with trenching. At the time this is being performed, all fected by first trenching the ground after the mansome regular troops surrounded the fanatics, the whole large stones should be removed, in order that the ner already explained, and afterwards by introducing of whom were put to death in a severe manner, in crops which shall be cultivated in the ground may such vegetable products as are best calculated to thrive order to intimidate others of the class.

be free from all such obstructions. In this process, on the particular quality of soil under cultivation, It may well be imagined that the city of Munster however, care must be taken, where there is no great and also to yield the largest supply of nutritious was in a dreadful condition under John of Leyden, it depth of natural soil, not to bury that of the best food. If, in a family of five or six persons, there being a doctrine of the sect that all things should be quality beneath the inferior kinds or the subsoil ; | is no one capable of assisting the husband in the in common among the faithful; and they also taught and it is by no means a difficult matter, during this operation of trenching, it would require several years that civil magistrates were utterly useless. Hence operation, to keep the best quality of soil nearest the to elapse before the whole of the four acres could enormous crimes, as well as ridiculous follies, were surface. By a complete loosening and mixing in this be thoroughly trenched; but an active and induspractised continually-real enthusiasm of belief add- way, exceedingly poor soils may be made to yield trious man would find 'little difficulty in bringing ing to the evil rather than diminishing it. The fol- better crops than those of a very good quality under half an acre annually into an improved state ; for as lowing incident is the only one descriptive of the the ordinary mode of cultivation ; and what tends to 80 rods make the half acre, and there being 313 workinsane and scandalous practices of the sect which we make trenching a matter still more deserving of adop- ing days in the year, to accomplish this it would require shall venture to record-a specimen is enough. Twelve tion is, that, through a long course of years, there little more than a quarter of a rod to be trenched of them met, five being women, in a private house. is no necessity for disturbing the ground below the daily, whereas a moderate day's work, even where the One of the men, a tailor by trade, having prayed for depth that the spade or the plough commonly pene- soil is stony and difficult to trench, would considerably four hours in a sort of trance, then took off his gar- trates in ordinary culture.

exceed a rod. But where there is a boy or two to ments, and throwing them into the flames, com It is after this manner that the Flemings have suc- assist, an acre might, with perfect ease, be brought manded the rest to do the same. All did so ; and the ceeded in bringing so much barren and waste ground, into an improved state yearly. whole subsequently went out to the streets, which not simply into a cultivated state, but actually into a Several experiments have been made in order to they paraded, crying “Woe! woe! woe to Babylon !" condition of great productiveness. The plan they ascertain the quantity of produce in roots, artificial and the like. Being seized and taken before a magis- adopt is this :-A ditch or trench, two or three feet grasses, &c., that an acre of ground, under this sort of trate, they refused to dress themselves, saying, “ We wide, is dug with a trenching spade to the depth culture, could be made to yield ; and the result has ere the naked truth!” Were it not for the sequel, of two feet, or nearly so, if practicable, care being been that even less than 80 rods, or half an acre, will we might simply feel disgust at this, as the doing, taken to place the best qnality of soil uppermost, produce food sufficient to maintain a cow. This calDossibly, of shameless profligates. But when these and to pulverise and mix the whole carefully ; levels | culation is founded upon the well-known fact, that very persons, instead of being placed in lunatic asy: ling the inequalities of the surface as the work pro- 100 lbs. weight of green food, a considerable portion of lums, were taken to the scaffold, they sung and danced ceeds. When such a trench has been completed, the it roots, is a sufficient daily allowance for an ordinary for joy, and died with all the marks of sincere reli- digger commences another of similar widih, and so cow. But cows kept upon such produce must not be gious enthusiasm.

proceeds until the whole piece of ground has been dug allowed to pasture on those portions of the ground John of Leyden did not long enjoy the throne of over or trenched. Where the ground is so wet as to that are devoted to grass crops, such as clover, lucern, Munster. Its rightful sovereign and bishop, Count require draining, drains may easily be made, at conve- tares, &c.; but for the better health of the animals, Waldeck, aided by other petty princes of Germany, nient distances from each other, as the work ad- they should have an open space to move about in assembled an army, and marched against the city vances; but it is frequently found that trenching, in adjoining the shed or out-building, where they find The fanatics shut its gates, and resisted ; nor was it a great measure, obviates the necessity of draining, shelter from the storm and cold; for in soiling cattle until after an obstinate siege that the occupants were inasmuch as the subsoil is rendered so loose that the during the hottest part of summer, an open shed, with overcome. The mock monarch was taken, and suf- water readily percolates through it. It occurred that, a rack for their food, is to be preferred to shutting fered a cruel death, with great numbers of his wrong. in subduing the once barren heaths of Guelderland them up in close stables. Mr Allen, in his “ Colonies at headed associates.

and the adjacent provinces, the difficulty of obtaining Home,” very properly remarks—"Whenever it is posThe popular hallucination, however, did not end manure was so great at the outset, that nothing but sible to make a rod of ground produce 500 lbs. of the here. The severe laws which were enacted after the the most hardy plants, and those inferior crops which artificial grasses, in the several cuttings during the seadeaths of Munzer and Bockholt, in order to check the do not refuse to grow on barren soils, were attempted son, I greatly prefer it to any thing else, for cows thrive spread of their principles, were of no preventive value, to be cultivated ; at length, by bringing a portion of best upon grass and hay." He afterwards observes, perhaps the reverse. We are told by Mosheim, that them under the surface soil, and accumulating small in reference to this sort of food—“ As it sometimes immediately after the taking of Munster, "the inno- quantities of manure at first, and afterwards larger, suffers much in dry seasons, we must not depend encent and the guilty were often involved in the same by degrees the most barren of these sandy soils be- tirely upon it ; but I have proved that it is possible terrible fate, and prodigious numbers were devoted to came enriched, and by mixing and manuring, ac to keep a cow all the year round upon the produce of death in the most dreadful forms." There is proof, quired the necessary degree of retention of moisture half an acre of land, if it be carefully cultivated.” He too, as in the single case detailed, that even where and compactness of parts, so that the more valuable then proceeds to give a list of the produce he raised, great profligacy characterised their peculiar course of crops were substituted for the poorest ones.

which consists of lucern,cabbage, tares, mangel-wurzel, conduct, there was often mixed up with it such an In alluding to these practices of the Guelderland potatoes, turnips, parsnips, and carrots; and as a poramount of sincerity, as ought to make us think of farmers, which prevail throughout Flanders, we can tion of hay is indispensable along with some of the them with pity as beings labouring under a strange not sufficiently impress on the minds of cottage far- root-crops during the winter season, he did not attempt delusion, rather than blame them as persons erring mers the great importance of saving every particle to grow it, but sold a portion of his potatoes, and laid under the common impulses leading to vice. “In of manure, liquid or solid, and disposing it at proper out the sum he received for them in hay. almost all the countries of Europe, an unspeakable intervals on the fields. In Great Britain, hundreds It might be too much to expect that a small cottage number of these wretches preferred death, in its worst of thousands of pounds are lost annually by neglecting farm of four acres, under the management of an ordiforms, to a retractation of their errors. Neither the this grand point in rural economy. Every drop of nary cottage farmer, could at once be made to produce view of the flames kindled to consume them, nor the manuring liquid should run into tanks, covered to sufficient food for the keep of eight cows (half an acre ignominy of the gibbet, nor the terrors of the sword, prevent evaporation, and all the more solid materials to each cow), in the place of tuo cows under the old could shake their invincible but ill-placed constancy, should be consigned to a pit, also covered from the system of cottage farming. But giving him the ador induce them to abandon tenets that appeared dearer weather ; the addition of any waste vegetable matter vantage of an extra acre-that is, reducing the numto them than life and all its enjoyments.”

to the mass of decomposing substances will increase ber of cows from eight to six, the products of his the bulk and value of the manures so secured, and, if various crops, under good management, where the soil

properly incorporated with the soil at fitting occasions, is tolerably fertile, would be amply sufficient to mainSMALL COTTAGE FARMS.

the few acres of the cottage farmer, be they naturally tain six cows, or three times the number he formerly

as barren as the wilderness, will be made to bloom could keep ; for, according to this estimate, there THE occupiers of a very few acres of land, whether as like a garden.

would be nearly three-quarters of an acre to each cow. owners or renters, although by no means an insigni Trenching and manuring are thus the two great It is certainly true, that, even after the whole of the ficant class of the community, either as regards num means of melioration. The difference between trench-ground had been trenched, there would be more labour bers or the position they occupy, or ought to occupy, ing and ploughing is, that in the one case the spade annually required to cultivate the sundry crops, and in society, have hitherto received little attention at dashes, breaks, and pulverises the soil, putting all the to feed and look after the cows, than was required the hands of writers on rural economy. How they particles in the way of doing their duty to the roots, while the land continued under the old system of mamay have been affected by this neglect, we do not in- while in the other, the plough leaves many lumps of nagement; but, surely, the produce of the four extra tend at present to inquire. Sufficient be it for us, if soil unbroken or untouched, and therefore of compa-cows would be more than sufficient to pay all expenses, we can suggest any means by which the condition of ratively little use to the vegetation. We have some even were it necessary to hire all the extra labour and this class can be improved. There are few counties in remarkable instances of the value of trenching in attendance. the United Kingdom in which cottage farmers are not our own island ; and probably not a more striking By dairy-farming in this way, small occupiers, whefound, in larger or smaller numbers, particularly in one than what has taken place on the “Muirs of ther owners or renters, might greatly improve their Ireland ; and the manner in which they can most Drumforskie” (now called Charleston), in the county present condition : proprietors, in particular, might advantageously better their circumstances, is the ob- of Kincardine, where comparatively worthless lands, raise themselves to a state of independence to which ject of our present observations. It unfortunately by letting them out on “improving leases," appor- they can never aspire while their few acres of land happens that this class of agriculturists, whether pro- tioning a few acres of those waste lands to each are allowed to remain comparatively uncultivated. prietors or renters, proceed on no proper principle of family, have by trenching, draining, and spade cul- Nor would this be the only advantage, since, by the management, and are in reality little better off than ture, been brought into such a state of productive increased productiveness of the soil, a larger proporthe peasantry by whom they are surrounded. The ness, that, at the expiration of the leases, 357 acres tion of the necessaries of life would be supplied for grand error consists in a rigid adherence to old preju. have been estimated to yield a clear revenue of the benefit of the general community. dices, and these it ought to be always a matter of im. L. 750, or at the rate of two guineas per acre, per It has been proved, over and over again, that an portance to examine and abandon, if opposed to the annum. light of science and practical economy.

acre of ground, well cultiruted, will yield abundance of

Under the old system of agriculture, except where both corn and vegetables for the support of a family Cottage farmers are not supposed to require the aid the soil was exceedingly fertile, three acres was the of moderate size. Hence it would become an object of any other machinery than that which they can use quantity of land usually set apart for the keeping of highly deserving a small occupier's consideration, with their own hands. Ploughs, and all the ordinary a cow the whole year round, and never a smaller al- whether it would be more to his advantage to grow apparatus of the great farmeries, are out of the ques- lowance than two acres. Consequently, an occupier of his own corn, or to keep one cow less ; for if an allowţion. The principle to be pursued is, to make the four acres of good land could not keep an amount of ance of three-quarters of an acre is given to each cow, hand labour of the whole family tell to a good purpose stock beyond two cows. Something over half of the that quantity of land would yield sufficient corn for å on the productive capacity of the soil ; and thus, by four acres would be required for summer pasture, and year’s consumption ; and whether the yearly produce saving any money outlay, actually compete with the the remainder would be scanty enough to supply the of one cow—that is, the value of the milk, butter, &c., large farmer, who pays for all the assistance he re necessary quantity of hay-grass. Sometimes a small yielded by her--would effect the purchase of a supply quires. In order that the cottage farmer may make holder of this sort would break through the old regu- of bread stuff, is somewhat more than doubtful. the very most of his possession, he must work it lation, and plough up an acre or so for corn of some If means and accommodation permit, we should rethoroughly with the spade. Some persons imagine sort ; but as the abstraction of an acre from the four commend cottage farmers to keep an ass to assist in that common delving is all that is meant by spade would greatly diminish either the pasture or hay crop, taking produce to market, or in any other serviceable husbandry, which is a mistake. The soil must not and as everything connected with the cultivation of job. As the ass will eat almost any kind of green only be turned over, but dug or trenched, by which a corn crop by the plough would have to be hired, food, and that even which is refused by cattle, and is the earth may be thoroughly stirred and mixed to and the straw prove but a poor substitute for hay a humble and willing servant, he may be made to the depth of eighteen inches or two feet; and where where only milch cows were kept, it is doubtful if such contribute materially to the comfort of the cottage the soil proper will not admit of this, then a portion | a proceeding would be found an advantageous one. farmer and his family.

DANNECKER THE SCULPTOR.
THE LOVER AND THE BACHELOR.

SUPERSTITIOUS OBSERVANCES IN RUSSIA. We find, from a notice in the Art Union, a monthly

A DIALOGUE-BY J. WILSON.

Lent and all fast days are kept with much greater journal of the fine arts, that the celebrated German (From the Londonderry Journal of 21st July 1840.] strictness in Russia than in any Roman Catholic country, sculptor, Dannecker, died at Stuttgard on the 8th of De

and the poor may literally be said to fast, for they never

LOVER. cember, in the eighty-fifth year of his age.

" To all
Scorner of wedlock, thou dost seem

eat any thing but haricot beans, with rape-oil and black Content and gay in love's despite;

bread, during this season ; and so bigoted and superstiartists (observes our authority) who have visited Ger

Thy life glides on as doth a stream,

tious are they upon the point, that nothing would inmany, his works are well known, and his fame has reached

Únruffled by the tempest's might.

duce them to transgress this ordinance of their church. all English lovers of art through his widely celebrated

The storms of passion never cloud

A criminal who had murdered his mother at Odessa, was * Ariadne,' an exquisite composition, in the possession

The placid calmness of thy brow;

sentenced to receive the knout, and be banished to Siof Bethman, the banker at Frankfort. The early history

Thou'rt ne'er elated, never bow'd,

beria if he survived the punislıment; he did so, and on of Dannecker is like that of many, very many, first-class

By joy or sorrow more than now.

his road there, the gang to which he was attached

Serene and fair as summer sky artists, and might be written in less than a dozen words,

halted one day at a wretched pot-house on the road-side Thy cheerful aspect, mild and meek;

to obtain some refreshment. It was during Lent, but from that vocabulary which supplies the plain means of

Thy breast doth never heave a sigh;

this miserable hovel was kept by a Jew, and he had describing the commencement of every similar career;

Care hath furrow'd not thy cheek.

therefore flesh, as well as fish and herbs, to offer to his these are, poor parents—innate devotion to art-intense

Oh! that this boiling blood of mine

guests. " What will you eat ?" said the host to the

In such unruffled course would move! application-difficulties — success. His parents endea

thieves—“fish or flesh?" 4 What!" said the matricide,

I'd change this leaping heart for thine! voured to thwart his inclination for the plastic arts; but

But, tell me didst thou ever love?

“ eat meat in Lent? Dog of a Jew! I have killed my the fascination was too strong upon him, and it carried

mother, and would kill my father too, rather than eat

BACHELOR. him through all their opposition. His father was em

meat in Lent." A journeyman carpenter, who was at

Brain-addled boy, I pity thee, ployed in the stud of Duke Charles of Wurtemburg, to

work at my house, asked for some bread; the servant

If thou in woman's toils art caught: whom the youthful Dannecker explained, personally, his

gave liim half a loaf: he took it, but knowing that we Peace cannot dwell but with the free; And, oh! the bitter cup is fraught

were foreigners, asked, before he began to eat, whether views; and in 1771, at the age of thirteen years, obtained

we fasted? She answered in the negative. “Oh, then," permission to study in the academy at the Solitude,' a

With wormwood, that the soft white hand
Of passion to its victim gives !

said the man, “ take back your bread: nothing would ducal residence near Stuttgard, where pupils received,

Boy, trust not woman's visage bland;

tempt me to taste it." gratis, instruction in painting, sculpture, and music. One

She ever smiles when she deceives.

Easter eve is looked forward to with great impatience, of the principal rules of this academy was infringed in

A serpent in her bosom lurks;

and twelve o'clock on that night with infinitely more the admission of Dannecker-for the students admitted

The fascination of her eye

eagernesss than the hour of sunset is in the Ramadan.

Destruction to its victim works; were not below the middle rank of life; he, however,

Long before midnight the steps of the churches, and the

And shun it most when 'tis most shy. soon distinguished himself, and bore away, in his six

roads leading to them, are crowded with people laden teenth year, the prize from older competitors-the prize

A pouting lip and hectic cheek

with eatables of all kinds, which must be blessed by a

(Though bile-suffused the one may be) awarded to him for his model of Milo of Crotona.'

priest before they can break their long fast. Every one

Are things to make a young heart weak; Friedrick Von Schiller was a fellow-townsman of Dan

brings something, according to his means, and the poor

But suffer not their sovereignty. necker, and also a fellow-student at the Solitude, where

hoard up every copeck during Lent for this occasion.

Or sorrow may thy breast assail; a friendship commenced, of which a lasting memorial

There is, of course, a great variety in their offerings; the

For woman is a wavering thingremains in the famous statue of the illustrious poet. In

Capricious, vain, and sure to fail;

rich bring sucking-pigs and lambs, confectionery, poultry, 1780, and in his twenty-second year, he quitted the

And oft the fruit of love 's a sting.

and liams, while the serfs have loaves of bread, cakes, and academy, as did his friend Schiller at the same time.

hard eggs. Most of these are decorated with ribbons

LOVER. While studying, he was encouraged by employment from

and flowers; the eggs are generally of various colours,

Ah! speak not thus, my hopes to marthe duke, who afterwards appointed him sculptor to the

usually red, but some are gilt, and have saints, and all

Love, surely, is not all a dream ! court, with a salary of 300 forins a-year-about L.25.

kinds of patterns, painted on them. Many bushels are

Some may be false, but many are Ardently desiring improvement beyond what his native

And ever will be what they seem.

frequently collected in one house; they are boiled hard, place could afford him, his wishes pointed to Paris, which

and no one goes out without a few in his pocket, to keep At least, the heart that throbs to mine

up the following singular custom:place he received permission to visit ; but at first without

Accursed deception never felt:

Ivan and Alexis meet in the street; the two friends

And, oh! at love's unalter'd shrine any addition to his pittance, which was increased by 100 florins only after a residence of some time in that capital.

The good of every age have knelt.

stop, and each pulls out an egg; the former holds his in

the hollow of his closed hand, in such a manner that the At Paris he became the pupil of Pajou, and made the

BACHELOR. friendship of the sculptor Scheffaner. At that time, as

small end only can be seen ; this Alexis endeavours to

And been befool'd, as thou wilt benow, in the French capital, the facilities for the study of

break, by tapping it with the end of his, but not by any

Love may be strong, but seldom stands nature were greater than in any other European city.

The tug of stern reality,

means in a hurry, for a good deal of manquvring is To this study, therefore, he devoted himself during the

Without a loosening of its bands.

shown on the occasion, and it is some time before Ivan term of his sojourn there, which was about five years.

The cares that ever wait on those

has arranged his to his mind. At last, all is ready, and In 1785, he quitted Paris in the society of Scheffauer,

Who link their fate on life's rough road,

his friend gives the fatal blow. The one whose egg is

The lover never feels or knows with whom he proceeded to Rome, where he attracted

broken loses; the victor pockets both, and says, “ Christ the attention of Canova, by whose instruction and advice

Until compellid to bear their load.

is risen;" the other replies, “ He is indeed risen." They And then the carping ills of life

then take off their hats, kiss three times, make a most he was much benefited. In Rome, also, commenced his

Dispel all vain, delusive dreams :

profound bow, and part, to repeat the same ceremony at friendship with Goethe and Herder, who, like himself,

The husband frowns upon his wife, were seeking inspiration from the relics that enriched

the corner of the next street. Another great event of

And wonders where hath flown the beams the Eternal City. In Italy his reputation took its rise ;

the day is a general change of linen; the mujik puts on

Once scen or fancied in her eyes, for there he produced works which caused the academies

a new pink shirt, which lasts him till Easter comes round

Piercing his heart and bosom through; of Milan and Bologna to elect him a member of their re

And where the hoped for paradise :

again.- Captain Jesse's Notes of a Half-Pay. spective bodies. On returning to Stuttgard, he was em

Ah! fain he would-but dare not ruo.

RISING IN THE WORLD. ployed for some time in modelling various subjects for Duke Carl; and he was thus occupied until 1796, when

Enough, enough, I'll hear no more

What is rising in the world ? Here is all the difficulty. he again commenced working in marble, and executed

Of worldly wisdom; will is weak

Is it for the prosperous man to move in a bigger house, his famous 'Sappho,' which is at Monrepos. Many busts

When feeling makes the heart adore,

and patronise tailors, milliners, and upholsterers, and of very celebrated persons are among the works of Dan

And bids it either yield or break.

give splendid entertainments? This may be perfectly necker; and none better known than that of his early

'Tis not the symmetry of form,

allowable and proper, as the reward and natural consefriend Schiller. His works in marble and bronze are

The mellow cheek, the melting eye,

quence of industry and frugality ; but it is not rising in numerous, amounting in number to about 500 ; of his

The rising bosom, soft and warm,

the world. The only way to rise in the world, even for busts, that of Lavater is considered the finest; and of

That forces from iny breast a sigh.

the prosperous man, is to cultivate his mind and manners, his ideal productions, his capo d'opera is a statue of the

It is a something which was ne'er

and educate his family. It is not to set up his carriage, Saviour. This last-named work was finished in the year

By language yet defined, but starts

though this may be perfectly allowable, if he can afford 1824, having been a subject of elaborate study during

From mutual eyes, when they declare

it. It is not to resort to this or that watering-place,

The wordless secret of two hearts. eight years. For the original conception he was indebted

though there is no objection to his doing that, if he to a dream ; and, perhaps, no other work of its class ac

BACHELOR.

pleases. It is to raise himself and family in the scale of quired, during its tardy progress, a greater degree of

Thou’lt have thy will, impetuous boy;

moral and intellectual beings. It is not to bring up his sons renown for its author. For some time before his death,

And why should I disturb thy dreants?

in idleness, under the preposterous notion of making them Dannecker was but the wreck of what he had been, and

But ah! anticipated joy

gentlemen, and in so doing make them fops and dandies

In borrow'd radiance always gleams. had ceased, from mere superannuation, to exercise his

instead of men, and thus prepare them for squandering

Buch whims my fancy ne'er shall strike; art.'

his estate much faster than he amassed it. It is not to Give me a book, a friend, a chat;

educate his daughters with merely showy accomplish

And if I may not love, I'll like,
A CHANCE SPECULATION.

And stroke my sleek old dog and cat.

ments, and with the expectation that this world is to be A certain citizen of Montrose, it is said, wrote to his

as a show, and life a holiday. The best symptom of agent in London to purchase a ton of copper for him ;

(Had we written the foregoing verses, we certainly should not rising in the world that he can give, is to despise the

have allowed the bachelor to have the last word.] but the letter being one of the very worst specimens of

follies of society, to set at naught the despotism of fapenmanslıip, as well as perhaps not very correct in point

shion, to perceive and resist the absurdity of a business of orthography, the agent read the order a ton of capers.

M. PERIGORD AND HIS DANCING-DOG.

community following in the footsteps of the aristocracy Surprised at such an order, but nevertheless anxious to The following anecdote is from the Life of Wilber- of Europe. It would show hopeful signs of rising above oblige his correspondent, he immediately set to work, force:-“ We were talking of the levity and gaiety of heart

the vulgar, both great and small, if he should refuse to and bought up the commodity in all quarters till he had of the French, even under the severest misfortunes. This

countenance the nonsense of turning night into day, and the requisite amount. This, as may be conceived, was drew forth an anecdote, which had been related to him day into night.-Burnap. attended with the very natural effect of creating a de- by Mr Pitt. Shortly after the tragical death of Marie

TEMPERANCE. mand for capers (in the language of trade, capers came Antoinette, M. Perigord, an emigrant of some conseto be inquired after), and also of rendering them scarce, quence, wlio had made Mr Pitt's acquaintance at Ver Gouty affections are as much caused by excess in so that they in consequence rose very much in price. sailles, took refuge in England, and on coming to London, eating as by intemperance in drinking: the quality as The agent now wrote his correspondent that he had had went to pay his respects in Downing Street. The con

well as the quantity of the food should be attended to. great difficulty in fulfilling his order, but at last had suc versation naturally turned upon the bloody scenes of the Persons who are in the habit of frequently dining out, can ceeded in procuring for him a ton of capers ; but that French Revolution, on their fatal consequences to social never be effectually cured of this disease. The system capers had since risen very much in price, and if he chose order, and in particular on the barbarity with which the pursued by a dog doctor in Paris, is the best that can be to sell, he had now an opportunity of realising a hand- unfortunate queen had been treated. The Frenchman's adopted for the prevention of gouty affections. Ladies some gain on the transaction. The Montrose citizen, as feelings were quite overcome, and he exclaimed, amidst bring their lap-dogs to him in their carriages, and say might be expected, was very much astonished in his violent sobbing, ' Ah, Monsieur Pitt, la pauvre reine ! la

their pets are unwell, and they know not what is the turn by the communication, and the manner in which pauvre reine ! These words had scarcely been uttered,

matter. The man locks the dogs up in an airy room, his order had been fulfilled, but had the good sense to when he jumped up as if a new idea suddenly possessed gives them some water, a little bread, and a dry bone to write immediately to sell by all means ; and thus, it is him, and looking towards a little dog which came with pick. By way of exercise, he makes them skip about, two added, pocketed a considerable sam from an uninten- him, he exclaimed, . Cependant, Monsieur Pitt, il faut or three times a-day, by means of a little horsewhip dextional speculation and unexpected advantage. Such a vous faire voir mon petit chien danser.' Then pulling a terously applied. At the expiration of a fortnight he thing is possible, or may be conceived to succeed, with small kit out of his pocket, he began dancing about the

takes them home to their mistresses, well, active, and a commodity like capers, of which there is always a room to the sound of his little instrument, and calling to hungry.--Polytechnic Journal. limited quantity in the market, but resembles one of the dog, · Funchon, Fanchon, dansez, dansez !' the little those stratagems of war by which a town is sometimes animal instantly obeyed, and they cut such capers togetaken, the success of which is more wonderful than would ther, that the minister's gravity was quite overcome, and Londox: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by be the failure.- Corbet's Inquiry into the Wealth of Indi- he burst into a loud laughi, hardly knowing whether he W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row. piduuls. was most amused or astonished."

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

LOVER.

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